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39 I I 

CALIFOP^'AMA (/\/(?rS /Tt" 



3 1223 04552 3256 

F917.94 R312" 





Editor and Proprlftor. 



IOfllce-3'40 Sunsomn St., Hull... k Hull<lln K . 

Entered at the P. 0. San Francisco. 


Six Months, $1.25— Postage Paid. 



way to gain i correct know ledge of < lolifornia, and 
dial i- bj personal observation and careful itudy 
A- we have traveled continually, for several years, 
and \ isited evorj set tion oi I lalifornia, in the in- 
1 'in- iournal, we »ill endeavor to give a 
correal description, in the following article 

Bj looking over the map of the world, we find 
California ituatedon the Pacific Ocean, between 
[at. :(•_• ilr_- 20 mill and 12 degs, north, and Ion, 
114 di gs 20 nun and L24 d< ' ■ min. west, It is 
bounded on the north bj Oregon; east by Nevada 
an l \i i/..,na. following the Sierra Nevada Mount- 

rugged, its summit being generally abovi H ion 

of pei petual Bnow . and hoi but ft ■■. 1 1| 1 1 

vatod passes. It \* 660 miles long and 80 miles 
wide, with an altitude varying from 5,000 to 16,000 
feel Nearlj it- whole width is o© upied with 
tern Blope, n hioh dosci nd toa levol ol 800 
feet above the ocean, whili 'in' easl 

only fi\ ea miles wido, and terminates in the 

great basin, which is from 1,000 to 6,000 foel abovi 
thi sea level. Thi I imo in- 

runs alun \ 1 1 nsl This ran 

in 2,000 I- 1,000 feet in hi ighl B 

which extends northv \i 

The plateau is an independi nl bai in; \U v 
■ it, but flow into a chain of laki 

m tr ttn mi north-i i it coi in i of the Stab 

The gre .t basin of I rtah, i unl 

ti ■>' I ol land, having an elevation of i immi i., fj,000 

feet, with tlol foi it- wai into the 

i |i"iii"ii of ' lalifoi ni I m is ex- 

ci ■ din rtj " id and torili . and is cul up i.\ numer- 

iB, with 

intervening valleys of sand and volcanii m ittei I In 

i easl bordi ris s district about I 10 mfles 



General Outlines and Physical 

Features— Mountains, Valleys 

autl Natural Wonders. 

Agriculture — H- rticu tare — Timber and 
Mineral Lands— Soil and Olimate. 

Railroads Commerce and Manufacture* 
— Renoarcea and Advantages. 

I'o pill all on - I'r.-. •-■■( im.l Hiitiiri' PrOSfMOtf. 

.' di d ii .■ been •■■• i itten ob 

f,,r I),, | 

gold, ',n ii,' I'm i . da , ..i .linn ,i y, l-i- No "ill' i 

■ • i e, has had m b t 

1 ■ 1 1 , i 1 1 , 

partii olmo I -■-■ bollj unacquainted 

ormation lu la. t. tin ri ii bul one 

am- ,,n the I i 1 1 • ■ of Ion, 120 degs, west to lot 80 
degs., thence south-east to the Colorado river, on 
thi 36th parallel, and thence by the course of that 
iuth by the Vie » ican Ti 1 1 itoi y of l K>w 1 1 
i lalifoi aia; and » esl bj thi Pacifii ' Icoan, The 
outlines of this State are imry irregular I 
, pa] direction' lengthwiso, is north-wi it and south 
oast, and a line drawn through tin contar, follow 
hi n ol il eo tern and w • toi n bound 
ibout 770 mil'- Thi 
i i i.i, ,n i, 1 1 about 820 miles, least breadth, UJ0 
mil, , and i hi ul 280 mill [n bi*o 

ii i i I lond State in i he I aion, its an i being 

[uon mill in L880 El luul a population 

of 789,577, i clusivo of Ch tand Indians Geo 

,■1 aphicall i it it dii ided into ■■' nl Ii 

The most i ' in II phj lioal geo- 

graphy] tho< i tenco of two groat rangai of mount 

ni h i ai i and louth ■•■ 

0JI3 pai alii 1, oalli d thi Ooasl 

1 1 1,, , 1, 1 1 , \. ' .,.,1 , 1 1 in 111" ii lofty and 

tween the Sierra Neva la and thi I on I Ran p lii 

'lit., larni Busln, 
I'., ,1 in 1 the double noma ol the So* ramonto and 
San Joaquin volli \ 1, although n ollj bul 
graphioal formation, This valloy extend Hi. 

ami hi 111 til. ul " ml 100 mil.-*, with '" aVI r0 .'• b i ' -."'Il 1 1 

.if from B0 i" i' 11 miles, and pn - nl 

once being avast lake ii is drained, from the 

Hi. by the Sacramento, thi I u ;e I i ivoi in the 

nd from the south, bj thi San Joaquin, the 
■ i ivoi in i lalifornia, n hioh, aftoi moi ting 

and mull thocontoi ol the ba iin, 

the i toosl Ran • Uongl trivon the vol 

.IK low, i'» cl, and oxtromoly foi I llo, 
rii in ■ into undulating slopes and low liiii-< .1- the 
mountains are approai In Ion broken 

on ii,, , , |{ I,,, 11, mi, I,,,, 1 mi • from thi Jli rro ll 
ii,, north end, botwai n lat, 10 di and 1 I 

a high table land 01 plat au, al I 1 10 mill 

ando,000 fool »1 ol, h in betwoon the 

main chain of the Nana Ni ivoda, and n hranoh 

75 miles wido, h hich belongs to th I 
rado basin, aud is known .1- tho Mohave desert' 
I'll, 1 loasl Range 1- dii idi d, in its |i ogth, bj long, 

11.11 row, I, rlil' '• ' 

1 u the total area ol the State, one-fifth 1- desert, 
and two .fifths an mountains unfit foi tillage, but 
n nli exti nsivi ible for pastun tira 

I,, 1 ui'i minorals, leaving two fifths Busceptible of 
. nil i\ at ion 1 lion ii lomc port ion ol it can not bo 
used « iiii profit, until ii 1 ignte I, pi 
overflow bj dj koi . and drained ol il ■ nuporobund 
.mi » .it , 1 , or ma ilo by 1 ailroad Tho 

State li.i- 100 Otl 

■ nn turvi \'"l public 1 1'" 1 , 

" 1 mn »3 ■ 1 |iiil>lli 1 hi I Tin 

lands nn In, I, 8,000,000 ni ros ol prh il ' "" l 

1,500,000 a- 1' -I wamp landi 

California haa a populal 1 loss than 000,000 

oattorod ovei 1 toi ritorj 1 ai 1 1 than 
England I und and Vi alt yel tho toi d 

animal | In. Imn "I thi UlinOS, l.uin-, in I 



. , rineyarda and orchards, oarried OB by 

| ',. tonv.-l 1.0. The 

,„. ,,,,!,. Imv -.irly SI '.0,0(10.0(1(1 in savings Bud 

,,,,„ , banks ."'.i rarious corporation! pay divi- 
,i,„,i h ol aboul MO.000,000. The yearly lalea 

i ,, ,i estate amount to S65.000.00o Th. ■■ - 

jgeol hi. mint, in Ban PranoUoo, ia $! 1.000. 

Xho grand total value of the preolous mel da ol 
„ oaal amounts to more I i 880.000,000 an- 
nually, principally centered in San PranolBOO. 

Porty-three years ago, 

H„ ,,. hi !>• but a few 

mission gardens ami small bauds ol oattle and 
Doraea here; thirty-three years ago tho pioneer 

mlnenhad begun their wort with , and pick. 

and long-torn; twenty-eight years ago. a 
.,,. called enthuslaata by aome, oreay bj 
otters, began to farm and plant oroharda in valleya. 
and make home*; twenty-three yeara ago railroad 
building waa oommenoed, and only twelve years 
nioultural Interests of the Btete began to de- 
velop with energy; and the planting of oroli 
(reived an impetna whioh, ha* continued with acci I- 
erated Bpeed ever since. These fow people have 
made California the tirst State in the Union 
,,, wheat, barley, wine. WOOl, gold, fruit and 
qoiokailver; and California is, to-day, Hie 
fourth Btete in the Union, according t<> popn 
Ittion, in her manufacturing indoatrii I 
Commen e. 
Among the primary and fundamental claims 
win li (California has upon the attention ol 

home-seekers, her commercial situati ia> 

be mentioned. The communities, whiob are 
near the sea shore, have advantages over those 
farther inland, as they thus obtain healthy 
competition in carrying their products. There 
is no reason to doubt that the same growth 
which has bnilt up such prosperous cities as 
Boston. New York, and other cities along the 
Atlantic shores, is in full operation here. The 
oommeroe of the Pacific, and of tho west 
coasts of South Americo, Mexico and Cen- 
tral America are centering here. The great 
nation, of which we are a part, must draw its 
share of the preciouB commerce of the Orient 
through these gates. Whatever dominions 
wide-reaching and powerful, is yet reserved for 
i n English-speaking race in the sweep of the 
Pacific, and about its coasts, no student of the 
, arth's surface can fail to believe that the 
largest portion will be in the hands of Pacific 
Coast men, from Alaska to Mexico. The com- 
mercial center of this territory ia about tho 
bay of San Francisco. Here, Is the harbor, the 
best location, the many beginnings, the asso- 
ciated capital. Other cities will tpring up 
along the northern and southern coast, win 
commercial place and make rich men by the 
but here is the metropolis, which, if 
the men of California are true to themselves, 
und rightly use their advantages, may some day 
be greater than London, more keenly alive than 
Paris more picturesque than Venice, more 
crowded with temples and works of an than 
waa Rome in her palmiest days. 
Soil and Climate 
The second great advantage whioh this coast 
presents is ita variety of soil and climate; 
hence ita production. The climate of Califor- 
nia, in different parts, varies greatly, irres- 
pective of the great range ot latitude 94 degs., 
through which the State extends. It differs 
widely from that of the Atlantic slope, in the 
same latitude, and probably from that of any 
other country in tho world. Properly speaking, 
California haa several climates, the basin of 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin having one, 
the western slope of the Coast Range, north of 
latitude 35 degs another, and the portion of the 
StHte south of 35 degs. still another. The cli- 
mate west of the Coast Range is different from 
thai east of the same rango, whicb is less than 
00 miles in width. At San Francisco the mer- 
cury seldom rises above 80 degs. in the dry, or 
falls below 40 degs., in the wet season. Snow 
seldom falls here, and the winters bear a 
atrong reaemblancoto the Indian Hummer of 
the Mississippi valley. It Is doubtful if any other 
country in the world has kih-Ij cool Hummers and 
warm winters. Tho coolness of tho summer nights 
is attributed lo Hi'- • Up in. rl.-arm ss of the utruos- 
phere favoring radiation. The wind blows for a 
part of each day from tin north and north-west 
along the Coast, nearly thi whole year. In the iu- 
terior the extremes an* mnoh greater, tho mercury 
in the Sacramento valley often rising In Bummei to 
110 degs., and along tin BOUth-eaatern line of the 
State as high u» UOdegB.; bnt, owing to the extreme 
dryness or the atmosphere, this great beat in not 

prostrating, a» on the Atlantic slop II fhts tx 

1 and refreshing, The ollroati •• ol a nti .i 

California maybe groaned Intooossl ollmate, oil- 
mate of the Interior, and ollmate ol th. 
■ lop • Th. Oral ba ■ imall rangi ol temp rature, 
and some fog and tea bn i /• . 1 

■ annum i I mp ratori than i in I ; i 
dry, northerly wind at times, and do fog On tho 
Blorra slope, also northward In the Ooaal Range, 

ollmate, as we isoend, approaoiu 
and more to that of Now England, until wo 
roach tho snow lino. In man] OOUBtiOB, 80 miles' 

t rtV e] takes one from where oranges grow to where 
onl , kue budy fruit-trees prosper. The general 
,, rtnretof these three climates, of whioh we have 

spoken, gl«.or are interchanged, a rdlng aa 

the valleys open toward tho sea. or away from 
it, or alopo northward -r south. In every county 
,,, ,,,,. Btete i toepl a fow along the upper Sierras, 
ol temperate gone, frnita, gran,-, 
and other products, together with many of the 
eemi-tropleal fruits can be grown with ease. Speci- 
mens of wild plants of tho entire Atlantic Coast, 
from Blaine to Florida, with tho flora of Japan. 
Ohina and the Himalaya region, can easily bo made 
to thrive In an arboretum, in California. \ is- 
Iralla contributes largely to our gardens, and Mex- 
ican. Cbii.-an. and Peruvian plants find c n 

In California soil. The horticulture of the 
future uill be OM of surprising variety, as tho hor- 
Honltnrial beoomes better acquainted with the soil, 
which is of all sorts and characters. 
California has a rainy and a dry Beason. tho 
former nearly corresponding to tho winter, and tho 

many parts of California whore the rainfall II not 
ore thin fro m 10 to 12 iuolies. on an average, and 

when it falls below Huh, artificial Irrlgatl 

usually needed. From Goshen to Calient.-. LOO 
miles along tho upper Ban Joaquin valley, till 
rainfall is too aligbt to secure crops in ordinary 
seasons, but tho adjacent Sierras contain a cach- 
mentareaof 4,000 square mil.-, with an average 
precipitation of over BO Indies. In this portion of 
State, largo tracts of land are situated as to I., well 
irrigated at slight cost. The upper half of Califor- 
nia has anfflolonl rain for the production of all 
kinds of crops, except, fruit and grapes in tho Sac- 
ramento valley, No Irrigation is required In the 
valleys of the Ooaal lUnge. A marked phenomena 
of the oliinato is the comparative absence of 
thunder am 1 lightning. During autumn many Of 

tho rivers sink in the sand soon after leaving 

mountains in which they rise. Vegetation dries up 
during the long, dry season. The Boll, ollmate, 
timber, coroals, fruits, and vegetables will be more 
specially noticed in the different county desorlp- 


latter to the summer of tho Atlantic region. 
Tho rains begin at tho north early in autumn, 
but do not fall in the latitude of Ban Franoisco in 
any appreciable quantity until about tho middle of 
December, which Is the month of greatest rain. 
The rainy season terminates towards tho end of 
May. Juno, July, August and Soptombor ore dry, 
only 2.0 inohes of rain having fallen in theso 
months, collectively, in eighteen years, Thoaver- 
Sge rainfall for, in inches, tho seasons and the year, 
at -lull i. nt localities, is: 

Ban i li - o 

Ha. ni' 

I'M Ifuma 



Sum,'. I 






4 S7 
I -I 


i ■ n 


HI ii 
31 78 

i Q 
i U 

in i i 

Hiiow is very roro on tho coast and In tho VBlloya, 
and nevi i remains for many days, except In the 

Klamath river valley, in the DOrth'WOSl pmli..n Of 

the Btete, Thoroare many mining towns high up 
in tin- mountains where the snow bill to a groat 

depth, aud lies till late in tin. spring, Tlmro uro 

No I il nil Won (lorn. 

First among tho natural curiosities of California 
is th.- valley of tho Yo Semite, with its aurroiind- 
ing cascades an. I mountain peaks. It i» litUBtl '1 In 
Marisposa county, on tho west slope ol thi 
midway between lis cunt and Wl -< bSBl Bt •'< ' Il '■ 

tlon of -l.oi.o int. it Is it-' miles, In a dlreol line, 
u little south of east, from San Franoteoo, but 
about 200 miles by any of tho traveled routi • 

Here, within a Spa f lews than 'JO miles lOOg 

and lo miles wnio, in probably presented more 
grand and beautiful soenery than ih fonnd In any 

similar area in tho world. The valley propel 
contains about 8,400 aores, on., half of which is 

meadow land, and the whole is as level as a floor, 

eXOepI at the Hides of tho liiounlaio Willi, WhBP 

thi di in., has ini Ion down. One oan nol roalsl tho 
Impression that this valley was, at one Mm*, at tho 

sat iltitudoaa thai ol th rroundlng mount- 

aios, and thai by lonvulslon ol nature tho 

rallej bad unk to the distanoe ol aboutamllobo 
low its original bolgbt, loavlng porpondloular walls 
-I granite on all shies, thai stand Dp from three 
quarters to 01 itlo high, Ovor the 

tho rim of tho valloy, at tho depressions, there 
aro waterfalls at varmmi points eleven in all, 
Tho water, from these falls, mainly form the 
auroed river, Whiofa runs through the valley. 

Some oi these falls are wonderful and marvelous 
In their grandeur, sublimity and magnitude. The 

falls of Niagara, ono of the wonders of the world, 
aro only 168 feel high, while tho Yo Semiu- r»|| 
leaps down 1,6*00 feel al B single bound, where it 
falls on a rocky platform, perhaps 30 feet wide, 
then leaps down 800 feet moro on to a similar 
rocky table, from whioh it makes another clear 
fail oi 184 feel to the rooky debris at the bottom of 
the valley, makings total oi 2,684 feet, whioh is air- 
tei n tlmi - blghei than thai of Niagara, More won- 
derful Still i- the leap of the Bentinal Cascade, 
about three-quarters ..f a mile to the front; it has a 
fall, in a single leap, ol The eleven dis- 

tinct woterfalls. in the Yo Semite valley, are tabled 

thus: Cataract,'!' , Bridal 7eil ,680; Yo 8em- 

ii (flint, 1,600; second, 600; thud, 434); 
Vernal, 350; Nevada. Too, South Fork, 600; Royal 
\roh, 1,000; and Sentinel, 3,000. It is impossible 
to describe Yo Semite so as to nive one who has 
not seen it even a faint idea of ita wonderful, 
strange and inagm In t> e game 

section of California are the noted 

lilt; ■ 
Of Whioh tl ' al groves in the State. 

The moat noted ia the Big Tree grove in Cal- 
averas county. At an elevation of 4,375 feet 
above the sea, and within an area of 50 acres, 
are 103 trees, 20 of which exceed 75 feet in cir- 
cumference. They were first discovered in 1850. 
One of these giants has been felled; to accom- 
plish this task pump-borcing augurs were used, 
and the constant toil of rive men twenty-fire 
days; but when thus completely severed, two 
and a half days labor, with various mechanical 
appliances, were required to throw it from 
ita brood base. This tree was 302 feet high 
and 96 feet in circumference at the ground, and 
its annular growth lines show over 3,000 yean 
of life. A house ia bnilt on its stump for theat- 
rical and other entertaiument*. A splendid 
hotel is kept here in the grove. About seven 
miles sonth is what ia known as South Grove. 
The other groves of these giants are one in 
Mariposa county Dear the Yo Semite valley. 
Just south of it, in Tuolumne county, ia 
another, and still farther south, in the eastern 
part of Merced and Fresno counties another, 
and farther south still, in Tulare county, among 
the tallest mountoin peaks, is the only place 
in the known world where this timber is known 
to exist. The name given to the timber ia 
"Sequoias." It is a species of redwood, or at 
least it resembles the California redwood some- 
what, and to Eastern people I can compare it 
the nearest to red cedar. 

Death Valley, 
One of the moat wonderful and least-known 
oonn-- situated in south- 

. -n California, m Inyo county, and lies east 
of Owen's river valley, a distance of nearly 
100 miles. I I by trails that stretch 

across wid. i li and volcanic 

and over mountains that rise bare and lonely 
under a sultry and burniDg bud. This won- 
derful valley extends for 100 miles m 
and south-west, and is from 30 to 40 miles 
wide. There is no other landscape that one 
can look so deeply into the interior of the 
earth as hero, its surface being 280 feet below 
tho level of tho ocean. Looking down from 
the mountain-aide, into thi* deep, wide, vast 
basin, with its -Inning bet- of soda, salt, aDd 
borax, whioh cover thousands of acres, and 
blazo and shimmer in the steady glare 
which pours upon them from a cloud.. 
biasing with the reflection of chemical deposit, 
left bj thi ,hat here onoe obbed 

and flowed, but where now scarcely B< 
rain falls, surround..! by barren, I 
mountains making this Indeed one of the moil 
wonderful plaooa for the daring prospi 
tourist to enter. 

Lake Tnhoe, 
Ono of the moal remarkabli bodieaof waterintta 

world. Iving at an altitude ol 6.128 feel 

., , [evel, la 28 mile* long and 16 wide, in tho form 

oi i paralli log] i standing north-eaal and south- 

ff ea1 partij In California, and pari 

i, ptfa ral teund Is I ■ 

11 thai trout oai " s '"" 

100 feet on Itepebblj bottom. Owing to the a» 

ad the rarltj 
baa little buoyanoj and nothing la 

. the beautiful Uttl< 
ul „i pioasnroand ashing heat.; thi 
sons drowned In this lake never riei 
soon again, LakoTahoo la thogwal lanltariun 

the Pi lo Ooaat, Tho mountains around it •** 

i,,.,,, ■ 000 to B.000 fool higbi r than lb* lal 
by, on the lino ol thi 0. P |; ft., la 

Uonnoi i "i*o, 
on., of tho |..» i„i — . mi California. M*" 

rand I lublli io« ni rj li unoqn Jed on i 

ooast. Due uorl i" bore, nptn Plumuoomw 

IsOrystal lake wbloaiioi I menamralwon<W* 

lu thQ both I tbll lalo- niav t» 100* '»» 




forest troaa, standing in bundreda of foot of 
water, nndorgolng theoourseof petrlfaotion. The 
formation "i ""•• , lake la of modern date, and 

formed by a mountain alidlDg into 1 1 1 « > moatll "' 

die canyon, wliii'h is now covered will. w,il. r Imin 
the melting snow of the surrounding mountains. 
1 1,, pi irlfli i ton st, 18 milt i from Ban Pranoiaoo, 
whore poi Hon ol Ql arty I 1 "' distinot trees of great 

size, prosti 'i d Mattered over a tract ibree or 

four mltos In extent, are found, aomoon the surface 

and others proji . n 1 1 ;■ fnmi t !■■• i ulaiii side. The 

allioifitd trees appeari upon an examination, to 
i, 1V1 , i„ , M coniii ion ■ \ ivw miles north bring 

us to the 


(i ni . ,,i nature's obemloal laboratories, located 
aboul 110 mllea north-weal from San Franolaoo; 
,1 || visited by thousands of tourisls, and is reached 
either I la Oloverdale or Oalistoga, by rail, thenoe a 
abort dtolanoe, by atage, over a picturesque mute. 
A narrow valli j on any on ia BH< 'l with Sowing hot 
springs, and tbe soil is covered with a crust of 
sulphur, iron-rust and other mineral dopoBit, 
and Hied With steam from the boding waters. 
Through the crevices of the rooks, found all over 
the surface of the canyon, the steam shoots and 

Bntl< oavda. 

California has 28 linea of railroad, amounting to 
4.2G5 miles, nearly all contoring in San Francisco. 
The moal Important are the Central and Southern 
Paolflo, and the li ■ d llm -. reaobing through the 
principal valleys ol tin- State. The 8. P. & N. 

P. I . R i: .ii I ■■■!-. - il ii tire length of Sonoma 

valley. Tlio Oregon Division of the Central Pa- 
eillc is now being built north to the Ht» t<- line, 
where it connects with tbo California and Oregon 
Kail road, making a through lino between Sun Fran- 
cisoo and Portland, Oregon. Other railroads are 
being built In various part* of the State, which aro 
noticed in the different county descriptions, to 
gethor with the ocean and river steamer lines. The 
physical characteristics of the Stat.', giving the 
timber, smi. mini rala, etc., are classified under the 
different county descriptions. 

This county, separated from 8an FranoisOO by 
the boy, whioh forms the western boundary lino of 
it for a distance of 30 miles, is bounded on the 
south by Sauta Olara, east by San Joaqnin.ond on 
the north by Contra Oosta county, of whioh it was a 
pari until March, 1853. when, by an act of legisla- 

is well watered by numerous creeks which rise in 
the upper portion of county andemptvinto the bay. 
The prinoipal ones ore Alameda. Ban I iTODJO, Ban 
Lcandro, San Antonio, Sunol and Peini oal. Am 
sian well water is obtained near tii bay; II flows 
out, while further baok, towards the foot-hills, Il 
rises near the BUrfaoe, 

Lund bus rapidly advanced In price, withlu the 
past few years, whiuh is largely duo to the One, 
genial climate, excellent soil 
to the largest citieB in the State, via . Ban I ran 
Cisco and 

The second largest olty In California, cvhlob baa a 
irhiti population of 35,000, and, aa a place of reel- 
denoe, ia acknowledged to be surpassed by do othei 
, • 1 1 > in the Union. Hei looation i* on thoeaal aido 
of the buy, immodiatelj opposite Ban Franoisco, 

with which place sin- is ■•onecti il I.;. 

and ferry lines. B team-cars run to nearly every 
part of the city, beaidea the eight different lines ol 
streot railways leading to Mameda, Boat Oakland, 
Berkeley, and Kruitvule. The barboi and railroud 
Improvements, and the building of the seawall and 
dredging out of the bay by the Government, will 
make this a great commercial center. By moans of 

completed, will manufacture iron nails ol various 
kinds, plate Iron, i to; the Oakland [ron Works the 
ngrioullural worl Beymor 4 Babins, the Call- 

fornla Hosiery Mill, large llouring mills, tAOl 
1, etc. 
Tin towns of Llvermoro and I'leasanton oresit- 
oatod i" i Lvermore valley, in a One agricultural 
oountry; while Huywards, San Loandro, Centor- 
ville, AlvaradO, Newark, and Niles are all Bituatfid 
on the bay aide of the mountains. The towns ol \i- 
.iiin da, Berkeley, and East Oakland are virtually a 
parlol Oakland. In all the towns of this county 
are ohm obi a ol all denominational 

\I.IM\I < ot vtv. 

Uphabetloallj ipi aking, tins is our second county. 

Alpine is located in the extreme eastern pari ol 

California, bordering on tbo State of Nevada, It 

mi/, il under an lot of Legfalatnn I 

from port) nsol Ihi oounl f El Doi nlo. Ama- 

loi Calaveras audHono. The greater portion of 

the inty lies at a very high altitude, reaobing 

,i 1,000 to 11,000 feel abovethe Beo-level. It is 

ne 70 mill is long, and i" mllea wide, and has an 

lores, It i« the most sparsely-popu- 
lated county in California. The census of 1880 


hisses, while the sulphur and alum crystals gleam 

in the sunlight. Tbe questionable ground shaft I 

„tb your feet; the air la thick with 

vapor which bursts out in a roaring cloud of steam. 

California is not without her natural bridges, live 

Of which have been discovered; the largest of these 

(j on a small creek emptying into the Hay fork of 

and is 80 feet long, with ltd top 170 

tbl water. In SiskBou county there are 

two each 90 feet long, and on Cayotc oreek, in 

Mere are also two. the largest 

eroaa oaves aro found in 

nearly every mount- ounty of the Bute; perhaps 

barnbei , tin largest being 200x100 

feci. The Bower cave, ... UuipOH '"ty. has a 

ohambcr 100 feel iqun. Oryte eaves. In < ala 

nty.ari among I ioal beautiful lights 

,,, in, ...... Bemarkabla mud ro 

„hoae surfaces arebolow thi leval ol 

,| , ,,„.„.., Of I null 

long bi *lghtb oi n nnii. In width! II 

, toft mod, Ihrougb »wb and 

contin toi >' mineral 

lalloreTOalll l*.wM 

Uon. the county of Alameda was organized. It con- 
tains 512,000 acres, 487,293 of which are assessed, 
leaving only 24.807 acres of waste land, some of 
. partially covered by water from the bay, 
the remainder being mountain waste. The county 
is 32 miles long, and from six to twenty miles wide 
It has nearly every variety of land, from low levol 
tide lands to rolling mountain grazing lands. The 
topography of (he county is a succession of low 
rolling hills and valleys; and in general aspect, the 
county faces to the southwest. Along the bay, on 
,1. ,h a strip of land from six to fifteen 
mileB wide that la from a few to several hundred 
„ ,, rtove the sea level, all of the very choicest 
„„,„„,„„,, Hud. Along the water's edge there 
J, from 20,000 to 25,000 acres of tide land, a great 
portion Of which boa been reclaimed. In the east- 
,„ ,.„„„ ,,, the county is Livcrmoro valcy. 

'/;;„;, ; M ,,,^,,.1 pi...... .-.. s&oto 5001*1 

, v I rati tl.m valley is from twelve.,,., ... ■ >n 

„„|,.h and fro,,, f ■«.. ergl.t miles ,. 

Sill, and is surrounded by a low range of mount- 

.in. Alameda has suOlelont limber for fuel. The 

to found In nearly aU the valley portion of 

„,.v. With some scattered sycamore ,, ,,. 

,, wl „ows, and. in the vicinity of UtJJJ 

vu „ey tier, „,derable whl.e ouli. A Ida 

railroads, bay. river, and sea-going veesele, Bhe ml 
be in ..position to receive from and distribute to all 
parts of the State and the whole of the Pacific 
Coast. Mexico, Australia, i.nd the wo, Id at large. 

Bhe also offers unlimited choices oi looal foi 

manufacturing enterprises, and bus ample sites. 

combining railroad faciliii.s, will, wl 

Hoiug vessels. The frontage, within the olty limits, 

cons.sU of over ten miles of railroud tracks, of 

-nioh eight miles are available tor manufacturing. 


exertion, being thei toobol In summer loo 

cold in winter; snow scl.i rails. The mean tern- 

perature In January la 19 dega., and In July, 
G5 dogs. The city's mortality, for Its -.■.■.,■ the 
lowest i»th rid. Tbi oostol living I rents 

„ fl a.] ,,w us those Of nine-tenths ... Uu I Oltll Bin the 

Dnitad States. Tho eduoatlotfal faolUtlea arc fullj 

up to tbe highest standard. Hero, arc too I he 

BUto University. Oalifoi, „, Medical Oolleg Kill 

Ury Academy, thaologioal I all 

mmmaraobools.oto. Bevoral largo manufaotur. 

U i " '— "";: UiK 

Aiongthemaro ihoJud M ifaoturing Com- 

riti aplUlatookoi II, ,000. wl m ; 

Le'iurevur kinds of agi loultural Imp lorn ,..-. 

„„. r h nd m puny, which, when 

, W hit- i". pnl, .ion of but 539. As the 

. eaeasl ol Ihi Bummll ol thi is 

nlniost as much laolated ft Ban Eranoiaco aa 

though it belonged to auother country. Al] 
Btriotly a mining county. Time are some very 
rioh quarts mines within her borders, some ol the 
mostnotedol whioh are the DEL, Bxoheqner, laa- 
i„ ii... and manj others, Borne are being worked, 
but man] an owned bj parties who have not the 

means I ivelop them, as it requires large cap- 

,, u i This oounty la exoeedingly wi 

the Carson river rises in tho southoru part ol It, 

,,„,! Qows north. El Is fed by u rous mountain 

,tr ia, mob as the I - »t fork. Wool 

i . : Monitor oreek, Bmith'a oreek, 
Mogul orei k Indian orei i. i to . irhloh all ' ■ 
l„ me si. n.,-. amid perpetual inow. inn i 

M, tains are numi rous vail fa; thi largi il and 

moal noted are DImond Hormll P 
ii,,,,, andOharltj valleys DImond valley oon tains 
Ihi i principal farming lands, produoli 
oate.potatoi ., and lomowheat, whioh Bnd 

market b og tho minors In the vlolnllj 

three ... '' ' '"'"^ nr " 

:„ the no,. I. We,..,.. | t t\w Co.. .. I V . « I 

, u , ,itiiudoo« 7,B00fool. Theso valleys ara inhab- 
ited only during tho aummei month!, i ti.enoiih 



Oy stockraiscra and da.rymcu. In Pleasant valley 

arge quantities of bay we out annually. There 
,,,. „,.,„, unallei volleys In the county, where 
ibeep and uatlle are grazed during the Bummer 

leiwon. Tiio large amount o! stock which 
lere i» driven from other adjaoont counties of Oal- 
ind Nevada. 

MurUl., villi. 
The county seat, is located OD the east banks of llio 
ireat fork of Carson river, at the baao of a mount- 
mi n here the snow-capped peaks of tho Sierras can 
nearly always be seen. The town contains less 
than 250 inhabitants. 

The leoond Tillage En Alpine, is located some eight 
miles Rontfa< st »f Afarkleeville, and is situated In a 
narrow canyon, with tine quartz mines on all sides. 
The large No. 2 Colorado Quartz Mills aro located 
here. The town contains 200 people, who are prin- 
cipally miners. 

BUTer Mountain 
Is a small town lOO&ted on the b.inks ol Bilvci 
;reek, at the foot of Silver mountain and 

s about eleven miles southeast of Marklee- 
ville; it has a fine location aud a splen- 

lid "ii n i in . t climate, but, at times, iu 
(he winter, the town is almost snow 
bound. Alpine has many mineral springs, 
both hot and cold. The most noted are 
situated in Pleasant valley, a short distance 
west of Markleeville. The medicinal qual- 
ities nf these springs are beneficial for 
rheumatism. They are becoming exten- 
lively known, ns many an invalid bus been 

estored to health and vigor by bathing in 
and drinking of their waters. This county 
bas also vast forests of pine, fir, spruce, 
tamarack, etc. 

Beautiful little laki lets are scattered all 
over th'S county, abounding in mouulain 
trout and other fish. Very little fruit is 
raised here as yet. Small fruits and berries 
grow in profusion in summer, and the 
hardier varieties of apples do well anil have 
an excellent llavor. The climate, in sum- 
mer, is mild and healthful, and in winter 
much snow falls, especially on the mount- 
ains. Tin average temperature in sum- 
mer is about 75 degs., and iu winter about 
40 degs. The people boast of magnificent 
mountain scenery and a healthful summer 


In the southern part of the north half 
of Calioruis, and ou the western slope of 
the Sierras, extending to the edge of tie 
Sacramento valley, and peculiarly wedged 
in between El Dorado, Alpine, Calaveras, 
San Joaqnin and Sacramento, we find 
Amador county, containing an area of 300,- 
000 acres of land. The western portion is 
broken into bills and rolling swells, with 
an occasional valley or stretch of plain 
ii. The principal valley is the Ioue, 
situated iu tho south-west portion. Its 
soil is of a loose sandy loam and is very 
fertile; it is divided np into beautiful little 
farms, orchards and meadows; much ol the 
surrounding hillsides are planted to vine- 
yard. This hilly or upland soilis of a red- 
ish nature, and is excellent grape land. 
As we go east to the neighboring hills and 
mountains, the laiid is yet in its virgin 
state, and iB covered with chappanil, blue 
pine, etc. Once cleared, the level portions 
make very fair farming land, but im belter 
adapted for grazing. In the smaller val- 
leys, where water is brought in for irri- 
gation, considerable alfalfa is raised. The 
principal water-courses are: the Ifokel- 
nnine river, which draiim the southern 
portion of the county, and the Cosumnes 
river which, with its branches, drain the 
northern portion. The smaller streams 
are: Bear river, Tiger, Deer, Panther, Dry, 
Jackson, and Indian creeks. There aro 
many other small streams, which give ample lacili- 
till for irrigation. Unlike many mining regions, 
Amador has an extraordinary soil. Increasing 
Quantities are cleared S.nd improved annually; tho 
productions ol which are, wheat, barley, alfalfa 
potatoes, wine and fruit. Tho foot-hills, and es 
penally tho valleys of tho lower portion of the 
county, are very favorable localities for fine frnits 
and grapes. 

Tho mineral ri onrcee of the county are coal, 
copper, gold. Quito extensive developments have 
'•«-'■" made, iii U,. ooal mines, by the C. P i:. I: 
ho have every facility for shipping, OS A 
bnnofa of their road leads to lone City from Gait, 
on the main line. This coal Is used on tbeli trains 

anil ferries between San Fri.i,,.-, ,■„ „,„] , , , K] ,,,,, 
■it rata of coal are found; tfa 

n In Bvi to i r< a reel thiok, Is consider! 

fair quality of coal, and Is also lined for domestic 

purpoai i, Othei mines are lx lag den loped bj 
■.who have tapped good reins by tun 

Doling sereral hundred foot, a ,t foi 

from I Jackson, 

aro tin, celebrated Newton ooppoi mines, which 
aro bolug extensively worked. Thi ,-,,,,;.. 

: ■"•oi I ho ore by the leeching process. Lonv- 

ing tin pi r i is, nnd passing still further 

eastwurd, wo noon hear tho stamps of immense 
quartz-mills grinding up the ore. Largo piles of 
pulverized rook attest tho fact that some ef tho 
niincH must have been sunk In a great depth. Tho 
Consolidated Amador is down 2,200 feet, tho Ma- 
honey, 8110. and in still going deepor. Tie I • . 
hIoiic, and other iiiiiioh in tho vioiuily, are all in 
active operation. The first town that is reached is 

lone City, 

Which is 133 miles uortheast from San Frunoisco, 
at tho terminus of the Amador branch of tho C. P. 
It. K. It ocoupieH a site on the edge of a lovely 
valley, which bears the same tamo, and iB a thriv- 
ing town, of about C50 people. About twelve miles 
noitheaet, by stage, is 

Tho county Beat, which lies in a beautiful little, val- 
ley, surrounded on all aides by high hills; n con- 
tains about 1,200 inhabitants. Four railcB from 
Jackson, by stage. we arrive al 

The other towns oro Volcano, Oieta and Drytown, 
each with a population ol from 200 to BOO. The 
Census Of 18H0 gave Amador county D population Ol 


This county lies along tho eastern side of the Bac- 
ramenta valley, and Is bounded on the north by 
Tohama county, east by Plumas, Boutfa by JTuba, 
ami iras! by the Baorameoto rivi i . Butte is ono of 
tho largest counties in California, embraolng an 
area of 1,305,440 acres, which ore classified as fol- 
lows: nunc-., i. i 12 000; Umber lands, i8! 640| 
ngi loultur ,1 198 S i |! i hi iri sti i d pai I of Butte Is 
comparatively level, and embraces moBt of the 
rorming lands, while the eastern Bide Is hilly and 

mountainous, and ludes all the mines, Tho 

county (swell watt red by tho S icrami a to and i ■ • ather 
rivers; the latter, with Its north and middle forks 
and numerous smaller branches, waters the south- 
eastern portion of the oounty. Ohloo, I'.utte, and 
Dry creeks are large streams. The soil, along the 
i im [ bottoms, is a rich, sandy loam. Bi in- en the 


Sutter Creek, 
SHU the Beeno ol toUve mining operations, princi- 
pally gold quartz. This town bus a lloating popu- 
lation of from 1,000 to 1,800, as tho mines are 
worked. A half-hour's stage ride, amid some of tho 
largest mines In the county, brings us to 

Amador city, 
The in, io at mountain town in this section, whioh 
is fairly outstripping all tho other towns in growth. 
f< Is but a few years since a town was started here 

and now n uas ovi ,- i nun inhabitant*, it Is strictly 
■ mining town. Seven mUes from Amador City, 
situated on an open piam, or table-land, lies tho 

low II ol 


u blob contains about 600 Inhabitants, Hero, also, 
[■beard the heavy stamp ol quarts mills, grinding 

away, day and night, the whole year round, 

Thi xmadoi Oanal pony . a corporal ivhloh 

has extensive water works, furnislios water to Juok- 

moii, lone , 1 1 v . A i Io iilv.iind Hyi III. Tho 

•••■'i' i Is taken from tho Hokolumne river, by 

ditches and pipes, tO largo rOSOrVOirS, from wh-nce 

it Is distributed In pipes to too d r ont towns and 


Sacramento and Feather rivers lie an nomeiiso 

tract of blaok adobe land, verj produotivoli h 

nary years, but liable to overflow during the wel 
season. Near the foot-bills there Is b bell of rod 
lands, formerly though! nol worth farming; but, 
during tho past few years, many imall forms have 
been suooessfully tilled, as the land aonstanUy Im 

proves by cultivation. The foothills contain land 

valuable for farming purposes, though, al present' 
very little of it Is under cultivation BV itber river 
bas three forks, or branohes, orosslng the mi g 

dividing the Inllv portion into gOVI r.,1 I I 

tensive regions. Along these various »in 

on tl roralrld tbo prlnolpol mini ■ I lie 

Immonso hydraulic mines of Ohi rokee PI il are pi i 
hap-, the mosl glganUc In the State. BUI 
hundred feet high bavo boon crashed an o '" "" 

I* Tin i an oon lorod n ■ the bi il 

payingmlnosln theBtato, Th ire about B0 miles 

litohessndovoi ill mil I Iron pi poll idin ; 

'" 'ho mine,, pplylng about 2,200 Inohos ol watt i 

i - 1 & '■ 1 1- oosl of thi dltohos and <■ lorvolrs is 

1,1 nU noli i • of dollars, i no,, twelvo to 

n Hydi iuUo i ■ ,,,- ,,i work, an I 

number ol men on constantly employed. Then ore 

ther mine- in the oounty; the pi Inoli al Io. 

calitieM are Wyandotte, BongOT, I nrf|( IIOWD , ,„ r 

okee, Mountain House, Dogtown, I 
i osklp. 

Tho hirgcHt town, Is situated In the western portion 
of the county, mi the In,, ,,f t|„, Oregon di 
tbi i P i' H ■ miles nortb fro 

, rich agricultural country, that will rival 
in Ii rUUty, any si otion of tbo Btate, 'I I 
besides being Supplied with water and ■ u and s-ell 
bud off, is beautifully shaded, by tb 
,,;,i,,, oi ,i trei and Is one ,,r the handsom, 
m the Btab ; II ioul 8,800 Inhabitants 

adjoining the • ,] John BIdwi ir« form 

acknowledged to be the bandsomesl and best tilled 
farm In all Call! 

>■ the Paris Expositioi -t wheat 

in the world, and last year he paid OUl 00,000 for 
hired help iu the planting, tilling, ai 
of his endless variety of cereals, fruits, aril 
bles. The finest orohards In the ■ 
and then are all classes of soil on this fan 

the red mountain foot-hUI h 

choicest garden land. 


The second town of Imp 

Chico, at the terminus of the California 
Northern rallroai . which runs from bere 
to Marysville, where it intersects with the 

C. P. l; i: D ii, 

aod westol im a tine fan 

gion, wliii,- in iin foothills, near II 
,l "'"' I popu- 

laUon Is about 1,800. Oroville ii 
handsome town, as t lies in a di pressionon 

itfa bank of Feather riv< i 
commauds an extensive mountain tr»de, 
reaching Into northeastern California, for 
more than one hundred miles. Some 
inta have done business bere 
for many yeorB, and have becon 
wealthy, A fine new flouring mill has 
ly been built, and several stage lines 
center in from Plumas and Lasstu conn- 
lies, oo the north, and Yuba, on tl 

besides the lines from Chi 

The other towns are Qridley, Bigga. Nel- 
son, Durham, and Nord, all located on the 
O. D. of theC. P. P. i;., in tbi 
part of the county, and SUITOnndl 
agricultnral land. Butte has immense 
forests of sugar, yellow, and nut pine 
timl„ r. Tbi» timber belt is in tbi 
mountainous part of the county. Among 
the objects of inteiesl to the tourists are 
the falls of Fall river, a bright, clear 
streom. rising in the mountains near La 
Porte, Plumas county, and emptying into 
the middle fork of Feather river, soi 
miles above Hid well's Bar. The n\> 
in an unbroken sheet, over a precipice of 
460 feet. The climate of Butte is pleasant, 
except during a hot spell in midsummer, 
lasting from three to six weeks. Tho 
rainy season sets in about the lir*t of De- 
cember, and lasts until the lir-t of April. 
The rainfall for Oroville will , 
from 20 to 24 inches. Snow seldom falls 
below an altitude of 1,200 feet. Ou the more 
mountainous parts of the county it falls to 

B depth Of over til 

< ii.wkr.vs COUNT?, 
One of the oldest settled counties in the 
State, aud Justly cell brated In the early 
days of its setUt mi i ulous 

yield of virgin gold from its rii ■ 

and deep clninn, I ,1, t" ,1 OU 

the western slopi oi thi Bit n • 
• | ol the Btate, lyin ; 
east of Joaquin, Boulh of imador, 
weal ol Mplne, and norll 
mi, ne com, \\ . It is abool 80 i 
length, with on average widtb of 

and baa an area of 69 

tire county may justly I 
;, bed ol mineral deposits, gold predominating; 
ii,, baser metals, snob us copper, iron, and cm- 
ire abundant b< sidi - lb 

ledges of marble limesl and granito, and her 

,n,. i, \, lop,,! i„ dsol ooal, whii b are knovi n I 
ri,, pnncipni natural wonders of tin i 

world i, now nod I I 

the oxti nsh e oave, with Its trulj obs i m In 

hers, and tho wonderful natural bridge, all of w hlofa 

are annually i Islted by tourist from all | 
tbeworld. The Immense Umber bolt, for grand* 
ut, diversity, and m ignlfloi nl propoi lions, 
bos no piraii, i In ti nUre Umbei b< ll on tl 

i i n slope of the : ■ 

w.,1, i ,1 se. 'lions of the Stale, her , OStl I D 

qi ,i bj the BI 

by the tfokelnmne, and the oi nti il Ion 

indiiniiiv, Is dra ,i by tho Oalaveraa rivei and n» 

tributaries. Tl 

i ippi ,i al roi Ion i points, and their inters dlstrlb" 

ni, ,i io hi llflolal moans, ohii By for mlnli 

o «ii "' oUons oi ii,,, , iv. The pi Inolpsl 

om i In the , iiv tir,< tho Uokolumne Hill •""' 

BI o Oanal, on tho wosl side, whlob take their sup- 
p] ii,,,,, the U iki lui Ivurj and Ibe^Jiurpby* 



Canal, on Ibo eaat aldo of tho county, which takes 
plj from the Stanislaus. These two catena- 
. ii.t % .- in. my lateral ditohi a foi the distrib- 
ution <>f thi-ir wiiti-rrt. The Calaveras river is also 
tapped sl various points, as are the man] tributaries 
of the ssToral main itn ams, principally for mining 
purposes, as there an lonumerable operations In 
quartz, bydraullo, and obannel mining throughout 
tii,- county. There an manj ledges ol quarts, some 
,,i ffhioh oarry gold iu good paying quantities, 
noticeable among wiui'ii we might mention (he 

Qwinn mine, located in tho west central side of the 
OOUOtyi and which is being prosecuted with an 
energy and upon a scale second to no similar mine 
in tin Siato. The American Ohavannie, on the 
niral side, the Champion and Boston, in the 
north and east parts of the county, are all good 

Sun Andreas, 

The couniv seat, is an old mining town, and now 
has a population of 800. It is 143 miles nearly duo 
east from San Frauoisco, and is reaobed by railroad 
to Milton, jusl in the edge of Calaveras county 
from tbenoe by stage 29 miles. West Point is the 
, drome town on the north-west; Mokeluiuno Hill 
mi tin west center; Campo Seco and Comanche on 
tin lonth-west; Jenny Li ml and Miltou on the 

28,000 acres, the low bills at 480,000 acres, and the 
remainder, aboul I nun tores, Is mountain waste, 
The l". t land Is along the streams, and es] 
along Hi. Baorami otorivei wbiob runs almost due 

■ ''■ forming the western boundary of the couuly 

1 en mill s, then runs through the county— 
'-'' "" |,H >" " itraighl line, and again forms the 

888 lonndarj . The soil along the river is of a 

BOdlmentarj decomposed vegetable nature, making 

the iuo.-t productive land in the world. Thesocond 

lust lands, the loll of which is the blaoi 
UHually He bet«, . u the iiver-bank lands and tho 
foothills; they are considered the best of grain 
land, bnl are somewhat difficult to farm, as they do 
not iranl to be ploughed either too wel or too dry. 
The third-rate lands are valley lands that are spotted 
and Impregnated with alkali. The fourth-rate are 
the mountain pasture lands iu the western portion 
of the county. 

The Sacrameuto river is skirted on either side 
with a growth of timber averaging u mile m width, 
which is principal!} oak, sycamore, cottouwood, 
and ash. Along the Coast Range there is consider- 
able fine pine saw timber. Colusa county is wait n d 
by the Sacramento river. The river is navigable, 
.'11 He year round, to the upper end of tho county. 
Stony creek rises in the Coast Mountains, about 40 

of fertile land between tho river and tho slough, 
aud Yolo, Sutter, and Culusa counties, is known as 
Qraud Island. 

The census of 1880 gave Colusa a population ol 
13,118; add to this an increase of about BOO for the two years. 

Oolusa is not classed as a mining county, yel 
there is both gold and quicksilver found within her 
borders. Colusa is not without In r mineral J] 
Among them wo will name Allen's soda springs, the 
water of which is very pleasant to tho taatt 
strongly impregnated With carbonic acid. Cook 
and Pout's springs, are located in Bear valley near 
the noted Bartlett spring, just across in Lake 

Tho county seat, is located on the extremo eastern 
Bide of tho oouuty ou tho hanks of tho Sacramento 
river. This is tho largest town iu the county, and 
has a population ol :i,000; it is regularly laid of] 
with wide streets, and has some very good and BUb- 
Btantial brick business blooks. The Baorami nto 
Transportation Company's steamers, when ply be- 
tween here and Baoramento, also run up thi 
some 90 miles, to Molntire's Landing. Ten miles 
west, on the O, P. R. R. ,0. D.), we come to the 
town of 

Coiivgo City, 
Located In the Bouthi rn pari ol Oolusa, somi sigh- 
lilea south from the oonntj seat, contains 
»0 Inhabitants, and is in a Que agriou 
country. Some three miles east is 

located ou the railroad, wnh a population of about 


Is the Shipping v ,tfor tho largo wheat farm of 

Dl H 3 , Oil nn, and has one general store. 

Sulphur creek is a small mining town In the 
Coast Rango of mountains. Central is a city of tho 
future. Bpring valley, St. Johns, Newville, Butto 
City, Kaoawab, and Leeseville are all small trading 
points in various portions of the couuly. 


Is bounded on the north by 8olanoaud Sacramento 
couulies, tho San Joaquiu river. Suisun bay and the 
Straits of Oarquim t forming the line; uu the south 
by Alameda county and San Francisco bay; on the 
cast by San Joaquin couuty. It will thus be seen 
that the geographical position is a moift desirable 
one, being about midway of the coast lino of tho 
State, fronting the Golden Gate, and with a water 
frontage of seventy miles on tho western and north- 


I Inpperopolia on the southeast; Altonvillo 
and Angela' Camp on the east center; Vsllecito, 
Murphy 'g, and Sheep Ranch ou the north-east of 
tho county. From Milton, the terminus of the 
railroad, where all supplies /or the central and i ast- 

itions of the couuty are received aud dis- 

I, stage lines diverge to Ban Andreas, Sheep 
eropolis, Angel's, Uurpby's, the Dig 

rofi -.iin.i Bonora, A. dally stage lino also 
runs from Lodi, on the C. P, R. B„ to the Owin 
mine ami ICokelumne Hill, Intersecting with tho 
Jackson and Amador line via. <;»lt, or lone city, 
iped resources of this county are 
;i1 i Inexhaustible. 

rises a large portion of tbegroal Baoramento 

valley, and i« bOIUldl d on tin north by Tehama, on 

oountii i, on tl 
on the wi «t by Lake and M< ndoi Ino 

I. It has an area of 1,472,000 acres, and is 

M miles from north lo south, and averages iboui 

i ... st, or tins rssl t. rrltory, 

ihonl '",'1 000 acres lio along the Baorami nto ralli y. 

nn tbl 

tns baiai f tbi i ountj 

1 mountains, low lulls, and small ralloys, 
The Tailor portion of this balance U estimated at 

miles Booth ol the noi th line ol the count] , and 

runs almost north to the uppei end Of the couuty, 

livergee to the east, enters tie- vallej . and 

runs houlheast to the Sacramento river. This 

stream drains the entire eastern sloj i tbeCoosI 

Range for about oo miles, consequently it carries 
oir an immense amouut of water during the rainy 
i-eii-on. About 'JO miles north from the south 
boundary of the county there is a kind of divide 
separating the waters of Caono creek, running 

BOUtb, from those Of Btony creek r ( ; north. 

These creeks enter the Sacramento valley about 75 
mil. b apart, and no Btreams enti t n between them, 
Tho country between these waters and the plains in 
covered witb low hills, in whioh Bmall oreekshave 

th. ii use, and run east to the plums, w hero thoy 
sink in the sand. Eighteen miles north of the 
south boundary ol the county in Butte slough, 

whieh is a large estuary, nearly one fifth the si/e "I 

i imento river, and runs In s south, aal< rly 

dlTi Otlon Into Hotter ciiunty, win ru it Is lost in the 

, formi 'i by tbi Baorami nto and I 

rivers. Syamon jloogb lOBVCB thO inn 0D lie- 
west side some four miles bfllOW llutte slODghj 

the great slough Uowlng Into the rlvei from the 
i i,i, to Knight's Landing, In J olooounty,and about 
BO miles from the bead of (be slough, takos the 

I the Lower Hycamore, and the largo body 


Named after Mr. W. H. Williams, the rounder ol 
the town, There are, at present, about 100 inhab- 
itants. The towu is supported by tho wheat-farm- 
ing oountry that surrounds it on all - 

Situated on a level plaiu, has a population of about 
250. The immouse grain warehouses located here 
are positive proofs that tbisisoneof the finest wheat- 
producing sections iu the State. 
Tho second largest towu in Colusa county, is looated 
on a level plain in a tint agricultural country. The 
business portion of tho town was nearly all <b- 
gtroyed bj Ore earl] m the season, but Itisnon re- 
built, Midway between Maxwell aud Willows is 
the villago of 

Sltuati d in a tine wheat si ellon. It contains about 

200 Inhabitants, several large grain wan I 

two hotels, and s few genoral stores, We now pass 

on north lo the vlllsgO Ol 

Situated OO both sides Ol the railroad, in a line 

agricultural county. Orland has a population ol U50. 

I'll,,, . Ion 

fositnatod In the northwestern part ..i the couuly, on 

the river, Whlofa was quite a trading place before 
the railroad entered the couuty. 

ern border. The county was organized as early as 
1850, which embraced Alameda's territory. Contra 
Costa county now has an ana of 444,491 acres. 
Tho Coast Range of mountains run parallel with 
tho ocean aoross tho county, extending in B south- 
easterly direction. The most distinguished feature 
of this rango is Mount Diablo, standing out boldly 
9,806 feet above the sea-level, its location being 
very near the center of the couuly. Its promt- 
u.'iiei caused it to ho selected by the Government 

as the initial point Of bS98 and meridian liues in 
the survey for Oearlj tWO-thirdB Of the Slate's area 

The immense ooal fields of the .Mount Diablo foot- 
hills are an important source of wealth to tho 
county, These mines ware discovered in 1859. Tho 
i v k i 'i imond vi In, for t»' m\ yi srs, baa yielded 
of Its treasure to tho never-tii lug plok of the miner, 
Bi vera! railroads bavo been constructed from deep* 
'vigaiiou, at the lead of Sui-un bay, up 
into the mines. The Pittsburg and I ' n i< InOS, 

ersville, ouo mile Baal ol Kortonville, also 

ship their coul prodie 1 six miles in 

length, to tide water, Two miles eastward Is lo« 
oat .1 the l li ntral mlno, Hi si i omi ■ thi I mpln 
whtoh was openod In 1870 This mine has yl Ided 
130,000 tons "f ooal within Iln The 

o from ii" 1 U tunl Dl iblo dlstrloi amounted 

to over 07)000 tons for the lasl .Mai. The black 



Diamond furnishes employment to 150 men Mid 
yields r9, I toni annually. 

wnii tbe exoepti i ooal ml ■■:. Oontra Costa 

in mainly hi agricultural county; her export* aro 
wheat, barley, oats, bnttor, live Btook, hay and ooal* 
The tonography or the oounty i« low hills and 
sninli s . . ntral valley la aboul Bib i a 

miles in length, anil fromono to mi mil' - in width. 
Tho various names of PooheCO, Fgnnoio, Ihabloand 
Walnut creek are applied to Huh fertile section 
which yields an abundance nl 01 roalH ami fruits. 
Crops rarely fail. 

San Ramon is tho second valley of some ten miles 
in length, and from one i" two miles In width, ex- 
tending rrom Walnut oreeli to the Alameda oounty 
line. It contains some of the pleasanteet homes of 
tho county. In Its western portion are a number 

i;i f small, fertile- vail. \ " l'abln. 1 ' 

Briones. Rodeo, Tajiar and Alhiunbra, all settled 
with thnity farmers. The farming lauds In the 
eastern section of tbe county extend from Bay 
point, a spur east of Mount Diablo, and between 
the foot-hills and tho San Joaquin river to the 
county line, being 23 miles in length bj from three 
to six in width, and embrace about CO, 000 aores of 
arable land. The soil is. generally speaking, of a 
rich, alluvial nature, and produces wheat and bar- 
ley. To the northward, and betweon the uplands 
and the San Joaquin river, is a body of tnle landB, 
embracing, in all, some 
50,000 acres. Large sums 
have been and are now 
being expend* d in r< claim- 
ing these lands, which be- 
come marvellously in- 
ductive, the soil being a 
rich deposit of sediment 
and decomposed vegeta- 
tion. Thousands of acres 
are leased to Chinamen and 
Italian gardeners, who pay 
an annual cash rental uf 
from $10 to 520 per acre. 
The San Francisco vege- 
table market is largely 
supplied from these lands. 
As in most counties in 
our State, so here one may 
find a diversity in climate. 
Generally speakiug, it may 
be regarded as a medium 
between the chilly fogs of 
San Fraucisco and the en- 
ervating heat of the inner 
valleys. The afternoon 
rly trade winds, blow- 
ing fresh from the ocean, 
a-e modulated by the 
warmer inland air-cur- 
renta, rendering this cli- 
mate delightful, neither 
too hot nor too cold. In 
summer the mercury 
ranges from 75 to 85 degs. 
and, in some cases, 90 
degs., and in winter from 
45 to 70 degs. The seasons 
are divided into the wet 
and dry. From May to 
November is summer, but 
the gentle ocean breeze is 
always invigorating. Tho 
hot, sultry DigbtB of I lie- 
Atlantic States are un- 
known in California. 

Situated on the StrsiU of 
Carquinez, is the county 
seat, and contains a popul- 
ation of about 700 people. 
The overland railroad now 
passes through the 
and the commerce ol the 

Sacramento and San Joaquin riven also passes in 
full view. There are a few wealthy citizens in the 
place, who live on the Infa n at of their capital, and 
own tbe greater portion of the town. 

Port Co.ln, 

A new and enterprising town, whioh has sprung up 
the building of the two railroads, one via, 
Martini /.. ontiooband Lathrop, where the Boutbi rn 
Railroad into neota with the road - la, Btook- 
ton, Benlcia, Buiaun and Dixon to Baoramonto, 
and the othi i ; ,, Buiaun 

and Baoramonto Port Costa haa advanli 
few places in California possess, one ol whlofa la 
deep water, enabling the largest soa-golng vessels 
to come and load with wheat, aa «ri n aa tho largest 
grain warehoni n the Coast, Tho town ha ovi i 

6,000 feet ol wl ugi r.n tupping luoiliili-M. The 

monster ferryboat "Solano," 120 feel In length, 
with four tracks, i» oapablc of conveying foni 
traiun of oars safely across tho b traits botwi en Poi I 
Costa und Beniola, a distance of one mile. 

couvenionily located manufacturing establishments 
in the country. 

Vallejo Junction. 

\i tin-, point psBBengors are transferred for Vallejo, 
\ .,,,:,, si Helena, Oaltatoga and all places north- 
treati i.. Mendocino, Luke and Humboldt counties, 
;,n,i the great nortbweat. About midway between 
tliiH plait and Berkeley we come to tho village of 

Sun Pablo, 
Whioh is only about seventeen miles from San 
Francisco. The old town is about one mile from 
tho railroad station. 

On tho 8an Joaquin rivor, and also on the Central 
Pacific Railroad, distant 55 miles from San Fran- 
olBOi . The town has a population of 900, and is 
pleosontly situated on the bank of tho Sivn Joaquin 
river. It is regularly laid out and has some very 
creditable buildings. autiooli is certainly ono of 
I he best liM-atniiis for manufacturing operations in 
the State, aa it lies on tho river and railroad and in 
oloHe proximity to tho Mount Diablo coal fields, 
with a narrow-guage railroad to tho Empire and 
Central mines, a distance of some seven miles. 
Good steam coal can bo had here cheaper than any 
other place in the State. The country around 
AjltiOOh is all good agricultural land, some lino 
orchards being in tho vicinity. 

Logisloture for a distanco of 110 miles, In Orleans 
bar. I'.esidea this rivor and Smith river, « Inch, with 
its north, middle, and south forks, heads in Del 

Norte, and flows northwester]; Into the -.'ran al I 

Bix miles south of the northwestern corner of tin- 
State. There is a large number "I imallei itream 
whlofa afford excellent water power in different 
parts of the county. Tin- prlnolpal harbor is at 
Crescent city, which is looated on a 
latitudo 41 dog. II min., longitude 12U 'leg. 10 nun., 
whioh la 280 mllea mirth ol Ban ETi auoisoo bj water, 
and ubout the sium- distance south ol the I lolumbii 
river. Tho harbor la an open roadstead, with do 
bar to oroBB, ami affords aboltor for vessels during 
tho summer months, when the wind generally 
blows from the northwest, bul [I Is open and un- 
protected against the southerly gules which prevail 
during tho winter months on tins coast. Vi-shcIs 
find good anohorage in Ave to seven fathoms of 
water. Two linos of Bteamen ply between hero 
and San FranciBco. There is an Immense amount 
of Government lunds, both agricultural and nun 
eral, in Del Norte county. No liner redwood tim- 
ber can bo found on the coast than is here within a 
few miles of this harbor, and, within easy 
the place. Del Norte county, as before Stated, has 
an area of 800,000 acres, the greater portion Ol 
which is mountainous, and 76,000 at ■ 
yot nnsurveyed; 27,980 acres of timber laud is -m- 

ol country on the south Bide ol tin county, twentv 
miles In length and two miles wide, which iieg on 

either sit i ibe Klamath river, from it* month 

Inland. Here art thousands ol acn ■ ol thi Bnest 
redwood timber in th- mmenst mineral 

resouri - a, render d nselc is and idle. P7e 

are told, 


< - 


reon r"all fa Junotlon and 

■ ita, right on the haiilui ol II..- sliulU, and 
On the line of the Houthnrn l'ii.-|llc D ill] I "I 1 1- 1 1 

are located J, i>. Beald'a Agricultural Works, ■ 
large Bri prool brick struotun , L04 feet wide b> :io i 
feel to length, it is I the mosl sompli U and 

"ainui Croak, 
One "i the prettlesl towns in the oounty— we may 

say in the Slate— has a population of 500. The 

Othi i towns in the county are JudBonville, Somers- 
villo, Danville, Adams, Lafayette, Paoheco, Con- 
oord, Clayton, Blaok Diamond, Nortonvillo, Pitta- 
burg Candle ;, and various smallor places. 


Situated in tin- northwaal oornor ol California, is 
bounded on the east by Siskiyou, south by Hum 
boldl north by Ouri ( and Joseph!) nties, Ore- 
gon, and on tin- west by ihi- PaOlBC DCean. It has 

an ooi an fronts i ol 19 and i ■ tends east 

i.: miles, being noarly square, with an ana ol 

lis topography Is it sin BBlOn Of 

mountain ranges, In the western and southern poi 

tlons. Which are w.-ll tlmhcrcl with n-dwiiod, hom- 

Icok, spruoe, eedsr and pine, while In theeaBtorn 

part tho aurfaoe is brokon and m tainous. The 

Biskiyou un tains. In the oast and oenti r, attain 

an altitude of I feel many peaks from 4,000 to 

5,000 feet. Along llic cast they iirolr.un 700 to 

1,000 foot, and an covered with verj heavj redn I 

Mel spruoe limber. The face of the oountry,In the 
wostorn portion ol the oounty, slopes toward tho 
sea. Tho Klamath rivor enters midway on the 
lino, and flows southwesterly into Hum 
boldl foi 50 mllosj it Is the aeoond largest rlvoi In 
theBtate. It was doolared navigable by tho Btate 

veyed, besides the mineral ololmain different por- 
tions. Tho farming land now surveyed Is about acres. A great portion --i the nneurveyed 
lamis ib excellent timber. Gold mining haa been 
Bteadily and successfully pursued since 1851. The 
most important gold a In the oounty are at 

Dappy Camp, ami are mostly hydraulic diggings. 

The production ol gold '• I II to 

annually. Oop| < ivored In Del 

Norte in 1800 In tho noi tbwi sti rn pan ol tbe 
county, in what Is Itnon a as thi Lou i » > ^ Idi DIa 
111,1 Five g i mines, the Sansi im, I 'oi Idi atal, 

Alta, Union, ami .Mam li an- all lOOStOd "H gum I 

paying leads, iii tho Big Flat Dlstrli tl th 

ent copper mine, The obrome minoa ol Di I Noi to 

are Bituated In tno Low Dlvldo Dlstrlot, In the 1 1 

o J ol tho ooppoi mines The Oral sbipmenl "as 

made bj the Tyson Bmelling Oompeny, ol Balti- 
more, Mil 1800, whirl, has oontrol ol the 

obi buslnesa In the I cited Main,. Thoro are 

di posits "i obromo In thin county. 

Emmenso deposits of Iron ore ol various grades 

ami classes, an- found In dial ronl pai la ol tho 

oounty, the bulk ol whlofa Is In the vli Inltj ol the 

i "i'i" i and ''bri iinoa. Mioaa Iron ores have 

1 sti il by ii H ntllli men, who pinnnii hem 

of a very high grado. Ooal was discovered 

years ago, a fi a ■>., I. . il, t,,,,,, Qmi on I OllJ, 

The TJoited Blatos Qovornmenl la holding a atrip 

by good authority, thai there are less than iooi n ! 
dlans now on tbe reservation, When Ibii !.„,] 

eopen to white settlers, II will bi 

valuable territory In Del Norte. The county is bc| 
sparsely settled, then- being only 2,600 people 

Within hei borders. 

« ruHii-nl Oft] . 

Tho county seat, with a populat r 1,001 

an .1 mi a 'mill baj . looking south-west, and facing 
the sea, at the foot Of tho Coast Rang) ol mount. 
ains. Nearly all ol the exports and imports ol tbe 
■ i o from Orescent city; in fact, there is an 
extensive country tributary to tins point, reaching 
north Into Josephine ami Jackson countu 
gon. The climate ol that portion of the count* near 

ompi i ting On scent cit] 
Bmith river valleys, is In its general character 
mild and healthy. Severe fro inexper- 

ienced. Tin heal in lummei la noi oppressive 

and, although little or no ram falls In thi anmnwi 

months, the closo proximity to the ocean lends 

moisture enough to the atmosphere to sustain the 

lants. The immense fern and 

weeds in the redwood 

forest Indicate no lack of 

moisture. The rainfall at 

is from 60 

to 70 inches for the season. 

Del Norte, 
Sometimes called "8mith 
River Corners," is tbont 
sixteen miles north-east 
from Crescent city, and 
contains 200 inhabitants. 
There are only three vil- 
ages in the county, the 
third being a mining 
camp, on the extreme east 
side ol tbe county, called 

H »PPy Camp. 

The town is built on 
both aides of Indian creek, 
Q< ar its junction with the 
Klamath river, and sur- 
rounded by mountains, the 
only means of reaching 
tbe place being by moun- 
tain trails. The country 
around it is rich in gold, 
and its chief support is in 
mining. What Del Norte 
most needs is harbor im- 
provements in Crescent 
oily. That will bring in 
peopl6 with capital, who 
will improve her many 
water powers, eaw up her 
immense forests of red- 
wood into lumber, and un- 
lock the great vaults in 
which her vast minerals 
are now sleeping. The 
present sparsely - 
country will then teem 
with industries which at 
present are scarcely 
th mght of; when her gold, 
iron, chrome, fish, lum- 
ber, and butter will be sent 
by her own ships to all 
parts of the world. 

KI, DOR \DO OH \l\. 
Where gold was fi 

January, 1848, lies about 

110 miles — that is, it 

western boundary east by nortb-eaal from San 

Francisco, ami reach a to the Btab 

while the weal borders on Sacramento county. It 

Is bounded on tb Ifa by Plaei r, south I 

i in i", while Alpine corners lis south-eastern bound- 
ary. Noarly i ■,. i \ climate, to be found In any 
Btate in the I Dion, may be found within her 
borders, as tbe altitude rangea from BOO feel to 
.1 an iw. 'in weetei d foothill belt, 
' pi isiug an area of some 3o bj 1 9 mill Bquare, 

contains m ally all Of the agricultural ami mining 

ground. The oounty has an area ol 
and may I Idi red at n mining oounty, al- 
though considerable farming, lalryln ind fruit- 
raising is cm i nil on in tho western portion, while 
■ ' ii portion i a heavily timber d witb pine, 

in i oak, and othe untaln timber. 

Tho gem mi iii til nt the Bierros, through Nevada 
Plaoer, BI Dorado, Lmador, and Oalavoraa la north 
ami aouth. Am it. i -ii long thi west- 

oi ii pari "i tin oounty. In the foothills \ 

turn is found in ii unt> winch is usually known 

lis tl blue ii'.i'i." booausc ol Its peoulioi oolor 

mid a is 1 1 in ugh i in hi' a dead river whoae ohannala 
ami gulohea leadln thi n fi om ha> p b< - o 
posltorloa ol immonso quantlUi i ol 
Fabulous sums ol gold have been token fromtbii 

formation, Ifa ghoul the principal portion ol 

tins minora] bell runs a, strong mlneralogloal forBB.' 




I i,,,,. l,nown as tho Moth, r 1 .>..!■- This lode w well 
,i, gm ,i, ms n ins in -i i peatlne and granite, and 
itC*n often be, -d l.n Imig distances, by iU out- 
orop. The thickness vanes from n few to 50 fcot. 
[nnnmerable ledgea ol qnarte, generally whit*, or 
l,iii,.ii white, exiat all over the county. A large 
l„,rii"ii of Ihem carries gold in sufliolent quantities 
(,, I.. m in a number of quartz mills in operation in 
Tarious parte of the county. Among the best-de- 

and at bettor prices than are obtained at the 8an 
Francisco market*. The dairy interest hire is a 
large one, and is the most profitable. Those en- 
gaged In it are provided with two ranges; one in 
the lower foot-hills, for winter use, and the other 
on the eastern borders ot the county for summer. 
The latter is at a high altitude, and is usually cov- 
ered with snow until the linU of May, when it dis- 
appears, and the most luxuriant feed springs forth 

minus being Shingle springs, 110 miles northeast 
from San Francisco. 

Georgetown, Greenwood, Coloma, and El Dorado 
are all old mining towns. 

The county is well watered by the American river 
and its numerous tributaries. The system of 
ounals which supplies water for bathing! mining 
and irrigation, is unsurpassed by that of any other 
county in the State. 

-"""" || " 1 Ihi Blerru forms Its tastei nminry, tbn 

summll ol the Ooael Bai 

■ thi Obowi inn. i rlvn Its n *ll 

southern boundary Tin oonlral portion of the 
pari nf iii- gn it Ban ; 


Formed by tbi 
river, and during high v. rtly covered with 

led waters ol Ring's and Ban Joaquin rivers. 
V rn two-flftba ol thi i ountj la moun 


voloped milieu in IheOhnrcb Union, the Piacer- 
viiii gold quartz, MounI Pleasant, Grand Victory, 
Rosekrans, and a natnbei ol Others, Hydraulic 
mining has been extensively carried on in the 
rleinitiM ol Plea rville, Grot nwood, Georgetown, 
Ooloma, and other portions of Ibe county, besides 
the Placer, slnlos and seam diggings, iii otl 
tlons, Iron, oopper, illver, and "late are known to 
exiMt, tie lattei being worked to aome extent 
Pfenning la ■■ jet In lie Infenoyta this county, 
,..„„, ii. msnd foi alio! thi prodoote, 

„,„i i,n P s green all summer. The western and 

central portion ol the oonnty, the dividing U t 

snow ami rain, Ii especially Bnited to the raising ol 
flno fruits, such an pears, pooohes, apples, plnms, 
and fine grapes, whioh are acknowledged to bo su- 

pi riOl ID Havor to thoso raised in the vallojS, 

iMi, i i n. II. . 
Tho county seat, ono of tho oldest and largest 
mountain towns m tbo Btftte, at presenl baa a vv 

OlBtiOnol BbOUtfl.BOO, Tho H. V. It. It. now inns 
t,, within oloven mllos of tho town, tho presi 


Froano Is the third oountj In at i the 31 

tainlng 8,600,000 acres ol snrfaeo. 01 thlsvssl I 

i. inn. 'oi maj I- ■ i"--" 'i aa nnl i 

Is, and ahoul 1,9.00,000 as si rli ii ' ! ■ 

y lloa botweon the 10th and I7tb di 

latitude and la rarj ooarlj tl iral partol 

California, estondlng norl aterlj I aouthwi iti rlj 

itu 08 miles (t la bonndod north bj 
and Marlj oi ij Moi I Inyo, ■ mth bj Tulare 

. b] B lonll i M ' ' '""• n '° 

i thi si. rn, ra 
■ dnroglen In thi I olti 

« the north, to MounI 
Tyndall, on the aouth, • 
vi i too miles. Within this region rlsoa thi 

si,,, Joaqu ml I 

mov, an I I 

b ioI lying 

• length; I, al 

poaka In I is; MounI Q 

' «i as i 

,., , an ove ass ■!• vol, while a large nun 




Other peaks ipi '■' ' , ' l "' r, ' 

,„ no pass over ths loss than 9,000 fi 

,u in terij lopatof thwo ranges aro found i 

,,, | D0 ,„.„, [i i i. - 1 1. 1 ol i"" 1 " i lo Ihl H it" • ||1 " 1 '" 

gigaaUa," In which Mmo slnglotn u ore I 

i. ,, qi , ,K the 1, 100 

: ->ir tlllli" 

i lii h mej bi fllvldi 'i Into thn - 

■llatlucl dlVlSlOU ii in lli. 

plains and . ■ lino i.i.i. from i». ntj to thirl) mil" i 

to tbo dtstlnotlj outltnod i I i ■•< '"•■''• < '" " 

ot-htlle oom noc al in olovallon oi 900 fi 1 1 

„ii,i n i.. i with I grad- 
ually, ■ ii.. i" ountain ■ pi ipi i in d I| to '.i" 1 " ond 

8,600 toot, when thoysuddonlj t to an olovatlon ol 

i to 5,000 foot, mi. i "" . "" rod b Ith ■ bi avj 

. .i pine timber, Tb iboi boll roaol baoh 

fro in .hi to in mtli i hi mi all ration 10,000 foi t, 

ii,, i.i.:ii. it i. i'i. boll r< i. .i onlj b] dworfod 

i tamaraok. Tbo blgb Blorrai propi i oovi i a 
i,.. ii oi uii, mi 80 mUos; in" noarlydovold >•< brush ,ir 
n, ,,i. or, mm. i tin- brokon Into doop obasms, ]i| 
loftj poaks, mi. i. hi glacial ,basini and proiont Doldt 

m| |o, kii.I -ii. ..v A J II Is lli- UlgbOSt, (O II ll Hi. wild 

eat and most Intonstlog mount* >fl i" tbo I nlti d 

i qi . . ologli .,1 foi mail i l ii. . ntlro moan* 

i„ M1 , -i, .,,,,.. i • i, . dlvi wllli i u Hi. fauns ..i Doi i 

•ii,, foot-bill region! up. gonarally graulto, oul tor 

from nortb i" loutb, oi soutuwi Hi rly, bj oi 
soamH of slat" and frcquonl narrow uami ol quarti 
In „,»„. It" ■ Dlntj quarti 

in ton !■• I . uini in tins, localltlca iii. bills art 

Willi n ,li~n i la] I'll' " "'• "" I '"' D 

iiir onmi row small on" ■ thai 

i worki ■' are, ai « rulo, Im .i 

to (In f... .1.1, ill- 

,...i.i i" .-. r i ,.;• quarti bai i fnund 

tbrnuwiiout till " rail] . 

when tin rang" Ii brol 
slate, tbo several mines, oponod and 
being op< ned, promls" w< II, Like- 
wise, mines ol ooppoi bo' 

found, nud one oi more "i u 

worked, Tbeblgbcr, or timber rsnge, 
■ ii,,,,, tbo root-bills, 
tbougb the ravines arc d* i" r and 
. igtcal formal I 

,.l.,r nmi 

rlober. Small mi adows and 
an numerous, aud w oti i Is found In 
f/i rj ravine, Nortb ol lb" 

quin is an eli v n t • .i. eompsratlT" lj 

levi 1. 1 1 tutu r. ,i plaU mi. i. "• bli 

well toward the summit, • ■*. i wbli b 

a rallroail Hue lin^ I" I D IUXVi v d, 

i. .hi. Bi i ween the Ban Joequii i 

King's rlvors tbi countrj It I 

broken, tin e\ Id" m oa "i both rol 

canlo and glarlul aotlon m,,i, ll I- 

ant, ami Hi. v in" ll' - "l roi 

mineruis more uumi rous 

The Ooasl Range— or, mon pwp 
erljr speaking, the Mount Diablo 

Benito) between the Mount Diablo 
and Ooast Ban 

twenty miles from tbo San Joaquin 
river, and Is about twenty miles from 
the plslas to ii" ommlt Tho Brsl 
ten mil" - sri low bills, di void of tim- 
ber, '"ii covi n 'i w in. grass; thi nco t" 
ii,, -nmiHii ii". bills art mon 
eoverod wltb scrubby "uk, ami, in 

lany |. !','■• h, willi a denSl grOWtb Oi 

bappan I The -tr. ami an 
i>. i little Panoi be; thi Cant 
n.i . i,i,, are the onlj streams Bow- 
ward the Ban Josoj wbli ii 

nntj Into two am quel 
arts, about one tblr i i" log on 'i" 
. si aldi til ii,,. nti. ama 

i. ..| ,i i ii 
ok soon sftei reaching the plains. 
Frcanu count] 0" '■■«■ n 

in., over one-tblrd of 1U total area, lying In whal U 
town satha great Ban Josqutn valley. This ralloy, 

Iculatlng ir thi Bacramonto rlvei south I Porl 

j. .ii. has u i. nun, "i , and an average 
eadtfa i,. 

,i. v. i. mm. i 200 miles from the month ol thi 
n Joaquin. [I 

l the watei f On ■ 
ilare lakea, which latter basan olovatlon I 
■l an area of 700 square miles Tulan laki 

ih the Hun Joaquin rivi i by n lough, iboul 00 

■ ii, i ....,, i alar, lal i >■■ rth totbi Bsi ramonto 
.. valli > in,. :, im arl] uniform fall "' » little 

i lOl I- il, I lowi ItdO] 

Wblh i .,, , ill,, r hi, I, . In 

ward the . . in. r. .,v. i„ ... ,. l .-.,. t Hi i,, i i Mill,-. 'I'll.. 

vallej |. i ,i | ip|i ii* i il .1, ni,.. hi 

i.,i dli im. i i. giODi an foi I 

' In rain fall.dUtloi I.dlstlncl ss lo dopth 

»nd ohai tor, and tbo gi di rol raollll i 

Irrigation and cultivation, Tbi U rrltorj ol thi esal 

aide i" ««*■'■■« i ■••.". "I" i". .' ..i .■ i, hi„. . ount) 

i ■ doion '.mi 

maybe found oftoo within an sreaol twu miles 

■■•• ■ rule, the n i the lillli tl Ii i tbi 

1 ...ii |b i bi i" "" i pi i ,\ long 1 1" 

foot-hill i ' . quln rlvw 

i n .i ■ laj land, mixed with whlti 

,,,., i, like the Halagi gri ould i„ 

Blrlpa "f huh land eitend u far down u] tbi p 

u Fresno I ... gn si I i ol tin plain ol n 


1 inlmal and « table matter, 

mini i,. i salts Oi di >,,ii> •puaklng, tbo 
Ban J.;».|iiin valley lands »<•' free from alkali, The 

oountrj lying wi "' "" ,lk0 

. whllo imii.Ii .." "I" I"'" I IS Ll I" I ""'' 

,i, it, i, iii i mall ant ol rainfall and apparent 

uUit) ..i obi lining tral" r.ovon roi Irlnl 

this region i N '•' I' 

,i,iimi iini, boon oonsti i by ■ i , ■ 

w 1 1 1 ■ - 1 1 has bi iugbl mrsl thousand bi n ■ iindi i oultl- 


Fresno Cltj 

,1, , ih, an) ..i Mu\ . 181 1, di srlj 11 ri srs sgo, tbi rail- 
road isu) rormall] loi stod tbo town, wbli h Isslt- 

Ul ,i, ,i di in ii" i" ogriphli "i i ■ nti ' ..i tbe i onnty, on 
in., i 1 1 ... Si.iiii ■ai ifli Rallroi I, ll 11" i 

I I Ii Hun I'iiuu'Ihiii 'I'IiIm I Hi"." Ilttll I It] 

,,iii i, .iliinlH. iiinl,;iii II" nil" .mil "I busl 

i ,,, in,, i : ..I tbi .H. 1 1" i Ivals ' I ol tbe 

towns ol California ol d i ng< snd population 

rii,, oolonlos "f Frost mnty, sro ooarlj sll In 

in,, m, inllj -I Prosno ,-ny; ii"' oldest Is the 

California Colony, whlob dates bnos i" Juno i. 1870, 

qusp mil" "i i i iroro si loctod is tin 

..I this ontorprlsi Thi land UoBlnoloso proximity to 

ii". n i ii,, smiiiim ru Paolflo umiii-.'ii.i. uini twoand 

■ I, in mil tb i ilty. This land was 

dlvldod Into 109 farms ol 10 i i" b Bach lol was 

mrvoyod wltb reforouoo i" Its bolng ooi anded by 

wotor dltohcs, and gatos woi truotod Thi Qrsl 

settlers bogsn tomaki tboli Impro^ tits In the fall 

of 1870, m i". ii "i "I" i. "<■ • 80 families roBldlng 

in ii,. . olonj in list" iy adjoining ibovo lies 

ii,. Ws gton trrlgsting Colony, whl" b ■ 

. |i i i ii ,<r- mllos This im laid ."ii Into 80-acro 

irn.i". The land Is nosrlj lovol, Im ll g toward ii". 

i !, i Is m rii b, i indj loan Hi n sn dom s 

popul il i . pi' Botw" ■ " ii." I"-' 

bolng him ■ i i" Ian ii" Btati ol Rhode bland, 

[tl || ,,: 111 ll "'Hi lO I""' IS I ' S, Ml" i Its 

■ti i in. ."mini...", i n.i..i ..iii.n... . 

n nil Colli • Ith, II" BI 

Ooasl Itsngo sopnratlng II Iroi in al lai n o 

ralloy, on tl sit, Tbo topograpbloal features 

bllng mor I IhoBs t« rn Btab ■ than any othor 

portion ol Osllfornls Thor sn do largi ralloyi. it 

consists "f roun rldgos, with pralrl d top, and 

ss li Ii i i.i'.i < i vnii. ft i.. i •.. i ii No spol ..ii 

oar Hi | ..i ii|iiiii ..iini. was ovoi fovnrod wltb suob 

wi .in, in fori st, " . . ■ Ibli to tbi ■ irld ■ 

„,. Humboldt, 'ii"' largosl an a ol l< ri I land I n thi 

vi. lulls ..I lliiii.l'.'l.ll l,n\ , "ii II," WI Itl i" In" . ' il 

mldwaj botwoi n the north nud south llm I 

i i 1 1 in..' i sIli bai i. i i" 

ooast, miT.'ii' Ing graduollj La i" Igbl until II 

an olovatl .i »"""' i. ii" f" ■ it, known us tbi Dald Qllls, 

rii, y n trool Bllghtl] tbi ocoon, around Qumholdl 

i,,i,, Phis i."> Is Ion - and aai row Its Ion 11 

'jii mllos, in width ranging • ■ - ■ • * • I than u mile «" 

oighl "Hi, ' Pho aroa of tho 1 10 square 

miii... I, portion "i whloh Is ror> shallow tide water, 

Tl >u to it"' see Is at ths south end, 

im. third ol this . '"mis i" in- y\ i .1", .ii 

i pll Wltl i i. ' I Ml . H" "" 

assessed lands omonnl < Ol tbi tbi n 

la not mors than pi rbap i di I" oth tbsl n 
oallod waste land, and Is thi rock] ollfls sloi 
shoro, and some of tbo lalli il n 

puri of i nntj Thi ba\ano< ol I ■ 

lands nr- what might bi i alii d grating lands, tbo most 

..i ii i eovi n .i wltb an lufi rloi growth 

in,, i,, i , « bile i i II msj oomo undi i I U< 


i ■ 

Colony, whli b, llki its pro i i bran snbdl 

rid" " 10 ». re trai i- aboul Ibrc tulli i 

'•' Fresno wi i ami I itbi Bi andlnavl id 

Whll li IS dIVldOd I"' 

1 b Wll ii lot li sold ,i pi 

wiit. r right foi pnrpoti ., ,,i Irrigation, 

Im Hi,.. ui mi,., n mllos ii 

1 populatl i 100 Tl .ui., 

I" ••• i. "".i 'I" ''. i". i, hi. and Slug burg . ,,. , 

through ii" inn., ..i thi i 

hmiiiii ,ir Bi i".„ ii,, i lari , 1 1 ton a, 

Im roaohod, whloh Is situstei „„i dlstan 

""'• I ii" Boul • Rail 

' ' ™" i' 1 Il " 1 ii "' ' „i i Is 

" " '"" igrli "iiiiu.i country, li n 1 1 (I 


In situstod 90 mil., rthwi i [| 

"" I ' I loavi ii- i, i Laki the 

1 v " 8 i y Tbi o owns In the 

" "'' rvllli . in,, i o, i Toll Uousi 1 1" 

■ " ,| " population ..f Fro |« 19,000 


This oounty 1- aol i wn and ap] lated, as tbo "»■ 

' Ri t" mi "i 1 11 , iti . 

'• s '"" •'" " ' 1 Hun linn, , 910 

01 to 1 in ' boldl bay, Its principal bai 

1 ii,. " ii"" by 

'" I '""' lj tbi u "ii, .... 1 ■ 11 1 b] Blshiyou and 

lj on 1 ih b] m. Ddoi ' ly, and 

weal by the Pa. ,„. bsving mon 1 1 1 1 

1 Uno, mi.. 1 tains an ai I 3,911,810 aoros, 

1-. wbli ii an 1 ■ .1 in ii"- "..mi 1 ol 

in. count] 1 illvel .,".i .|" irl 

Bo -I i" ' I" 'i |" " bai . 1 iim, ..s.i. .1 in 1 

,., ,, portion ■' "i is ui".. I."., s a 

ii,. . .Minis Tho sg Rural lasdi lb >l 

farmed are but a small portl I what mlghl 

I,-, ,1. i,u,l ss 1,1, li lOUbl « ill I" ss In 11 il I 

.111, I 

1 1" 1 1s ,,11 ..ii,. 1 Industries 

In 1 1 nntj 1 1" ',. " sgi ■ 1 1 ■ .iss 1 uini,, 1 ,s mini 

ii. 1 li "• arc 1,1. "in '.ui mil. ■ in |i ii, in and will avar 

sgi twi is" mil" - in ss "in, , ntlng la ab " : 

„, 1, 11 11,1,, 11,1,1,,., win furnli 1, fro 000 lo > O0 

1. ■ 1 1 si ■• . tb do loi alltli thai will i"..- 

1 001 ,000 foi 1 to 11 ' mbi 1 -I i" ' of 

" dn rarlousl] 1 itlmati .1 bj mill ", 

mm, 1 iii,. Ogun ,. glvoo mi. from lavonty 1 10 uuudn ,1 

1,, ii, 1 

II' '"I'll I" f Mi" I ss.ii, 1. .1 1 Col 

if., ruin. Doglnnlng In tho thorn part, tba largoal 

" l " ' i" 1 K ih river, wblol a 001 

some hii mllos within 1 ml PI10T1 <■ Its larg 

1 si tributary, Is Iti tb fork, 1 Hows n than BO 

mllos within the ly, Ri d« crook hi 

of moro 1 100 mile tho ....mis. and ■ mptles Into 

1 11 an ai 9 1 1 sot 1 thi 1 1 tbo 

Klamath Bovoral aroi 1 1 1 Importam 1 also Bow 

Into 1 , 1 1 11, ,,. polnl 1 .hi imptloi 

' tl rn. 1 as .""ii, • 1 "i.ii. 1 baas 

fron , mi,, ol ovi 1 10 mlh " ■ ; 

flvoi 11 is "i on 1 100 ml inly, flow 

i". .ii"". mi,. .11. - into ths 

Pai in mil |usl s. Qumholdl baj Jsi obj orcol 

""i 1 " i' wal ."ill streams ol 

fwi Ivi .."i b ..ii,. and b ith Oom In 1 Idl 

buy. A Hill., lurlhrr SOUI BlkriVOl .""I Balu 

I tO II" ' „"" I,,,;, I , ] rlTCTl 

" rod *ith 

"" , jr.rctel 

"■■ 1 ill" 1 In li Dgtb, conatltutli 

foaturi Thi Mattoli . rltfa .1 . .,., nl J h 

• tl I - iim.i itroi 1 import, 

t" rrltorj ..1 Bumdoldl 1 mnty, lap*. 

river, di , 1 in illng tbi m ■ m bavi fi ..,, ,,.,,, 
1,11 ol ss 1,1, 1, mingle with Pacifli 
1 1 11 in 1, ,,i, 1 1 bassomi rioh gold deposits; Orlesns bar 

i" tho "..nil.,". 1 ., 1 aoarloh 

|.im,. . 11. 1. 1. ai Qold iiiiiii.uii tho northwoat »ido an 
Hi, black sand beaob mines that bavi been worked fa 

. lakaai 
1. and a largi Mm,,, mi ,.f oapltal 11 | 

1 1 Tbi i" Is llttli 

I "■ with ■ opltol and g 1 |u 

turns in. i". sun as an] Dtln 1 b gltln 

Thi low lands .,1 Humboldt 1 „,. worlh; of 

ooto, although llttlo attention has been paid to Hum >« 

'• l.iin-k. 

. ..r 1,11, 1 ,,r rwampand 
Dvorflowi ,1 land i,. „,,. wni | (l 

known mm tho Dookton Oats. ti,. q there 

|yrn" traol ..' land, from iland 1 

tbo moral boldl point, and 

still forth" > south lo 'in mi, mil ol 

whli b would 1 ij lorei III 


Iiir, kn, 

peopli . ai 


aboul n I 

. n.i .,1 Hi, baj , ui, 

built upon oi d Dearly 

|i rel ground, gradual!] hi, .ping ui 

Km water front Is v, r> g I qi„i ham 

- » dl*. 

nil kinds and smpli room forloadlog 

1 ii lion 
IdI and 

. li from 
1,11 pari 


\ ilailj Hue of 

1. principal)] fi t transporting 
1 build 

-. parale 

In g Is to 

1.. im,) 11, ui. in, , 1 

A riulii, 


. s. I, mil. ., and bj ■ 

ill 1.000, 


ii,, in,, .1 cllmet, in thi 

iim. agrli ultural and fruit lai 

. || thai i" literal 
;. . 11 bai real 

bai kgr and, that generations 
ss iii not • ihauat. 


ti ii," third loi 

population, containing 180 people, and 


Bol rlvtr valley, s 
Ball rlvi r ui thi 

I .swill Rttli 
rum. thi 

II altuated foi 


iss. is, m.Ui ■ '" b agth, and fr 

wldi 1 
boldl counl 


al ,ii..i, ..1 .1,1 peopli 
99 miii, ■ 1 "'. in. and Is pi" osontU In 

, |ti .1 ,,. I ....lib of 

,1 of ti"' county 
rough ii" plo" - It has on 

..I, ii,, ..11,. 1 i.. 1 

ii), 1, .tin,.. 

aldi 1. .1 ii" town in ii"' oounty, bos » 

population "i 800 pooph tuati d 1 

|| Ill nil I" VI I "I I 

s„n, s . 11 Das ■ I"" I" mlng 1 ounti 1 lo 

1 thwosl Ill : ll '". " 

1 1 11, . and ■ ">' s ' '"' 

I... "i II lit 1 .." 

1 1,, othi ' lowni an Paul" Bluff, Dookton, Petrolic-, 

HI., .I.iii,:. 1.. mil. mm. 1 Bj dl ""I"" 

porti .1 i" iimbi ' "- 1 

INTO « <»" N PI . 
Lies "iimi oftlic Blorras, tho lummil ol whloh tornii 

11 1 is n 1.. .im. 1 11 s botw* ■ u this, Tuls 


nmi Nevada Forms [Is autero boandajj, with Baa 



ii. rnardl •>" Immediately south, and Mono 

l it. It is almost ii iK il from 

s,n franelsoo as though II belonged t>> le oilier 

Biate. Tills i* 11 country where extremes meet; 

at ntrvnt' startling contrasts, suob as nr. to be 

fun ml nowhere else on the continent; a country ol 

and gtaol peaks, among whloh are U 1 1 

Whitney, Tyndall, Brewer, mid other* of the 
8ierran, the mosl elevated portions of the Ann i lo in 
con linen t, with chasms mob as (o r< nder an aaoi nl 
tu tbeli summits, from theii eastern slopeii almost 
an impossibility; aoountrj where, to the eastward 
of these, pointlog heavenward, the earth's surface 
sinks bnndreda of feel beneath (be level of the iea, 
(Death valley, whiob Ii elsewhere desorlbed); a 

country of beautiful ami hi tile plains, and, at the 

same time, of forbidding waatesi a country of al- 
most Arotic frosts and perpetual snows, and torrid, 
soorchiog beat. Its principal, and almost only 
valley capable of sottlemenl for agriooltnral pur- 
ls the valloy ol I 'wen's river, whiob takes its 
water from the Sierras, nearly opposite tho head- 
waters of the San Joaquin, and flowing tin nc t 
of 150 miles south, where it iH lost in 
Owen's lake. This valley la about 75 miles long, 
and from two to five miloB wide. Tho principal 
farming is within tins basin; not, however, in the 
valley of the river proper, but on the numerous 
sniull mountain streams flowing down from tho 
Sierra* on the west, from whioli the waters are de- 
rived for irrigation, producing wheat, barley, oats, 
corn and fruits — principally peaches and grapes. 
Whatever the farmer produces finds ready sale, at 
good prices, in the 
ini mediate mining 
districts of Inyo, 
and across the line 
in Nevada. One of 
the riohesl mines on 
the Coast, known as 
the Union Consoli- 
dattd, of tin- Cerro 
Gordo il in trict. 
which lies In the 
Inyo in luntains, 
forming the eastern 
wall of Owens val- 
ley, Ii a b already 
yielded over $10,- 
000,000. Iu the 
siime district are 

othvr noted 
such as x*gnaoio, 
San Lucas, and 
Palmer. To i |, , 

south of fjari o 
Qordo ar- Darwin, 

Lookout, and Punn- 
mint. The Kear- 
sarge series of 
mines, t b e Be] 
.Moiiim. unci other 
independent locu- 
tions are situated in 
I he Kearsarge peak, 
directly nest ol the 
town of 

Irulf penile nee. 

Tin county seat, sit- 
uated on the west- 
ern side of Owen's 
river valley, with a 
population of 350 

i pie. In 1880 the 

whole county had a 
wlnt. noniilation of 
onl> 2.838. 

The mineral resources of Inyo county are 
not yet prospected. If railroads should ever 
Up tins county, which, no doubt, soou wi'l be, 
thin sparsely-settled county, with her mountains 
Ol Silver, In r mineral beds of borax, and her 
of gold quartz will teem with Industries 
which, at present, are scarcely thought of. The 
are* of the county is 6,500.000 acres. 


Last of the great chain of counties of the San 
Joaquin valley Is ttiat of Kern, bounded on the 
north by Tulare and Inyo, eaat by Hun Bernardino, 

lOntll by Lot Am." !< B, and w< si by Shu Luis Ohispo. 

it derives its namn from the Kern river, being 
named in honor of Lieut. Kern, who aoeom pan led 
Gen. Fremont on ins early exploring expedition lo 
tho Pacific Coast. Here the valley comes to an 
abrupt ■ mi. in hi- -hni otT by a blgb surrounding 
chain of mountains, forming the main chain "t 
rod the Coast Range. Tbc 
valley portion, although covering nearly 1,000.000 
acres, is hut a small portion of tho county, as tho 
enlir,) area Is 5,137.920 acres. 

phy of thn c.onnty is exceedingly dl- 

|iiinbh ol barren mountains, 
where ' nlli Mn 
vast Handy fll I IhOH Olthei 

infusion of (he most forbidding t It 
ol nature, The r> doei of Kern 

i« tie | r thai heads In the mountains fast- 

neaM* of Tulare county, uml breaks tbxi 

titanic hills, down n del p, | 
Dg many UlOO 

rolling OUi BOOS the plalua. As it roaches thy val- 

ley it. spreads into devious channels, making a 
large delta, which is called Kern Island, So ca- 
prioious is the stream that a slight Impediment 
made II fly Off on a tangent, a few years ago, out- 
Hug a new cbaunol, whoso mouth was 65 miles 
from that of its original bed, Kern and Buona 

Vista lakes receive the water or the river, ami, in 
turn, dlsohavgo II Into Tulare lake. Some of the 
most productive farms in all California hai 
made on Kern Island, within the past few years. 
wherenangbt but grass ami sage brush formerly 
grow. This has boon accomplished, by means of a 
liberal expenditure of cap tal in tho construction of 


Some 75 miles due north from San Franolloo, Is 
bounded on the north and uorthwea| bj Kendloino, 
on tho lento aiei uorth-e lb! by Colusa, on Ihe 
south by Napa, and on the Bouth-wesl by Sonoma, 

while Solo corners || on (he Southeast. Lake is 

"i the smaller counties of California, having 

an area of 621,000 acres of surface, aud in shape it 
is nearly a perfi ol oval. 

Lake county possesses certain peculiar resources 
I attractions which are sure, in tune, to 

famous ami prosperous. At pri ii Ql II Is somewhat 

isolated, SJ there are no railroad" ton. 'lung it. Cal- 

Irrigating oanals, whiob now ramify all parte of tbe Istoga, the terminus of the Napa branch of the 

island. Without irrigation very little would be California I'aeitic. is some twelve miles from tho 
produoed In Kern county. An ample supply of I south line of the county, and Oloverdale, tho ter- 
water is furnished by Kern river, which has a minus of tbe San Francisco & North PaoiBo, 
drainage area of 2.382 square miles. The annual teen miles from the west hue of the county. The 
rainfall of tbe valley rarely exceeds threo to four general topography is rolling and hilly. I 
inches, whiob is insufficient to mature any kind of I in the Coast Range of mountains, Blount St. John, 
crops. Thoro aro a number of largo ranches under I highest point in tho county, is situated at tbe ex- 
cultivation and irrigation, the largest being those i treme north end, some 4,000 feet above seal, re] 
of Messrs. Haggin A Carr. The present develop- Clear lake, which Ins oearlj In tho middle of the 
meutof the agricultural interests of Kern county ' county, forms one of iu principal features; this 
. is so largely due to tho enterprise of these San j IbIco is about 22 miles in length, with an average of 
I Francisco capitalists, that, without them, this from three to six miles wide, lying from north-east 
: county would have been in a comparatively wild to south-west. Tho Blue lakes, three in number, 
I condition. are surrounded by gome of the finest Bcenery In the 

There is every indication of the existence of im- country. Cache orcek, clear and sparkling, is the 
mense resorvoirs of petroleum in the western por- I outlet of Clear lake. Putab and St. Helena creeks 
tion of Kern county. The bituminous shales and . head in the southern portion of the county. Mid- 
sandstoue formations aro identical with those of the die and Clear creeks, two beautiful little streams, 
oil regions of Pennsylvania aud Virginia, and con- ' empty into Clear lake. One branch of Cache creek 

HUMBOLDT L'ici.INi; RAILWAY. View taken Oot 8th, 1881. Contents of Train 100,000 feet of lo Iu 1, log icale. 

siderable oil exudes from the surface in hnndredB . head* up in tho northern portion of the county 
of places. At one point petroleum has been col- and has a course of aome 25 miles within its bor- 
lected from springs to the extent of several thou- ders. There aro numerous other small mountain 

sand barrels, which is of a heavier and less volatile 
character than the hydro-carbons of the East. As- 
phal'um also covers thousands of acres of land. 
This ml belt runs through Los Angeles. Ventura 
and Santa Barbara counties, where it has been dt 


Lake county abounds with mineral springs, the 
waters of »'lnoh possess great medical virtues. 
Barilett's, Highland, Harbin's, Pearson's, Seigle's 
and Anderson'^ are beat known abroad, bnl there 

veloped to some extent. Kern, for so large a I area dozen others whoso waters are very flm . and 

ooiintv is but sparsely settled, the census of 1880 
showing 6.000 people. At the present time the pop- 
ulation probably amounts lo 13,000. 
Bakert field, 

The county seat, is the principal town in the county, 
and lies 300 miles south-east from San Francisco. 
It is situated in a grove of large Cottonwood, syca- 
more and willow trees, on the sandy bottom, adja- 
cent to Kern river, and about one mile west of tho 
Southern Paciflo Railroad. It has a popululion 
of about 1,000. The second largest town in the 
county Is Snmner, the railroad station for 

Bakorsfleld, and claims a oopulaiion of 200Iobab 


Ca lien to was a town of conslderal Importance 

during (ho time of constructing tho railroad, but 

its gh>ry bas faded and it« bouses have mostly been 
removod eUewhore. 

Tehielnpi is at the summit Of Tohlohlpl pass, on 

the railroad, and has Idonble Interest* III luui- WOOl and mo IJi. of WhiOb a rare variety bus 
I, i ntlj been found. 

Moj.ive, 870 mllOS SOUth from San 1'rnin lKio, is 

in the great Hcjave desert, on the eastern side of 

the mountains, stages leave this point for inde- 
pendence, Inyo oounly, 150 miles distant. 

which will become famous in time. The agricul- 
tural portions of the county are Clear lake valley. 
Big and Long .alleys, on either side of tho lake, 
and Scott's, Cobb, Coyote, Lower Lake, and Mor- 
gan constitute the principal valleys of 'I iinlv, 

They embrace, iu all, from 80,000 to 120,000 ion i 
comprising the very best land for wheat, barley, 
oats, potatoes, and vegetables of all kinds. These 

valleys are well watered, and there i- inver any oc- 
Casion to call upon artificial means to insure good 

ciop>. Parma generally do not exceed sou , 
extent. The lulls thai Miirmuud tin valloya are 

composed of the best of soil for grapes, ami » In r- 

Bver, especially in southern Lake, experiments 

.I, tried, the vines bave proved very bardy, 

productive, and remuni rative Tbe mean tempt r- 

ature of the climate is higher, ami there is less 

■ ml lato frosts than in some otbei vineyard 

oountles of California, Bo groal are the capabilities 

ot Lake county In Ibis Industry, thai the attention 

distal are already being dlreoted lo it. and 

Ibis year a large area has I n planted to vims, by 

tin. Oallfoi oia Improvi mi nl Company, i corpora 
i em whiob baa done much tudovolop Hi" rot roos 

ol tbe county. This has attracted the attention ol 

other land-owners, who are making intensive pro- 
paratloni for planting thousands of aorea u> vine* in 

various parts of the county. Fruits of all kinds, 

such as appli s, pears, plums, aprloots, pi ai I ■ 
pram - do n markebly wellj mosl ol I 
are young, and just coming into bearing. Bheep- 
rai ing Is i ne of the prfnolpal industries ol the 

county, as the BXtensivO range afforded by the 

mountains and foothlls makoll a profitable busi- 
ness. Tim eoathern portion of the county is 
skirted by s hi miolroli of rolling bills, of 
morphlo orel iceoue rook i loh In deposits of oinni- 
bar. Sever. ,1 extensive qnioksilver mines are now 


Great Western are exlremi Iv rich, There are sev- 
eral other mines that are rloh in this mineral. On 
the east side of Clear lake is Borax lake, where that 
mineral is found In its mud, 

The county seal il town in the county, 

and it is situated On 'be wi si margin of Clear lake. 
It contains about i 21 ihabitanls, and Is beauti- 
fully and pioturesqnely situated, About seven 
miles southwest, is 

In Rig valley, one of the Qnesl agricultural sections 
in theoounty. This place contains about 0(0 ln- 

Lower Lake, 
Located about two miles r rom the hike, is n place of 
considerable being tbe market-place for 
ihur Dank mine, In Ihe Immi diate vicinity. 
also several productive, fine valleys. The 
town~now contains 'about 7ti0 inhabitants, and is 
quite a businesi plai e 

Upper Lake, 

About one mile 
from the upper or 
northern portion 

of Clenr lake, con- 
tains about 350 peo- 
ple. In the ex. 
wrath end of 
the connty. on Ihe 

singe line between 

Lakeport and 
toga, (ho brminns 
of the C. P. n R.; 
ami about ' Ighteen 
miles from t h e 
latter place, i- [he 
village of 


■if -nine .100 
inhabitants, in ihe 

vicinity of which 
are located sevi ral 
of the qnioksilver 

mines. What Lake 
county most needs 

is railroad commu- 
ne item with other 
parts of the State, 

I with its in- 
vigorating climate, 
in ii ii 1 1 1 nl soeni ' j , 
forests of timber, 
mini ill spring* her 
- lime d - 
posits, pastures that 
afford grazing for 
hundreds of tl 
a ii d s of - 
Bunny hillsides, the 
natural home of the 
grape, fine fruit and 
vegetable? 1 1 a nd s , 
lands that aro cheap, will become known. Winn 
we consider the natural advantages ol Lake count] , 

inp. II. .1 in I" hue h.r future pn -p. Ott 

bright. This isyel a comparatively new 
county, ami many it i'- n Bonrces are but partially 

dovel I; yet It Is ar Ban n unci i o, the 

great commercial center ol tbe Paolflc Coast, that 
when it h once tapped by rail, it will change as 

if bj magio, Tl insus of 1880 gavt Lake a 

population of 6,127, "inch, at present, maybe 

I. \ssi \ OOUNTY 

Was formed, in 1 Si". I . from the eastern portions of 

Bhaata and Plumas oountles, and Joins the former 
on the west, and Ihe latter on the south, atodoo on 

the north ami 'I 18 1. It 

lias an an l ind is very irregular 

in shape, 'being about 105 miles In length, from 

north to soul h. and "''' noli s in width. This cunt v 
■ .-mn of mountain range - and vail, m. and 

has a general trend i,, in,. south-oasl and o rib- 

west, Interspersed with uumeroua beautiful lakes, 

led in the south eud ol county. i» 

oalli .1 ii v lake and Is situated In a beautiful 

vail, vol tbosamename; this valley la 15 miles In 
length, with an average width ol ten to fifteen 

miles, and embraces the pi pal farming land 

undei pn ntoultlval Long valley lies in the 

oxtromo south t 1-1 ol Ihe county, [n tho extreme 
north-west oorner, and extending Into Modoc 
oounly, Ilea Big ralli | b of agricul- 
tural lami. . im' i Lassen t tv, about 7. r >,- 

WhlOh !•• Wl II W .mini by Pill liver, Ash 

oreok and a numbei ol smallei streams B iween 

Dig and Ilouey lake valleys lie Qrosshoppor. Willow 



rod ii i lake valleys, separated 
from eeob other f i • -m the main valleys by Intel ven- 
v ilroni heights, Bach >>f the last- 
named valloyi are imall and mostly ocouplod bj 
the bodies of water from whloh they dorlve their 
in Hie eaatorn oontral pari lie the Blade- 
Una plains, a large l-v.-i traol .>i land, a< an alti- 
tude of 5,900 feet, whloh, at some romoto period, 
was tbe bed of a lake. Ii is aboul 85 by 1"' mllea In 
and, Ht present, I • neai ly oovered by a 
dense growth <>f sage brash, The only natural 
■ooroe ol ii i Igatlon appears t<. bo 1 1 »«- Bprln 
it« edge, 'iinn' there arc etoellent stooa ranges, 
the surrounding hills being oovered with bunoh 
grass, affording abundant feed, The average altl- 
tadeof the valley lands are 1,000 feel mid over, 
wiulo tho mountains are from 8.onn feel down. 
The wbole oounty is of a lava formation, but ibis 
is nol prccoptiblo upon the Burfaoe, except in par- 
ticular localities. The noil in generally fertile 

The timber bolt of the Sierra* extends into the 
western portion of the oounty until they fall be- 
low the timber belt. This timber, OOnsIstiug of 
pine (yellow and sugar), spruce and Br, in an 
imraonso source of revenue, and will In lime, when 
the railroad readies the county, be valuable. At 
present, it is somewhat Isolated; Reno, Nevada, on 
tho C. P. it, R. is the nearest point, whloh Is 90 

miles south-east from Busanville, ti innty bi at ol 

Lassen. & Ii \ railroad baa been aui veyed from 

Reuo, north through Lasaen and Modoc ooantlea, 
itifornia, into eastern Oregon, which, when built, 
will open up a fine agricultural and timber OOun try. 

Sii.iiii villi". 

The county seat, is beautifully situated on a slight 
plateau in the western end of Honey val- 
ley, and has a population of BOO. The 
United States Land Office, for the north- 
itriol til California, ia located here. 
winch adds considerable lo the import- 
ance of the place. BI ol (daily) 
tlii- plsce with Reno, Nevada, also to Al- 
turas, Modoc county, and a to 
Oroville, Buta county, 

Twenty-five miles from Su-ri u »i I )< . , n the 
Reno road, and in the lower ei d of Honey 
Islie valley, lias about 300 inhabitants. 
Opposite tho town, and across the lake, 
winch in about ten miles wide, there U 
an extensive stretch of hay country. In 
the immediate vicinity of the town are as 
fine orchards as can be found in the State. 
The climate here is peculiarly adapted to 
the raisiDg of fine apples, pears, peaches 
plums, grapes and other fruits. 


Midway between Busanville and Milford, 
has about 350 inhabitants. A few miles 
away, and within the same voting preoinct, 
is the small town of Buntingville, sur- 
rounded by some of the finest farming 
lands in the county. 

Eight miles further up tho valley, on 
Susan river, has a population of 300. As it 
is only four miles from 8aaanville. it may 
be considered an adjunct. 
A small town in Big valley, near Adin in 
Modoc county, and ahnnt 25 miles from 
Harden hill, has several hundred Inhabit- 
ants. It is a depot of supplies Tor'* the 
mines of Hayden hill; these mines con- 
sist of a decomposed quartz, which are 
proving to be very rich. The mines" 1 at 
Mountain meadows, on the divide between Plumas 
and LasBen coanties, are said to pay well. 

Lassen is not without her hot springs, which are 
located in Honey lake valley, 20 mil's from Snsan- 

ville; from the latter plsce, on a clear frosty dny, 
iteam can be seen hanging over them in clouds. 
Black Bntte, an extinct crater, located on the line 

D Lassen and 81 a, is a peculiar 

latnrai phenomenon; II rises almost perpendtoular , 
n the shape of a fnstrum. to a height ol 172 feet, 
rrith a width of 750 fret across thi top. Tbe plain 
lurroundine, ii h covered by volcanic scoria, rang- 
ng in size from a robin's egg to One dost. Nnraer- 
ma small lakes dot tbe surface, but for winch, tbe 
tonnty would appear a scene of desolation. Laaaen 
tonnty Bhould have n prosperous fntnre, as it has 

1 i million acres of fertile land hi: 
if cultivation. At present, it baa only about B SOU 
nbabitants, the greater portion of whom 
ered on the farms In the varlons valleys; thia 
icconnte.ln sorni measun for tbe "maiiuess of 
the towns. 


An attempt to give a n tic di aoriptlon of a 

■ that has the great range ol mountain, vol 
; ollmate and oatural advantages thai I « 

Angeles possesses, in an artlola limited In | to 

this, would be simply Impossible Thia amount of 
space c.iii, i easily bi used 'n dosorlbing oni ralloi 
i Ingoles Is by far the most Im- 
portant oounty in southern Oallfornla on a ol 

of Its peonllar and many natural advantages, ft jh 

the mosi aouthorly oounty In the Btal re that ol 

Ban Diego [ts entire sonthwesfa i n lini 

, on the east It is hounded by Hun Bar- 

DtrdlnOi on the north by Kern, and on the west by 
V, niui i oountlea, It has mi area of 3.080,000 acres 
,,f lurfaCO, theOoaSl Itaugeof mountains running 
diagonnlly through tbe county from a northwesterly 
to a southeaster!] direotion, dividing tho county 
into two equal parte. The most productive portion 
Ilea in tbe southern part of tho county. In tbe 
mountainous portion of the county are numerous 
valleys, I'aoh ono being different In olimato. as well 
u many different qualities of Boll. The city of Los 
Aug. dis, which is the largest city on tho coast south 
of San Franoisoo. is also a great railroad center for 
all southern California and Arltona. The trans- 
ooutinental Boutbern Paoltlo, with branches leading 
OUl in various directions— ono direotly west to Santa 
Monica, another south to Wilmington, still another 
southeast to Ban Diego, besides the overland road 
i list uto. San Bernardino; all theso roodB being 
dotted along with prosperous towns and villages, 
making Los Angeles tho great commercial center 
of ibis whole southern country. We will simply 
enumerate the different valley sections of tho 

i iiiy, presenting them in such a shape as to make 

thoir geographical relation to each other better un- 
dorstood, DOtiolng a few of the prinoipal features 
in each. Passing over the Southern Paciflo Rail- 
roBd, one enters the county near the northwestern 
corner Of the Mcjave desert, and traveling south 
will see to tho east this desert reaching in an almost 
unbroken plain to tbe far waters of tho Color- 
ado river, whilst to tho west there appears tho 
foot-hills of tho Tejon mountains, embracing 
within their limits the Lake Elizabeth section. In 
the vicinity of this lake aro a number of small 
valleys. Continuing southward through the Sole. 

1,800. It will, no doubt. Dome day In the near 
future, become an luterloi i Ity ol considerable Im- 
portance, BB it is situated In a (buddy settled 0OUD 
try. Botween Los Angoles and Santa Ana is 

Settled by tho oldest and most noted colony in the 
history of the State. Situated ill an iigrnultural 
seolion that has greater possibilities Ol simlmr area 
than any county in tho State, the land is all irri- 
gated from large ditobea taking the water from 
tho Santa Ana river and from tbe numerous arte- 
sian weiis. furnishing an Inexbaustlbb apply ol 

water. Tho whole county is sul»ln Idl 'I into 20 acre 
farms and upwards, and foi tllO OUltlvatlOU ol (be 

orange, lemon and lime, the laud about here la ho 

BurposBed. The settlers am principal!) Germans, 
who cultivate every fool of land, and It la really as 
tonishing to see what a few years ol well dlrooted 
energy will aoeompliah In this wonderful country, 
A few years ago, before wah r woe Introduced on to 
this land, It was a barren plain, and iim devoid Ol 
vegetation as a barn floor. At present there an 
orange orohards bonding beneath the weight ol 
lruit, bearing vines of every variety, also every 
varioty of northern fruit, such as apples, pears, 
peaches, etc Tbe agricultuial products are corn, 
barley, rye, beans, potatoes, onions, bops, Qai i to, 
Tbe other towns in the southern portion of tho 
county aro Westminster, Garden Grove 
City, 8an Juan Oapistrano, and Norwalk. 

8ix miles west of Anaheim, is a thriving place, and 
is noted for tho number of its artesian wells— about 
400. Garden Grove, about three nub •• from West- 
minister! is surrounded by land that prod , 



dad range of the Sierra Madra, on a steep dl Bet nd- 
ine incline, and passing the mining camp of Bole- 
dad twenty miles <o the east, the upper end of tbe 
Santa Clara river is reached, to the town of New- 
hall. Onward south, but now ascending the- north 
fane ,,r tbe san Fernando range, the road panes 
through the petroleum dlarriot, through San Fer- 
n mdo tunnel, on a steep down grade. | ti 
of Ban Fernando valley, whloh is R fine agricultural 
Motion. Bere i» looated the old mission of San 
Fernsndo; immediately aronnd it are ,i„, «a eg) 

and largest olive orchards in southern California. 
Passing on in a BOUtheaaterly direction across tho 
Ban Fernando plain, we soon oome Id Bight of 

Loa Indoles Oily, 
Which, at present, has about 15,000 Inhabitants. 

L ™ A"'-'" 1 '-' l« Of the oldest settled pi s In 

""' S, "" ; n "' M M, viean portion Of tie- l„»,i 

w " h ,ta "le-oovered adobe buildings, may still be 
»een In the upper portion oftheoity, Loa Angelea 

[■■nrroundcdwltl ,ol the lines! rrnll seotl 

in California principally aeml-troploal; Bnoh as 

oranges, famous, limes, rataln gra] ollvea, eto, 

Thooitv. tmns many bands pobll id prlv- 

" , " buildings, As Los Angeles is,, great railroad 
"enter, II contains many large wholesale houses 
whloh have an extensive trade thronghonl southern 

California, Ari. ,, and Ww 11,., , Passing mi 

BOntb through almost ono OOntlnUOd or ,,, I 

""" tropical fruit region a distant t 82 oe 

brings us to tbe set i largosl town In tfa mtv 

that of 

Nanlu Ann, 

In as neb an agrioultural and fruit ooun- 

,; " " '■• ■ n lie a,.t. rt is on the of 

" '""• | between r,,,s Angolas and Ban 

Th is bottling llttlu has SJDOpnlaUonfOf 

mensc crops of 001 n. Tuatlti elty - 
miles east of Santa Ana. Orance is a pre" 
and very antlv named; nranec proves elnster 
thickly all around the settlement Ban I 

istrano. 33 miles south from Banta Ana, is famous 
chiefly for the possession of a piinr, 
fflsaio i bnlll In 1776 The ,-k st«r 

coal mine || twelve miles t istoi Anaheim D i 
keeping hi tha neighboring mountalna Isqnlti an 
Indnatry. The oanynna are ornwdod with bee 
producing large qnantltlea ol honev 
From Los angelea eaal ola. tbe8onthern Pacific 
Railroad, a short dtstanoe, brings ub lo Ban G ibi Ii I 
valley, ono of the Bnesl sections In th nty, A 

fow miles from tho railroad is Pasadona, From lure 
southwest to (he Sant,, Ana |;,nel„, In Hit 

distance of fifteen miles, ii itry haa beonme 

almost one unbroken vineyard and orange orchnrd, 
To attempt Its deaorlptlon would oi pj toomueh 

Bpaoe. Some five miles east brings U" 10 the vil 

llages "f Savannah nnd Leilngtnn, the b 
oonters of El Monte settlement, DownioOlty tnd 
Gospel Bwamps are nntod tor the boal oorn produc- 
ing In Oallfornla, Still further east takes us Into 
San Jose vi,n, ( . watered by Ban Jnao oreek; this Is 

also a (inn agrhmllnral BOOtlon. The next station 

eosl la Pomona, the eastern limit of lb unty, 

whloh is qnlte a hire., village The many 

other valloya and aottlomonta poonltar to thorn 

»elvea n bleh we ean nol men I for want of api 

Loa Angeles ha i a white po| lion, In 1880 ol 83 

37f). which haslargoly Inoreased within tho p 
years, and at tho present writing it has no I. is 

"' ""' Tal i ,, , i, , ,(,..,, H 

ifle i soil, valloj . fool hills i Ii t ifc tl pi i 

1 kl i llmatu n | \ 

I itun I 

>i iniN coi \ i » 

is situate,] 0D the north aldeof the Golden (h« 

"" i| l« I oded south ami weal by tbe p, «' 

"" "' "'"' hy tl '" bay ol , ,,,.', ,.„ lnd J"J 

Pablo, and north by B mom i mtj , ,i ii jrr * D 

In shape, and has snares ol 857 lOOacresof 

• this fat upland, whllo lim 
aorea la swamp and overflowed lands along ibeb 

and estuaries and 12,790 SCreS is tide land whlrth 

"llli H " I|V be levied In and become verv vT 

" ll1 "- Theeurf ■ of the country is mostly broke* 

'""i hilly, and a great deal of it | a composed ol 

i sharp ragged hills, whloh, lu several i 
atonoea, attain olevatlona anfflotent to entitle tl "' 
to be di nominated mountains. MotwIthstandineZ 
hilly natnre tho land is rery valuable. The pre™? 

Ing winds of summer eome from the sea and "no ' 

upon the bills and valleys, in the western m 

■ 'hi rn parts ,,f tl,,. co„ritv, a constant Htream of 

' ,, " r " I" the shapeof fog, which keeps ti, eKn ° 

green long after it has withered and died in tliejn" 
teri,,r parts of tbe B . „,, e " 

aeotlon of green grass is Bought after by dairymen 
who would keep np theii supply of fresh bnlter' 

ir " ftt ftn «arly doy, Marin conntv was and i>* 

npled by the most Bkillfnl dairymen in th 

Slate. Tin- population of the county, in 1,9130 W| ! 

•esides (be Inevitable Chinese. nnmberI B , 

about 1,500, who are largely engaged in the fl-h'. 

erlea along th< baya. 

The highest elevation In the county is Minn 
Tamalp.,1 ., , \ erdi] 

theseo. and from its peak (which is easy of uaaA 
and only from six to eight milea from 8m r:,f M ] 
tbe conntv seat), on a clear day, may be had tho 
Gate, the bro*j 
1 ntire 8urf«ceof 
, bay. besides , .^.| lt or |ej) 
tii.wns, cities and vil ;},!«. one 

°' t,ie ' - world. 

There is very little farming land io the 
In the small valleys, it 
usually of a black, loamy natnre, and is ex- 
On the rolling 
lands, the soil on top is mostly of a black 
adobe natnre, mixed with gravid and stiti 
clay subsoil, and is very productive of tbe 
natural gras-, 1 r or dairying 

are never pl,,w.,l, There is none of the cul- 
tivated trasses, common in the, as rec 
and white olovi r. timothy, red-top, , ic.- in 
their pi ^rawes, better 

adapted to tbe eonntrv, and are known at 
bunch ring up at ti 

ningof the rainfall, in November, and con- 
linm to grow during the winter moot hi, 
If the wiiit, r 1- open as it nsualh 
is good pasture for stock, with bnt little 
use of cur, ,1 feed. Tbe b 13 

aoh year, which is cut, with the 
m,,w,r, before maturih ; it makee 

l a the small richer valleys. 

re produced, which are fed with dry 

Ban Rafael, 

Tl nunryaeal 1- situated fourteen miles 

from 8 tnd has a boot 2 000 

inhabitants. It la beautifully sitnated in 1 
basin east from Mr. Tamalpais. and is con- 
0. R. n., which 
runs north the oounty terminating ai Dnn- 
'' 'N, in Sonoma conntv; the com- 
pany also have a line of terries, wl.ich 
cross the bay. a distance of twelve miles. 
I mate ia nncqnsled for health, acd 
is the home of many San Francisco bnsine-- men 
Many thou- m 1 pi .,-!••. during summer months, re 
101 1 to tbe vionity for 

Saw ■ llta 
Six miles from San 1 connected by 

iking four trips p,-r day. It is built at 

the base, and on the sln| f sti 1 p hills, nod is tbs 

prinoipsl depot for the H. P. B B, B« 
tin Is twolve miles from Ban Francisco ind 

meted by ferry, th, \. p, Q, R. IJ. . U id tie ■ 

N. P. B. B. 


Plfty.flve mlli ■ I inoisoo on the N. P- 

c. R. R., is the oentet ol the principal farming and 
mnti v of the count] . and ,• nl ilni tboul 
100 Inhabltanta 

•mill atationl along the railroad. Bolln 
bay of th m ar the ■ I oommnnl 

oateswlth Ban Franoisoo by sailing vessel e The 

ip living and ti in ■ 

111 ike U H in a deslrnbli place for oit] pi 

spend thoir mii 1 vaoatlon, 

11 1RIPOS \ 1 Ol \n 

Is triiineiii.ii |o shape irlthtla north sldo lionnded 

by Tuolumne, Its loutli bj Creano, while m. 

.,1 ii 1 wi iti mi ires of D88.000 

the gn at< r poi tlon ol » hiob la monntniunna and 

billy, and is remarhable as eontalnln 

ralloj e blob b >■• bi en full] di orib d eh ■ 

The lopoi rapbloal re ttorea itronglj 

vniidoi and Oslsvoras, as II o 

ni at iv ii sine 1 on on tho »• 

thoBlorrasj us eastorn portion la above II 
line ami its wi item b ll 
Ban Joaquin ral itored bj th v 

river, and .ill tributaries, and by tho Mani*** 




both rivers rlsi In the county; llu Drat, by the time 
H [olna iha San Joaquin, is quite an Important 
.,n, tin, flowing over precipices and through deep 
,. ,,,,.,,,-. until i' n ioh( i the w< ti rn boundary of 
ii,,. oonotj Marl] aof the bi 81 timber* d 

oountii i along the «n Ii i n ilope ol lb. 
wbloh oonaiata ol oxoollenl ian timber, Buch aa 
several species of pine, spruce, Or and Seq 
big tree tlmbt r. 

1 1,1- |a, Btrlolly speaking, a mining region— prin- 
cipally gold. There are prnlmbly more | [i 
lug quarli w In • than are to i"- found In any other 
territiir] of similar Bis In the Btate. Llai 

ii I u i- nol yel proi □ otod. Tw< nty-Bii quartz 

mill* arc within the limita of the inty. The 

placer mines have been fabulously rloh In coarse 
gold, and the pr< olous metals taken from t lie Marl 

pOSB mines would figure up in tlm millions. Some 

,,f the prinoipal mines in theoonnty are iim Wmh- 
ington, near Barottos; ihe Ferguson, on M reed 

river; Maxwell, Mary Harrison, Malvina, P si, 

Marble Bpring, Martin, Wailing, Virginia, Penon, 
Blanco and Grown Lead, all In the vlofnky of Ooul- 
tarville. The B one ol the best pay- 

ing in the county. Bull oreek is a seolion of min- 
ing country, si Ooulter- 
ville, and inoludes quite a number of gi. id-bearing 
quartz veins, winch, as a whole, are known to bi- 
nd, in gold, and are likely to be worked in time. 
The Georgia Point, and a number of others we do 
not now recollect— all valuable— are worktd to 
The soil, in the valley portion of the county, is 
usually fertile, and adapted to limited farming— 
especially where water can be had for irrigation— 
illy fruit, vegetables and grasses, Fruit 
and grapes raised here, in the small valleys iu 
mountains, have a peculiar fine flavor. 8heep 
railing is quite an industry in this county. 
To iv in. 
Mariposo. the county Beat, lies 185 miles southwest 
from San Francisco, and contains about 700 people. 
HoinituH— an old mining town, on the stage road 
between Merced (on the S. P. R. It.) and Mariposa, 
and about twenty miles from the latter place— in 
situated in a fine mluing oonntry. While the 
neighborhood is dotted with quarts, a number of 
small ranches, farms and gardens raise a stifle 'lencj 
of cattle, hogs, barley, bay, vegetables, etc, for 
home consumption. Ooultervllle is also a miuing 
town, situated about 25 miles from Mariposa, on 
the Merced river; though surrouiuled by a vast 
qnartz region, it is not without a number of Bmall 
farms, orchard* and gardens. 

The county contained, iu 1880, a population of 
4.389. bat amounts, at the present writing, to 4.500. 
The eh mate, especially during the summer months, 
is salubrious, and the scenery grand and pictur- 
esque; vouched for by thousands of tounsta, from 
all parte of world, who visit the famed Yo Semite 


Is in the northwestern portion of the State, the 
third county from the Oregon line, and lies 
lengthwise, along the waters of the Paciflo oceau, 
ii Humboldt and Trinity on the north, and 
Sonoma on the sonth, borderiug on Tehama, 
Cuiusa and Like counties on the east. It has an 
area of 2.280,000 acres, and the surface of its tern 
tory is quite mountainous and broken, the Coast 
Binge occupying ita entire extent, some of the high- 
est peaks reach 1 1 u; 1 000 feet, Mendocino js one of 
the best watered counties in the State by innumer- 
able streams, among which is the Russian river, 
flowing through the southern part of the county, 
forming quite an extended valley within its borders. 
Eel river, which also waters very valuable agricul- 
tural lands. Including Eden valley, rises very near 
the source of the Russian river, and flows not tb i n- 
tlrely through Mendocino ani into Humholdl 
county. Besides these rivers are the Navarro, 
Walballe, Albion, Nayo, Rio Grand, Garcia, Ten 
Mile and Little rivers, i?J with Salmon, Greenwood, 
Pudding, Alder and Brush creeks, all good-sized 
streams. The great wealth of this county is in Us 
1 tttnbt r, ol which it has almost an mex- 
ble supply. This redwood limber belt ex- 
tends all along the coast, reaching back It 

to twelve miles, and In home Instances along the 
d farther into tin. interior. A nun 

stream i lie m afford very good 

harbors at their months lor Bteamers and eoaaling 

daring a greater part ol [he year. Among 

the mosl promlni nl i its upon the coast are Poiul 

Arena and Point Cibrillio. while the im»l impor- 
tant Inlets, which In Bonie oases are beautiful Bheeta 

of water, and iu nearly all affording safe and euul- 

ins shipping points to the coasting li 

ID'S cove. 

An Immense amount of lumbal Is shipped from 
these points annually. Borne ol Ihe lai 
mills on tin coast arelooated In this timboi belt, 
and no less than slnHfl I looal rallroi 

[n till 1 ii nilie-1 trade. Among 

tin in an I! .ii Oreel '. illroad, M ndoi Ino t- ill* 

. lalaJa Railroad, 

Boys ■■ I id, ami Albion Railroad. 

. ii ■ ue In operation along the 

coaat, with i onl from ..nun Ii. i 

I railroad lies 

and several hundred thousand leuce nosta were 

shipped last year to San Francisco, besides large 
am is of shingles, Considering the mountain- 
ous chin aoter ol Mendocino, its showing as to agri 
onlturo is most excel Ii nt, and many of its numer- 
ous valleys along the water-courses arc among the 
i tile spots in the 8tate, producing large 
amounts of oereals, bops, potatoes, bay and vege- 
table, L great porti f the eonnty Is still Gov- 
ernment land. The H. F. & N. P. It R„ from San 

Francisco to l lloverdale, cvltbio a Bhorl dlstani I 

its southern line, furnlaheB communication for tho 
Russian river valley, and Btagea run daily from the 
latter place to 


The principal town and county seat, situated in 
Russian rivessvalley in a Une agricultural country, 

31 miles from Hie Icrrninous of the railroad, It 
has a population of 1,200. ft is in the central por- 
tion of the county, and is Ihe depot for the export- 
ation Of largo amounts of wool, hops, and various 
kinds of farm products. The climate is delightful, 
the location pleasant, and the town piosperous. 
Tho second largest town in 

Mendocino City, 
Located on tbeooasl 55 miles northwest from Ukiah, 
its communication with San Francisco being princi- 

The population (or ItSO waa 5,500, which may have 
reached G.000 al the present tune. Fully three- 
fourths of ihe land is snso piible of onltivation, the 
n in Jnder being suitable only tor grazing. In sea- 
■onsol nl hi i n I uit ram tall excellent crops are ma- 
tnicil, tbe yn hi ol wheat, in some classeH of land 
specially adapted t" Its growth, being frequent)} 
as high as nt'* bushols to the acre. Tbe general 
failure of oropa In a season of little rainfall, points 
forcibly to the neces»ity ..i providing a thorough 
system if Irrigation, and ll is gratifying to note 
that the lessons of the past, in tins r< gard, are nol 
unheeded, as the farmers have organised various 

:■; . nterpi isi s on a large scale, the value ol 

tic ii riLMiiin; dilclu •«. in riling to 1 1 >* • \- 

report, ihowing $12,750 for last year which have 
been largely increased the present season. The 
geological formation of tho country is such that 
flowing water from Artesian wells may be obtaini d 
at a depth of from 250 to 300 feet. Numerous 
wells have recently been successful!; bin din the 
region along tbe San Joaquin river, which flows 
through the county in a northerly direction, divld- 

county into two nearly equal parts. The 
river here i- a One Bin am. 100 yards wide, and, for 
a mile or two on either sido, the land Is kuown aa 




pally by Hteam and sailing vessels. Tbe town has 
900 people, largely interested iu the lumber trade 

Point Arena. 

Is a town of 500 inhabitants, and is situated on the 
coast. There are a large number of small towns 
In the county, such as West Port, 500; Casper. B00; 
Willets, 100; Oovela, 800; Coffey's cove, 850; Albion, 
. lalala, 200; Kibesilab, 200; Sopland, 100; 

Calpella, ISO; Cahlo, fill; Poino. B0j Ocnlcrville, 75; 

is ivillo, B0; Little River, 150, and many other 

smaller places, such us Are, Anderson, Big ltiver, 

Bridgeport, Big Book, Buchanan, Heals Landing) 

. ,-i,, Ohrlstlne, Oomploho, Oaroll, I 
Cottonbee, Eel River, Galloway, Garola, Hot 
Bprings Lima, Long Valley, Manchester, Oriental, 
Pottei Valli y. Bin i wood, Banal, Willow and Jferk- 
vdi. . The population ol the i d mlj at this 

linu (S fully I 1,000, and is last Settling up, as there 

ii ii large amou i cheap land, and the capabilities 

ol tin county are sufficient to support ten times its 
present population. 


i H bounded on the north by Btanlslans, east by 
Mariposa, south by Fresno, and west by Bants I lars 

„ M ,i Ban D o counties, and it reaches the Bummlt 

,,i : i,,. i lout Range on tno »■ il to the ba ■ ol tbi 
Sierras, on tho east, an ana ol 1,109,880 aorea, • DO 
bracing the whole, width of tho Han Joaquiu valley. 

tulo land, and, m winter, during high water, is 
overflowed, it is devoted principally to oatlli -rata 
ing. Tin- next river m size is the Meroed, 1 1 • -in 
which tho county takes its name. Ita average width 

i- |1 1 50 yards, entering tbe county mar the 

northeast corner, and flows, at flrst, rapidly along, 

foruillig inagiiilic nt wiiti I -port. I f.u nianulsclui- 

iij- , as ii nears the Ban Joaquiu II becomes more 

quiet and unites with that river lie u the mid. II 

tho northern boundary ol Merced county. Hong 
this river, throughout the county, elevated a few 

feet above high water, are the bOtl I Ol Ihe Ml >- 

oed, oompostng the rloheel alluvial soil, and pro- 
ducing the finest crops of grain, ootton, oorn r< 

tables, etc. In places, at blgh-Watl I . tb< B6 bottoms 

are overflowed, but only Immediately along the 

river, and not for a sufficient timi l terfert with 

their cultivation. Tho lands betwea Moroed 

,n, , me i Bt .ir oreek, on the south, are sandj ■ 
Tbi third-rate lands are the tule lands, along the 
Ban Joaquin river, which are graving lande. Then 
tin re ii a olasa ol lands that varj from ■ 

gravelly and slaley alliall, BOattOred through the 

.is. n-hlob aro unfit for oultivatlon, and are 

grating lands tor oatllo and sheep, On the 
n idi ol tbe San Joaquin river Is an irrigating 

c.inal, Willi Ii i nl' » the OOUOt) "'i IhO B b line, 

and aon Ireollj through to the north line into 

Stanislaus oouuly, tho Bull being ot an oiculluui 

loam, almost perfcctlj levi i Lands In the sonth- 
' '" i"" ' of tin coiintj ,n. rolling ami hilly, the 
- 1 " 1 In many places being a rich loam but crops 

r'ain on socou i tin light rainfall iu this 

locahtj On ■ ly all tin settled places are round 

orchards of peaoh and pe a irei 8 ind a i. n vims of 
different varii tii -. but only i lerced rivi r 

are these in any way extensive. Grap. i every 
varibtj grow as wi u ben aloog thi i ash rn portion 
as iu any pai I ol thi B 

Timbi r, foi Are wood, la nblainablo iron, tbe foot- 
hills of both nntain the river hot- 

toma, and from drift bronghl down tin. various 

growing ohli it v along ihe banks ol Btn ams, whii b, 
apart from tie ir commercial valne Ii nd a charm 10 
the otherwise In eli n plains. Lnmbi r foi building 
is bronghl from lide-wa'ei Bnd from the mountains. 
in man) plao - Btone Is fonnd cum m di foi build 
Ing, ami material for brick-making abounds everj 

whi re, Km g i- carried on wl b all i is ol 

labor-saving machinery; gang-plows are In uni- 
versal us.-, ii,e s ii being broken from two to tour 
inches deep, Combined headers and thrishers are 
used to harvest tin grain. 
Meiced falls, winch lire 22 H miles from Merced, 
water-power oapable ol running a vaat 
amount of machinery . 

Merced niy 
Is the county seat, and is beaulifnllyaituated on 
. B it., 161 miles Bouthi asl from Ban Pran- 
It is anrrounded by a body of dm I 
land, and is centrally located, in addition to the 
trade of tbe viaioitj it commands a large mountain 
traffic from Mariposa county. Merced bas, at pres- 
ent, a population of 1,700. Tho second largest town 
in the countv is 

The former county seat, beautifully silnatedon ihe 
Merei I i ivi r, i mbowi r. d in In es. Bud aoi 
by tine farms. Its settlement dates from 1851, 
though the town waa not regularly laid on I until 
1850, when it became th inniy seat, which, how- 
ever, was removed to Merced City when ihi rail- 
road was built Bnelling Is situated on the Btook- 

ton and H n m.d. B1XH I n ml., from 

Mil... I. It now haw a population of 150. The 
olher towns in ihe county are 

A railroad shipping point, ten miles sonth of Mer 
oed, which hss large grain warehonsca and about 
100 ml abitants; Alblone also a rnilroad station, of 
perhaps, "in inii.inn.ini-. Cressee itaiion, another 
grain shipping point, nn the railroad; Atwater, »ix 
miles north Ol Merced, a grain shipping point; Los 
Iiinog, a Spanish town on the west of the San 
Joaquin river, containing a population of 100 peo- 
ple; Central Point, and Hoop ton. 


In the northeaatcorner of California, bounded on 
the north by Oregon, easl by the State of Nevada, 
smith by Lassi n, west by Biakiyou counties, C 
nia, we find the only count] in the Btate Ivlng in a 
fonr-sqiiare section. Modoc has an areaol 2,750.- 
000 acres, and is known as high table lands. Along 
its eastern borders, lying between a range of moun- 
tains, we fiud a chain of lakes extending nearly 
across its entire width known aa Upper, Middle, 
and Lower lakes. These lakes are from two to four 
miles wide. Tin southern two are united by a narrow 
strait; the northern or upper one is several feet the 
highest. One peculiarity about these hikes is thai 

in 1851, when Peter La--, n, ti Id piooi er, passed 

through tbia country, these lakes were dry. About 
eighteen miles west from the northeast corner of 
the State is Goose lake, extending Into 
This lake is about 30 miles long from north to 
south, and some ti n miles wide. In the northwi m 
corner is Rbetl lake, lying mostly in Biskiyon 
county. A few miles to the east is Clear Is i 

three by live mil. IS in I XU nt. The elllne Coiiniy IS 
a succession Ol bills, mountains and valleys, the 
Warner ran-.' in the eastern portion of tin county 
i.. in;,- bj tar thi mosl extensive, Between ibis 

range ami ti Iiato ol lakes la a beautiful fertile 

ralli v waten d by numi rous atn ams, Oonaldi rable 
Umber, such as pine, cedar, jumper, laurel and 
tamarack, abounds in the neighboring mou 
The Reno and Porl Bid well slagi road leads through 
the vail, y, and the principal farming iu ibe county 

,,i pr< bi nt is along Ihe road. This i 

in 1 1, set tli .1 mill ighti i n yi are, ret tin 
four moderate-, i/, d towns in the valley. Al the 
goulh end la Eagloville, situated In a floe farming 
section, and containing nearly 100 people. Blxteen 
mil. i l.u nn i north is 

« edaurvllle. 
Tins village is Buppoi t. d bj •■ rioh and fei til 
oultural country. Tho town baa some 350 people, 

and Is in a flourishing oond i. Ti u mil. « to the 

north, on thi sun.' road, is Lako Oil) situated oh 

Mill oreek, si uudi d by a longatn lob ol moadon 

hind, mid rery productive, Bixteeu nuns farther 
lentil at the head "t the valh y Is Fori Bidwull, 
uimh bas several hundred Inhabitants, All the 
goods ami mi rcbandise foi the »alle) are hauled by 
team from Reno, Nevada, a distanei ol 178 

Ml <■■ a «, 
The county seat, is situated near the eastern end of 

log valley. Fbls ralloj takeslisname fl 

a huge inn spring which ihiowa op the wati 



orsix feot high. Tho valley In about fifteen mllei 

in length, by ill in width. To the til ia a vul 

itretoh "i table-land, known u the Devil 1 
niii .1! the Hut 1 toe i" i" : lit* rail 
with H'-orin mill voloanla matter. This valley Is 
v. iti ri 'i bj Beveral brandies ol Pitt rivoi fone "i 
tin- lergi il tributaries <■< the Baoramento), uniting 
at Alloraa, presenting a Qno location lor the town, 
whioh baa a population ol 500 poople. It is 48!) 
miles north from Ban Franoiaoo. The country 

known as the lava beds, embraces a large port 

of the northwestern irol theoonnty. It is a 

succession ol gulches mill crevices which ir 

fen b at i" 100 fool hi width; aomo have sub- 

n inch h 11I fur miles under the 

rooks. This singular country eitenda eastward to 

Quoae lake, which Ii.ih im arable lauds, and It id tit 
only for gracing. 

Big valley, situated iu the Bonthwesl oomer of 
Modoc, la bo me 26 miles in length, and nearly aa 
wide, It la watered bj Pltl river and numerous 
The soil of this vallej 1- aa variable aa ia 
the formation of the OOUOty Itsell The I 
only bye 1 1 settled Borne ten years, The village of 
Acini, "huh in ,w has 400 people, it located on Aali 
oreek oeai the eastern lideol the valley. Goose 
dley, lyiug on the eastern aide ol the hike. is 
a ft rtile and well-watered country, surrounded by 
fine bodies ol limber, principally cedar and pine. 
Surprise volley Is divided from Goose lake and Sol 
Spring vnlley by the Warner range, the valley ex- 
lending north and south for nearly 100 miles, and 
being from six to twelve miles wide. Pin 
large number of small valleys throughout the 
county with plenty of good Govern m- til agricul- 
tural and timber land. Modoc county had a whiti 
population, in 1880. of 4,3*1, but 
would number 5,000 at present. 
TIiih is considered one ol the heal 
itook-raismg conntii b on thi 

mono COUNTY, 

A long and narrow country, la-;. 

along the extreme eastern • ide of 

California, with its eastern line bor- 
dering on the State ol Nevada for a 

distance of 135 miles; Inyo borders 

it on the south, with Fresno, Tu- 
olumne, and Alpiue counties on the 

west, Monois triangulnr in shape, 

nnd has an area of 1.700,000 acres. 

The western portion lies among the 

tall peaks of the 8i6rra8, eorae ot 

the tallest of which arc Mount Dana. 

19 627 feet; Mount ^yell, 18 Jl 7 

feet; Castle Peak, 18,000 feet, and 

many otbera of lesser Dotr. whose 

peaks are covered with perpetual 

snow. The .astern portion of the 

county, winch is usually spoken ol 

as a strange, mysterious country, la 

of a d< •ert-like, volcanic character, 

abounding in saltpools, hot BpringS, 

geysers, sulphur springs, and ex- 

linct oraters of volcanoes. A num- 

rolcaolc cones, all having ex- 

unci craters, lie in the southern 

part; a great portion of this district 
inic debris, consisting of por- 
granlte, limestone, and re- 

markably pure absidiou. The firea 

of some of these ancient volcanoes 

may not be all extinct, for upon the 

islands in Mono lake jets of hoi 

vapor escape amid a number of bill- 
ing hot springs. This lake is situated in nearly tho 

center of the county, and at present, is about fif. 

teen miles long by ten miles wide. The great bluffs 
nd rocky ravines of the Sierras come almosi to the 
reatern shore of the lake, while on all aides depoa- 
'- of „ a lt and driftwood mark the plain, showing 
wry distinctly that the waters of this wonderful 

ake were onoe nearly 1,000 feel ibove tl 

evel. and spread over vast plains, which are now 
>are, This, no doubt, was at one lime a great iu- 
and si-a; it receives the waters of a number of 

imall streams, but is without a percept lb I (let. 

river, which is quite a stream, in the BOUtb, 
unl Walker, in the north, are th.< principal rivers 

" " "i,iy. The former passes through the 

southern pari ol the Bounty, and the latter through 

be northern part. \ ag the mountains In the 

norlh-westi rn pari ol the county, there area num- 

'" ' "' -"" n ■ I" fated valleys whlol nstlfute the 

ial agr'onltural, oi cultivated landa ol Mono. 
"I ol thoi iv la ol an alkaline Ma- 
ture, with volos traces, ol i n iral oharaoter, 

almost entirely unimprovi d, 

''" mineral ran ai nsisl prlnolpallj 

*'" 1 Ml md othei 
minerals are Known toexlst. The develoi nl ol 

a great mm,!,, r of gilver Vein* has been can,,, I on 

! 167, The principal dlstrli I ire i 
tli P. il ,and Blind Springs, and mills and rednoilon 
worka have been established In all. Gold and sil- 
ver arc found in equal quantities, 

The principal town In thi conntj li stnctl] In 

log Iowa, lis altitude v, , n nno ., , t i ll: ,|,, r 

tban anj olhei town In the United States. The 
distance from Han Pre Id & DO and OariOD, 

la 138 miles; the last n.t mlloa .>r the Journey nre by 
stage. A few yi ars ago Bodie was quite n city, hav- 
ing a population of about 7. nl"); it now has but 
5.000. Considerable mining is carried on around 
Bodie. The ollmate Ib considered healthful; con- 
siderable snow fulls in winter, and the summers 
are always cool aud delightful, 

Tho county seat, iH situated in the northern purl of 
the couiiiv, mi the eastern for ii of the Walker rlvor. 
It ia in an extensive valley, ol One agricultural 
landa, known as Big Meadows. Bridgeport con- 
tains several hundred Inhabitants, who depend 
mainly upon [he mining interests for aupport. It 
is 117 miles from Carson Cily, and ia readied by 



The third largest town, lies 7(1 mill s southeast from 

Bridgeport; Mammoth City, In the south-west, is a 
town ol nearlj the same also; the lesser towns are 

Coleville, Dexter, DogtOWD, Hi-hop's Creek, Mono- 
ville, Montgomery, Oasis, Portsville, and R LOh 
ville. The cenaua of 1880 gave Mono a while popu- 
lation of 7 409. In addition to tho mineral re- 
sources of Mono, there are large forests of timber, 
consisting ot several species of pine, Mr, tamarack, 
and other varieties of mountain limber. At pres- 
ent there are some 15.000 aores of land made pro 
dnctive by irrigation. Tho lumber, agriculture. 
and grazing, on tho whole, are increasing. 


l.i.s between parallels 35.45 and 37 north, and is 
bounded on the north by Santa Cruz county and 
Montery bay, on the east by the counties of San 
Benito, Fresno and Tulare, on the south by Mm, 

lion, mid a great porlion too rOUgh lor grazing. 
Tho population of tho county |g 20.08] and about 

300 Chinese, not included. Monterey is w. II sup 

piled with railroads, Tho Southern Paolflo enters 
ItOD the north and runs through the gnat Salinas 
valley from Pujaro to Boledad, a distance of 144 

miles with ■ branch from OaStrOVllle (which 11 

only ten miles south of Pajaro) to Monroroy, six 
teen miles, 

ttose i. amlinc is located al the mouth ol Ballnas 
river whero it enters Monterey baj Phen 

teen points in the county whi ro thi foi mi i a in 

ship produce, cilhei by rail or by water. T WO and 
a hull' miles west from Mi,-s Landing is 


Situated on (ho 8. P. It. It. at the Monterey Junc- 
tion. It is regularly laid off mid coutnins nt pres- 
ent about I 000 Inhabitants, In this neighborhood 

is a large urea of SH.unp l.iml Which In- mOSlly 

boon reclaimed, making the very best of agricul- 
tural land; water Is easily obtained il 
depth of 20 leet. Nino miles south bring! ub to 
the county seat of Monterey. 

siiiinu. clfj 
fa located in the heart of Salinas valley on the 
Southern Pacific, 118 miles south fiom San Fran- 
cisco, twelve mi lea from tide watei al Moss Land- 
ing, and eighteen miles from the town of Mon- 
terey. It ia a young and thriving city, onl; 
vems old, and at present contains. 2,500 Inhabitants 
It has one oi the liuest business locations in tic- 
State. The town is well laid out with broad 
tho business one having aaphalto 
fourteen feet wide. The town is lighted with gas 
aud is well Supplied With water works; it bun, alto- 
gether, a verj i Ity-like appi ai ana . 


' r d..Hii„i w ». 

oenlo do Bala being in office whon California im«m 
11,1111 ""• Bpanish tothoMexloan Q 

■ While under the latter Ooverniei 

"" ■"■ "' " i mors. P| pj co 

Ih " "'•'" February, mi. nnUIJuIy7ib ia? 

when Oommad 

loan flag ,.. Monterey, and by proclamation Z,\ 
formal poBBession In the nameol the DnliedSi 

•'"' ''■" American mliinJI 


Luis Obispo county, and on the west by the Pacific 

mi si, uiding on theboaoh where the neldentfcaj 

' that floated Osllfornfa'a 
flag Is still star i, t n the northwlrt 

''" rN " ■"' ding, the nonh end M 

which was bufll bj Bpafn, tho south by Mexico Md 

""' Intermedial, by the \ rican <;„ 

kber places of Interest are pointed out totha 

■• old lown.suoh aa the c«|h 

olio chord, built In it. i nearly a hundred yeant 

altai and inside still being maflneaUto 

'"' seen the old arch- 

Ives, the pure Bilverwan of the church, the old 

1 'rom Spam • 
• wber. the first conetitotloii 
was framed, is now used as ■ Bohool-house, n,. r , 
maybe sec, the moal oomplete library 
8an Fr " «s early u 1851 

historical works. Bomeof these a,. 

■ - . 
There are many plaoea of intei be ** 

I half mile wt 

1 llowiiu 


al low lid ni portion of Ibi ivr. 

parte from off the island 
Four miles sonth : 
old Mission Carmel. the wcnndnld- 
i thi hill .. hall 
mile fn 

old 1,|. I 

'in. non ill in rains, 
n in all 
Del Monte and grounds, i; 

it half a mil* 
east fr,, ii D XMi 

is di c dedlj ii:. largesl hard- 

and most 
nished - 

d us plan of ex- 
terior, while ,-h. ic- 

in the fjnitfd 
It I- bnilt in m 

in Ii nglh »nd 

n .". in width ih. oei ■ 

stori. s high, with ft I 

100 m ' added 

e»rlv this s. 1800. Tl 

Rights ol 

- and a 
leading from the 
lobby. The hotel is lighted ,; 
out with gas; pure water Is - 
from an artesian we'l. At ■ 

from the hotel are the car- 
riage houses and atables large 
enough to accommodate CO borsrs. 
Tho grounds contain one hnndred nod sixty 

vIe: Tho Santa Lucia range ol mountains, running always enter the bay 

parallel with tl oean, in the western porlion, f..|. 

lowing ll " wl i. The Oibllan range in the 

eastern porll vie, g from Mooter v bay on 

ih.- north Into Ban LulsObisp intyon Ihe south; 

'hi n mountains an lo most plai ss rcrj rough and 
'" !■■ ci i» olally in the eemral and wi iti rn portion 
ol the range; so muoh so thai some parts of the 
'"'> »" ' been explored; they attain to 

as th. r ,. ia do bar looross descent at Ihe 

M ""'"' nneotod with tl srlyhlstory , I more perfrol Idi 

"' Oalfornia,andashortekelohmaynotl tof „.„„,,, ,„. hlrd ,„ ,-,,„, ,,, , 

pl "'" l '"'"- " '"••' Rl'roP* ■ ' 

country U from Juan Itoderlguea Oabrillo, on bi „ ,, f saso.r.00 »,.h 

Oral voyage slang up tho m ati rn ahori 
oontinenl In 1S42 only BO vems afior Columbus 

diaoovorcd \n „. Tho monnialna Oabrillo de- 

urlbei In bis Journal, along the ooaal lo thi tonth- 

- - - J"" '■"■'.,«"•.. k . in- i-,'iir*i i, . in. ni nil n- 

,"' k " ' ^ oim "" 1 - Betwee >,- , angesllcs ward, wore bare of limber unl hod the 

ay, wbloh opens upon Mon- 

'"' 1 l,uv on the north ft which ll oxtenda In ■ 

southeastern dlreotlon foi 76 milea, and rroi 

ll1 """ ""'"• ""'" and cool 140 

Through Ihla valley runs the Ballnas rlvor i, 

northwestern dlreotlon, and 

empties into the baj ol Monterey; tho prlnolpal 
tributaries to thisatroam are Lrroyo Bnoo, Ban \n 

'"""• i "" 1 '■■"■ to from ih. west, and tho Ban 

in. i Bstrayo from tbi i i I 
The lands In tins valley may bo divided I three 

""•'' l "' 11 ■ B I Ibl till growth Of any 

thing; table lands, good for wheat and barley; these 
" ,l "" 1 dry weathoi i i i short uipplj ol i iln both i 

,l " lM " llv « In tho valley; I ,,, lands, which 

' "'""n the basool tl nuns, i,, n,,, 

lowoi pari oi ii,,- oanyons and » |; tho lower 

naral rai •. sto< i. 

""' '"" , oultnro, M.iiy third ol miintv 

ll mountain wa«io und not msoepUbloof oultlva- 

B7th parallel of latitude whon he got sight of the 

" lerown, ,,; ,. | , I , lllH | m 

of tin- fact. Jnsl tins glimpse is glvon us In the 

Journal . r the Oral i iploroi . and we n a i i ol 

ii foi 80 vems. The nexl exploror, Blr Francis 

n tin i. ila 
anothoi silt in ii ol 'i >, irs whon 7lsoaj no 

exploring moreoarofully and scarohln foi harl 

and ii i a be who finds Mon ten j baj 

May niih. 1602, and ni i Ihla baj In homo ol 

,; '"i" i de Z rn. t di Monti roy, who was at 

lhal i vie I,,, ol Mi \ „,,,i who had flllcd mil 

dltlon T Ihorooomca anothoi sllonoo 

are, wl Ibarlei in. King ol Bpain, 

"" '" ploi on Ihi B| Bh Ihronofi 1 10 

to 1780. and Qaspoi do Parlaln waa Oallf 

'■"■ """■ '""o: appointei 707, i remained In 

"' """i 1771. Oallfbrnls w^a rlld unox- 

i' 1 ""' 1 pountry. i 17117 until 1822 California 

was undor Bpanish govorui i, mn ,,.,in mi una ..i i U msi counties m 

it, ci, I, plnngi -ii n iter hatha. 

mid ample acoommodatlona In tho bath-houaea for 
200 bathi 

ind; a in., re romantio. nati 
ran nol be found In the Blati , fine drives along the 
bay nnd oooan, among tho thickly wooded *' ui 

house and through the quaint old town nl 
rev will amply repay n Journey lo thi-., om 

ol the most i ven oilman ■• In Ihe woi Id. ; 
lame by rail from Ban Francisco i* 120 

stunner, 88 miles; present population of the lOWOi 

v I PA « OUNTT, 

is Justly innioii- Ihi hoi productive soil, One health' 
fui ollmato whl id ||u ' 

inmmi rs Im cool u 

mil. i mi. i aaliibrlons, [| ll< - ahonl 80 miles north 

"."I ' Ban Franoiaoo, and la bounded on tin 

muth by Lai mntj . i isl bj iTolo and 

oountli Si and wi il bj 

SO mil. h nnih, and abonl 20 In width and !>«• 



OallfornU, II ■* Irregular In shape, being longest 
north nini Boutb, and the most souther]] pari 
reaohea within aboal 27 miles ol Ban Pranol co, 

nilli which il i~ .•unmet, il IhiIIi |i\ w «t< r himI mil- 

road Mifl Oallfornla Paolflo and Northern Ball- 
nraj'i enter the oountj on the extreme southern 
line, oia. Yallcjo, tbenci ovi r the main line of the 
0. P. B. R. to Sm Pranolaoo, ofa. Oakland. This 
road ram through theoi ntral poi tion of i lie county 
to tiio ui"-i western c t terminating at Calls- 

distance ol ^ ; miles, 11 miles "i which is 
within tii*- oounty. Tin S i n river, an estuary 
from Buiaun bay, is navigable for Btoamoi 
Cii\ . ilu' county seat, wiin li is 11 milei from Ban 
Francisco rapby of this county ia a buo- 

of low mountain ranges and valli ya, with a 

uiiiiial in .1 lh> anit-i ii ami fuiilliweslerri dmctiiiii, 

Tlin |iriln'l|.,il vjil Ii- \ is .1. N;l|i:l i.iil. \.i\. 

tending tbrongh the entire length of the oounty 
(iu ginning at Buisun buy on the southern llni in 
a northwestern direction npabovi Oaliatoga. This 
lino fertile valley is some fiii miles in ii nglb, and 
from two to eight miles m width; ii embraoea 

about 5G, 001) acres, which in neurly nil of ihevi-n 

choiceat grape aud fruit land in the world. Ong- 
insliy, tliis valley wbb dotted with large spreading 
oiks, having the appearance of a gran. l par] 
numbers of these trees are allowed to remain, tO- 
^rilai with thousands of eucalyptus, wulrnu 
and other shade and ornameu inl trees planted, giv- 
ing the country a most beautiful appearance. In 
early tlmea Hub entire valley was owned by the 

lio in Napa county. A large portion "f ibis is wel 

>ng the uaj ,,n,i Ii iiai d for d drying. Tbua 
ii »iii be aeen that leaa than one quarter ol thie 
countj Ii l< ■' i land. The romaindi c la mouutain- 

n ring In hi igbl from the lowest foot-hill to 
Mount Bt, ii, |i i,,, i 313 feet. 

oounlj ia Justly famoua for 1 1 ■ •- onmi roua 

mini ral springs that are located wltl r borders, 

At the southern end of the oounty, about five mill s 

tn Napa Oily, are situated lbs eele- 

hrated Napa Boda Bprlnga, the waters of whloh 

hsve I,, ie famous foi their curative powers. 

Prom Ihe blddi d tn asm | ol nature's ohemiatry, In 
her subterranean laboratorli a, a pi n nnlal How ol 

shool •'■■ gallona dally la developed mingling 

""""■ soda magnesia, lime, aud muriate of Bodu, 

ff ith freeoarl ioaoid gas, in Buoh happy oombl- 

nation aa lo imparl pleasure, hi alth, and phyBii o 
improvement as the result ol their use. Prom 
tboao Bpringsis poured forth the artioli bo well 
known In the commerolal world as "Napa Boda," 
The water is bottled and Bold, just as it Hows from 
nature's laboratory, with all her sparkling fresh- 

.i upon u. The u,,i Bulphur springs at 

Oaliatoga are also a great curiosity. There arc 22 

boiling springe, and, chemically two 
are the same. In Pope vallej are the oeli brated 
iEina lint Bpringe, where hundreds of health mid 
pleasure-seekers hie themselves annually. Ample 
iui,l -i, ,„1 ai'.'i-iiiiiiiinhitmiis are provided for guests 
inn, nini the ride over Eowell mountain, to and 
from the springs is as romantic aa oouid well he 

SI. ll.l.-IM,, 

1 irporati d town ol 1,400 poople, li situated on tbi 

tbo Napa Vallt I 
Napa Olty, and within tUroi hours' rldi from 
i Iseo Tbo town Is supplied . rks, whi, i, 

furnlab »n sbuni I supplj ol pun mount wat< r, 

1 •■ bold and Irrigating purposes. Tin bi au- 

ufui valloj la oni continuous vineyard, both np and 
ir.i u tli, eye , „„ ,, „, |, 0, ,,,, ,,,, , 

B« i illbi i m.i, , -i ii, 1. 1. . i witii tlmbi i i i 

van,, us kinds, maki tbii oni ol tbi ; 
tho ooaat Tbo town oontalofl ii 
'""i flni i i,, White Sulphur B] 

rt, two mill - Boutb; 
Springs, iiir, o mill north] Etna 9pi li 

all bava ai liable n putatloa for bi sltb and pli ararc 

(mprovod land in tin valloj la , 

ighl ror, at Dgv ■ ,, . w high I ! I 

acquainted, with tho surroundings Northwest 

tho valley, a distance ol Dim miles, Is tbi terminus ol 

ii,, railroad, 

a place of BOO inhabitants ThisisalBo a summirre- 
boi t, ol i onsldi i abio note. 

Midway between 81 Helena and Napa.onthi lii I 

thi railroad, Is tbi rllloge ol ITount villi . with .,- 

habitants, Ookvllle Is foui and one-hall i 

onthi samel uf railroad. One inllo further up tbi 

valloy, through a Qm . Iinprovod oountry, I 

ttuthi rlord, whli li la mi n ly u rollroad sUtlon, In one 
of tho Quasi i,, cuii,. us we have bi en In the Btab 


I- bounded on the north by Sierra, on tho oast by tin- 
State of Nevada, on the south by Placer, anil on the 

ship; still another, ai Bound Mountain, .. Bk 
tana fi |,,,.. ,.., , ,. 

making now dlscovi rlcs In various parts ol tin county 
I larti mllla In operation, witb 

The lumbej Interest ol ibe county la ai 

" '" ' consisting ol nr, apurci and codai 

d it, ol standii 
0,000,000 f< i I 

v inty, both for travi i and 

shipping, aroi act I Ion I , ,, ,,„, 

thorn in,, ,.i tbi ontlri 

oounty, forming a lunotlon with the N 

ill,, Ml 

from Ban I ran Isco I hi narrow . a u 

mil bj prlvati capitalists rrom Ni voda 
oounij , Ulceus n.. largi itcitj In tbi uounty la 
Gruaa Vol ■■ > . 

With ,i population ol 0, situated on tbi \ i 

h ol Culms, and 3oe 

"bovi iin sea lovi I, li I tbi besl quartx-n ,■ 

i! wbili aubsl mtial bust- 

i iin, r, hi, 1. 1,,, a ii, toki „ the large 


■•..-» n.lii I II) 

baa ii populi a ol 5,600 it is also tbi terminus ol 

. Is aituatod on both 
p canyon. Itlasj 
ntirul wiro brld rtalnli 

'"" "' "" '■ ""'- si and 11 v. Ileal towns ol California 

do in, i 

runwl nj regularity; the mluca yield regular dlvl. 

laid oul in ■ Itj Improi 


Spanish pioneers, who raised thousand) of oaltle 
the entire country being, then, covered with wild 
oata, and other nutritions natural grasses, Wo 
Cod thirteen Bpanieh land-grunt titles oovi ring 
nearly the whole of the arable lauds In the county. 
The soil of Napa valley is usually a dark gravelly 
loam, v. tv fertile, and, during the rainy season, is 
uot muddy like the clay and adobe soils in other 
uf Oallfornla. The lands In this valley 
are all cut up into small trucis. ranging in Bize 

(l '■'■■■■■ ten, twenty, forty, one hundred, and two 

hundred acres, and ot bundredaores. 

Larger tracts extend up on either Bide ol the foot- 
hill" and low mountain runges. These hills are 

also limb red with oak, madrono, pine, aldar.and 
varioua kii <i« ol mountain timber. 
B mm ua raili -. . the bi oond largi bI Ib looati d In 
■ i d poi lion ,.i tin oounty, ami |b some i igbl 
miles long and from oni to three milea In width, 
i mbraolng aboul 700 acres. The boII and general 
characteristics ol this valley are aimilar to those ol 
Naps. Between these two valleys, to the north 

Popi ralli '■■ bi b it ome 1 1 hi 

i<ii to one mile lo width, em- 
row, pro 
ten miles In length 

half of a mils in width, In all i mbrai ei al < 8,200 

ind K ii i. valleys, also In this vi- 

000 aon I lapi Ua, a 

• In, in fJOO 10 700 ii, i, I. 

""''''" "" i n pai i "i im inly i - u odi 

Into what is known us Busool rslli j . bordi 

»-au P.hlo bay. About 10,000 aorea of this ralley 

imagined. Napa couniy lias numerous fresh water 
springs, and it is considered one of the best wab red 
counties in the State. Beautiful living stream an 
to be seen all over the county. Among Ibe princi' 
pal ones are Nupa river, miming the entire length 
of the county, and numerous creeks, viz. : Oonn, 
S»co, Napa, Su Beotor, Pa tab, Eticura, 

P pi i nv crock, etc. 

Minerals ol various kinds abound m Napa county. 
Thi "ni | i on to anj greal 

.tun ii-iiv. i There are manymioesof this character 

thai are now lying dormant, on soc I ol the extreme 

low i-m i iin urn, |i . Numerou bor mlnorala, 

suoh m- i i.i, , ni|. inn, in, am- 

monia, coal, inn, it, i in , gypsum, tufa, and soarla are 
-■in- ol the geological formation* of Napaare 
i be world; •■ Is thi pi trlfii d 
foreatneai tbi lava beds, on Mount 8t. He- 

lena, on, i thi ' itono. 

■ii,, greal product ol this oounty, and almost tho oni] 

top last 

:-, nr ii, I,, .in, i, >i to 3,05 gallons, This m "n, ol Ihi 

w.-iiiiiii" <■' imiii in in,- Miit,. considering the oum- 

.■ Napa n 

n bite populal I 13,9 1 a Qoal i hi popn 

■ in, in 1,500 to 3,000, besides soveral hundred 

Napa < Itj 
Im boautlfullj aituatod on tho Naps rlvor, at tbo bssd ol 

". it i.,i.i n tbi B !■' h N. P, It, ii ,ti miles 

i loco in Hi.- in. ni, ■iihi, vli Inltj ol thi 
olty, thi i thi soil I- rich, thus nffordluj 

la n kii 

i,, 1 1 } laid -"it . a ni. i-i i ii- , I-. -.-. blob ari I li omi Ij 

shsded. Thabuslneaa i Ion ol tbi town i« built ot 

woal bj I'nii a Its area Is 050,240 acrca, and lies blgb 
up in ii - greater pat t ,-i tbo count; lies 

■ to ml thousand feel above sea level 
are fan portions ul thi world that can compare with il 
lor variety ol sceneryoi climate The lower districts 

ar.- little i.i,,, v. tin lOVOl ,,t tin BOB nil, I nr. BOldOm 

visited by frost or snow. This county in oni of thi boal 
watered In the state, it has aeveral beautiful lakes, 
ii,, in -i aotod of which is Diniinr laho, aituatod on 
ii,, southeastern line ,-f the countj In ni" north- 
ern Part "( tin- i mint 

Wubher lako; i.t tbo latter, there Is s Bns su ierre- 

sort, and a llni ol stages running from Truokoe, on thi 

0. P. n. It., up through a i tin i iiiiiiiin 

I mi rles I bt re a number ol otb 

nini lakes iii< in this region 
Mining exceeds "ii other Industries In the county: 

• ■■>•■ id "I, b lo< itt -t -ii "in- now and 

elegant county map rocontl] published l,\ .Mr i a 

Bsrtwoll 'iin gravi i i •■ a ■ ' "■- ovi red Lxi 

1040. 'ri.i i ni. u, , i, n,. i, ,1.1, in and south Yuba la 

distinguish d f oi ~i - uallnnous llni s 

-. - iti tiding ir iin summit to I he foot 

bills. It i II ol . ' ivi i la from 100 to 800 rei I In 

.ii |, ii,. nini millions ,,i dollars havt boi n i iponded In 

i-i tn,,- i in- wi plpi ■- and iin. i" s foi ml 

rolop the oil ol tho most i itenslvo 

..r tin- oompauloa urn tbo following! Milton, Nortb 

Id, ni"- Pont, i DIrdsi ri in ' i. 

>nd s ni" i ol "tin i prlvati • lalms, bavo 

rloldod away up In tho millions Tho Di rl n . 

nosr Nortb Bio imfli Id, Is thi li sdlng i lalm 

, ountyi in I, Iftlng proot bs la i mployi ■ 

by ih tin Wuti when 

■tantlj -i' vi i'-i" ii i An,, tin i Important g 

dlstrlot, with in, in i i i being u riob as snj In 

the oounty, la hulug duvulupod in W»»liln«tou Town- 

It IsaUoeUliuail that it \» tin- bealthieal pi all 

fornla. I i nli vllle, 

■■ rth Bloom- 
ii, i.i. Lakt City, i, , in |,t,i, villi . Marysvllle, Dutch Flat, 
and all parts ol Qortbeaitern California. In the • i- 
ir. in. ii u-i, in partol n- mi, in is iin third largest town 

Bltuatnd on tbo G I'. R B . on the sum- 

mll ol the Bit rroa. II h is i i- ipul it I aboul 1,200. 

ii,, town Is principal!] supported bj thi Immense 

rrom Mu 
. ii is di,. place win !■■■ tourists leave tbi rail* 
■ river, 
brings in. to 


in the State. 
1-niK 10,000,000 fi et ol imiii" r in, ablpi 

10,000 tons "i li •■ bj 1 1" B k s It • Ooi 

Boro, i" ti" ■ olt i" i B it i Bt oi Brewer] lo Ihi 

iii,> Dorthweitern pari ol the < t] Is thi t> urtb town, 

thai ol 

\ >.nii .imiii, 

win, ii baa ii population ,■' ..i I Si ■ thirteen 

rtbwi i-t (mm Novada Oily, In tl ■ ol 

the gravel-mining district, Tho othci towna In tin 

nt] arc Nortb DI Bold (whloh la Bftce Ilu 

n-.iiii ,,i Novada Olty, aituatod In tho gravol-mtutng 
■ I- rokt ■ . i i, ' mi. i Columbia mil, 

nil lltlll I let rlli 

i , oouutj -I population 
of30,83T, which would reaoh aboul 3l,0u0 si th 

PLAOBtl « «»« KT1 

[sloe Ion thi western side ol thi greal Blorrarango 

ni iiiitnini.. tbossl from 

tbi .i il i ..... Bai " Is bnuudod on 

IhO north by Novn.Io mi. I Tubs " Ill li "" tho »■ -t D] 




s ,,.ii ii ii nv Bl Dorado oouuty, aud oil the 

, ui i,, Hi vada a pari "i ii* oasteru 

v Ii Hi' ii. i i .1,, riboe, It ws« organised 

lit hi Ai i "i Hi' uegtalaturv, approved April 26,1851. 
ii i lial i"i" auburn, wliti ii la ii" ' ouutj 

"I jUBtlCOOl II i I .:ni.. I Sin 1 1 r '"UMly, win. b 

i lii i, iii, lii, I. .1 iii. i I mi ,, lini || ii. , u II. i, , i- , , UlltJ In 

tbla count) Ii di irlj ■ parallelogram, bolng 

ovi ■ i" 1 mlli - tu Ii n .'Hi. i'"i i" asi I- 

m, , n, ,ii. while us width, just aboyi luburn- 

botwoon Boai and a m riven, la verj narrow, ojI) 

aboul t'lflhl mi i.—. uiui in ii* topographical fi atun a tbo 
whole ol llatorrltorj face* toward! tbi settln 

■ i im mi .limn Is on iii' pi "ii-. hi ii"' wi tern 

ol it mtj , ■ i - 'in' 10 fi ' ' to "v. i 

mi u* eastern ii idarj I luo, embracing ocarlj uvorj 

i climate known In the Btato, iu area la 
'.i, ,ii o ■ 

.mill resonrcos are extensive and very riob 

Tin- gold d a "i tin- aectlon, both placer ami quarts, 

i I. ,i u|, in iii, nui, i ,ii-., tbo formor, from 

whlob tbe oounty dorlvca Its di i, have beenworkod 

in, .mi, days ol '49. i in two divides are dis- 

tluotl] liydraulli tei b, and tbo work nre.lnman) 

Instances, verj i tensive, notably ao around Dutob 
i Id Rnu, Iowa Bill, Poreal liiii. Datb and Ul i.- 

i Millions ol dullarebavi been expondod in 
,,, inn tbe wati r, In plpi land ditobi a, rrom Ibe mount- 
ain-, /nui tbe number ol miles "i dltohes Is h v mi 

ii >ii'i 

Unit mining la can li ■! on t" a \t. ut, two of tbe 

most uotoble placca bi [III divide, one at 

al SuunyHoutb, Tbe tunnel 

at the urst-mentli Iplaci la io bill over a mile, 

There are also numcrotu quarts ledges belni 
mi, i prospectors ar tinually making new discover- 
to! ti.' qusrti miulngla bLlng carried on In 

tii' i -bill section near tbi tuwusuf Auburn, Ophlr, 

N. n Oaatle and Pi nryn 
ii" quarrying and dressing of «ruuiio Is au Impor- 
ii" wesltb of 

Placer county, tin ri 

u" Bui r granite In Ibe known 
world tban tbo quarries of 
Pi ii '.mi aud Rockliu. Tbera 
are » vi ral ppi cies "f prauite, 
tU' rook ni Punryu being niucb 
darker tban tbe quarries at 

. but at tl" 
place it is Hindi earner 

worked Large quantities of 

tin- ezi ' 11- ut buil, im- mat- 
erial are in iniuii> gblpped all 
over tbe coast, and may lx 
i tbe public build- 
ings ami works of California. 
Froui tbe i" -i Information 

Wl ' "ubl net Wbile aiming tbo 

"i Placi r county, wt 
ettlmatc tbe alandlng saw tim- 
ber, yet In tbo couuly, to be 
171,000,000 feet. 

Tbe farming section proper 
consist* ol the average plain 

laud, aud embrace- tbi west 

end "i the county. II 
i • rli ii il a soil at ol moal tbi 
v n 1 1 • J lands as It is of a 
graiiiti- i"i mat Ion, on n bii b 
i wheat, "ni-, barley 
aud iiu> an nisi il, varj bag lii 
quautlt] and quality with tu. 

ii nut "i moist un during the 

season Tbi foot-bill, or fruit 

lauds, arc tbe OlOSt valuable 

iu t int) . and cxlei 

mi -ball "i ii- territory, 
aud circling around t" tbe 
nortb of Lincoln and Sberl- 
dan op to Bear river; and from 
I . :.. is! towards 

i;of the foot-bill fruit 

,,, >bi ,1 "i rolling bills, 

i by ravlnea, and, up to wltbln two miles of 

Aubiim, is ,,i b granlti formation, ruia point of tbo 

the moal prospi mis, u II la Blllng up by 

who are turning their attention to the railing 

frultS and b' | 

BOUUty bu good shipping facilities, uh It Ib 

I by railroads, Tbe Central Pa-iflc enters thi 

iniy "ii tu..- south ut Boaevllli 3 illon, which i» 

'. from Bai rameuto, tbe 

1,1 t" 1 " rax, a din- 

IS miles, which Is tbi Junction of this road aud 

I Nl Vada County NarrOW-gUBgS road; tbe Central 

re takes au east- m din • tlon ai i the Bii rra Mount- 

is, following on near the llni bi twei a PI 

"'• ' irtbeaai througb 

I ni ii"ii la tbe Oregon dlvbdon 
tbi ' utral i'.,, in, . running on uortb througb the 

U rn portion "i i ntj 

■ '- exceedlnglj w< Il watered by nnmi roui 
rearaa, thi lai •, | i.. ,,, nv , ,, nh „ Ui 

bi in, bi ■■', ad irda some ol thi 

1 1" "ii,, r streams are Deai rlvoi 

which forma the II twoen tbla aud Ni vada county, 

nl "' '"" kei , wbli I. i" ii n. i -I 

Laku Taboo, 

<\ ill. urn, -I in., , uiwna ... I 
rule, has a popul itl >n ol I, loo, Thi town in 
located nearlj oni mill weal I luburn al on 

fi ,, -.,,, i | , . 

Tbi ■ li • '■ i i, , I,, i ibovi tl ,i... i in 

ol tbi in thi .i. init) u 

•■■"' in can bi bad, fruit i ullure 

1 b.w tfaeanow bell 

sn i awsj if tin fog bi II ii i« located i all 

and, like moal Oalll ... im ,„,i u,,, „„, 

with ai ,,„,,t viiu„. nlco 

'• ■• sud im 

ujibidowii towards It ome uj 

Now « u at If i 
ivin, ii bu about 200 Inhabitants, who are mi 
gaged In thofrull business Th icond largest town 

1 1 1 . t y la 

Dutch Mat, 

i ii ,'. .i i mil nl ol luburn, This town ih about 
"in bi.ii nui, from iiu- railroad, down In a canyon 
i i,i , h ,-. bi 'ii "in "i i in ii, I,, il gold-producing 
. id ni pri -' ni bas ii population 
.i ui. "in 000, most!) ■ n:' igi 'i In mining and lumbi ring. 

in iiu inn i " ration* ni. i mi i. don In dif- 

ferent plicei, both by placer and hydraulic melhods 

r i mi i a- ni." baas Isrg ol ol i icollenl in Ilm- 

in i . n in, b ii in i i ■" li Utbongb 

lb, m U u .inn II ni' ii "I lOVI I villi, y I. im I, pi . 

i i farming, yet tbla ludustrj Isqulto prosperous in 

i.ibiii to grain and vegetables, this Is quili oiilrapoi 

iiini -I,,, i. raising i ountj . and an ■■» u Hi ol Ioi 

h u ipph ■ ■ ■ ■ era, plums, Mini i" bi bi - Is 
y . i in, re ni' no rallroadi In Plunn ■ untj bul ill tli 

i'ii... i- bd i.b, in, lam .■ ol water horo which bai beon principal towns aro com by stages, wblchrun,on 

brought In ditches mid pipes at groat expense. nVdollylg i wagon-roads, to Orovllle Bulla county, on tbe 

stage Is ruu from this place to Nevada City, a distance 
ol •■' i , ni. in miles, 


rin third largest lown In the county, has « populil 

"i about 000, It Is located at iho Junotl i I P 

ami N. O. N. O. rallrouilH, seven teen iiiIIch iu.rtb.a..l "I 

Auburn, a daily mail runa from hero t" Iowa Hill. 
Bi Iwi ' n Oolfax and luburn Is 

Clipper Gnp, 
lYhori the famous oiipp. r Gap Iron mlno i« looited; 
tin., iron ut known i" i" Hie best in tbe market. At 

On the Oregon division of the O.P R. R.,a( Ioi 

nortb from Baoramonto, aro located tbi eitonalvi i"'i 
terleaol Oladdlng, McBcan & Co. At tbla place is also a 

coal tu In.-, whlob yb Ids vi iy fair I IOI I l"i -ii im ' n. 

uiui other us.'s. Bovcd miles further north, on the 
aami road, i« the village "i Sheridan, Ioi ated In i farm- 

Kflieville, . 
The Junction of thcrallrnad, eighteen miles northuast 
ni". has n population of win. 
There li a ouinbei "i otbi t towns In the county, inch 

ns Oplnr, Altu, HI il.- Cuiyoii Knii-rnnt liap. Km. 

inn. Pino, and a boi-t of other little mining 
i limps Tbe census of 1880 gavi rim ■. i county a popu- 
lation "i 14,820, whlob perhaps would reach 14,1 it 

present. The county assessor estimates thai there arc 

west, and to Reno, Nov., on thi nsst Nearly all ol tbi 

lUirlb-.' rn portion "I ' nlil'Tinu I 

more roodllywlth Novadi tbm witb tbo western por- 
tion "I i '.i 1 1 l..r ii iu, mi ii ml "I II" ;.' i • i il li. ml ..I tl." 



ri anty seat, is situated In American valley, ono ol 

the Bl i' rule little villi ys Btal 

pleasant and attru tlvo. as m Is situated In ti" 

ti,. Blerraa, which an I vcred with dense forest! 

ol timber Qulueybusn populstloi 100, who tie. 

pond equally upon tho mining and agricultural lnter- 
eels In ibis dlstrli i i 
i irovllli . ii.. ti rmlnus 
• ' 

. B| which pi . thi ugh ii" towns ol i g 

Vaii. j , ,i. 'inihoii. ii.i.i,a Johuetown, Bockwortb, and 


'I'll, I.. I . .11. 

The i Ipil town, I i thi moal prosperous 

agricultural sections ol thi county, and contains 200 In- 
habitants Meadow valli > . with less than 100 Inhabit- 
ants, bas ., bin |l mil", Il "in ii 

ib. Orovllli road. Bummll Is s imall town, In ti" 
easteru put of thi county; M lies il an altitude ol 
7.1X10 feet, 

i.i con » llle, 
in tbi uorthorn part. Is oni of thi moat thriving places 



about 30n.ono acres of fruit and grain lun.l, inioeptlble 
of cultivation, a great portion ol whioh La yet in a nat- 


Lies up among the mount...!..-, in tbi north-eastern part 
"i ti,. "t..t... Mountain ohaine deOm IU limits 
■ rai ildoa, its bounding countloe aro, on the north, 
Bhaala and Laaaen; oast, Lesson; toutb, Bii 

BUttCI Wl It, Unit' ami 'I'.lu.iua. l'limn.s b„s m. an a .,1 

1 ; lorei. and IU general characteristics an ilml 

iur to 'in.-, of the adjoining countlei i 
w,i,i ami pi, tnreaque; mow i ovi n the lummll 

mounlalna, and thulr ilopi - an i lothi 

" ■ Br, and oak tlmbei Tbla count) has 

"' : "'> ,l1 " 1 rolleyi; imong tho principal ones aro 

H i tin M' idowa, Indl in, i 

'. Beokworth, ami Ueadovi valloya I 
-""" i. ii.. ii n.n... |oi i, i ul „| lH 

"" '"'■' "'■ » h '" '"' ' to m Mcadowa, 

anotbi r, ol nearly tbo si ilae, bi ivoral othi r tral 

whole eonitltuting quite an olovited plitosu 

1 '"' above eea-levol Indian vallej i,,,,.,. J 

a„.i prosperona dlalrlct, U«ji ven miles In longi i 

u '"' , ' 1 "' imerleau vallo) is nonrlj tbo same 

alzo, end both oonnootwltb smaller valleys in the 

"' " n portion ..I ii,. count) aro high rldgoa 

abrupl obaama, and doop oun] through which 

1 hit i" autlful streams, Plumu Is one ol tbo bvil 

watered counties of tboB ,,wlth llvlngstresn 

nlng througb all ol thovilloyi. Bovonl In | , 

ii- Poithei rlvor rise In tbU count) Ruah,] ,,,, 

&P«i ""' Ohorryerooki are „n tribute] 

"' , '" 1 ' "' 'bis river, flowing thi b One cultivated 

valloya and Importaul mining dlatrloti In Ihi b 

ri1 " '"""'-. ....Mm port i Oailforuli baa tbi Bi 

""" ■"",,, ai., m ii„ worldi Invigorating, bealtl 

'""' ' • ■ * ' ' • • ■ > dollgbtfuli In winter, leralel) oold 

« u """ ' ibundaneo now In the i I 

aim., ami pl.nly ,,! ,al„ n, II,, | , y, J ,. , Hll „ r „ 

of ti... wealth or iui a count) li . i..,,. ,,i ,,, i„ ,„ ,,„ 
mlnea, . put many gold i u , „ tiki d ud 

111 " mty; it bu BJ0 Ink .■ re ar* a 

number ol smaller towns. .„ mining oimps, such as 

Oopj «n Eureka Mills, Sol Springs, Indian Bar. 

Longvllle, Mohawk, Prattvilli B] 


'• white populil i " I-" ii | 

" mti -I am Q ■ ,,„i t c I tlmlx i 

' Ptlbli -I -i in ii. with the ■ a] ■ 

tripling iim pus. ui population, 


!" -'Im.1, ,1 in II,, .-, ,..,.,,. || |] , . ,,, , , ,,., M .,|, ..,, 

thi north II Is boundi .i b) Butti r md I 

i;i Uorsdo ... ,i Amador; south b) Ban Joaquin; wi si bj 

Bolano and Ifoli i . ■■,. ,,.,, river forming 

thi im. ri tj || i . ,, ,.i, ,, .,.,, ,„ abapo, 

with an area ol MO.W0 i 

n iti m ildi b] ii" largi ■ in I 

* "' ral ol .1 p Ipal irlbul irli Hi n fl im thi Bii rraa 

'" 'hi u"i,ii ,,|, it,, territory,! as the tmerlcan, 

■■ i" H i i wati i. 'i 

1,1 'hi San i ■' run river Si vi ral i n i «-. an g 

wbli i. ire Ant. lop. , Wll 

" l " In tl , ■ ,, ,,i in, sai ,., 

" "" ,l Bau i 

and fi mi" Islands; Bhorruun, Qrand, Bl and \i. 

dniharu amoug iii. i o ., ,i iii. noil 

1 '' v ' B 1 labli an i | poalt, and the) 

1 to Inundi i i in, 

1 '' ' POrUOII "I unl, |, ,.,||, v | ,„ 

"'" ll "''^ , • ' '" i grain, bay, ., gi laUb 

and grapus, Tho vain j ,,.,, ,,,, ,, ,, , 

' u'tlvatlon i hi b i | u. , ,., 

1 ttond m ii.. aii ii..... ui., ., i nidi rabli 

oak and otbei limber, along thi beuka ol tbe itruame, 
and "ii" i iim 

bl r, lain. ,1 in | on|) 

Huoruinoiito Clly ( 

Is situated he eul bink ol 

"■ nen in .1, ,,i in, v,„,,, . 

Tbla la thi thi third largoal i It) in una, ami it 

baa a pi.p.ilui.,,,, olJJ.ui. (utlMHlUIOlj BUTOH tllC 

r y. 

""« Ilrci My "in. s 


l»ndi via i ingclci nti | 

bi ■ onllm ni. two im. i iu. hi, tbi 

S '" I' " Villi | "'" ' I I, ' "I, | ; 


Bl Dondo This besldi 

Min i second to ooi 

Pbl a P I,' l: 

mproven i nt« ol 

Io) from 1,000 I ,,,,, ,,„._ 

istructed rollli 

I IM" "I II. II. 

mil ni... 
Tbe ■ rn I.,... i. ...i i, ,,, ,, lbt pM| 

year, and 

thi dla- 

P "' '' i ,, i,r t| , 

mployi ol 

ami mills I,,. 

, apltol buildings in tbi i nil. I 

. :i. M ui.t Diablo -1.,,.. in,,. | I,,,, 

CI i.l.r. t" to II. 

■ nks ar* 

one "i ii. 

■ ■ In alibi. It Cltll 

l "-' always 

of ibe 

t' in i" rai. and lemitropical 

tbe Kir- 

1 oil 

teen ml 

n impi . 

pony as 

an .in 

id the 

of tbi I ire .md 


tnated In 

i tbe 

county, i It.. »t 


iu a 

-, ni populatl 

s, 1. 1. mil. - north, 

Elk «.,..». . 

ii as fine an airri- 
ii" re is iu tbe Stale, 

i by au 

'i i. hi^.ni Bar 

1 - Id mining town ■ ato.and 

"ni'-. distant. The bills around thi 
bear m Idem i thai an In 
t..k. n fro 

pottl r - . ||) is fouud b, one are 

, I. supp.,1 Is 

IValn rn i.i..,,. 
i "ii the wi st ' 

Bftei i li i : : i 

■ in , n,i ol ii." ludrus . 

N ■• i " i" i mil . an bo i".o,,i tban tbla lalaud i 

'1' bi 

on ii" river ol tbi - ime oami 1 1 bti ■ i li 

1 Im. I,,,.. I., ,, i s -nl .ni tl,, 

II, .mM. . i 

i ii, populatl 

, . ,i within thi 

ii now am ■ i" no li 

m ti., ,i. : mty. an 

Twin bi ii ami i. , , area- 

si \ v BBN1TO « 01 NTT. 
B) an ■ 

in, wi iti in an 

1111 h along i mil 

im i" twoen thi i liouti > - 

pi li i with Hi" ocean on lb tied bj 

md Mercod ruuulug ■i< , »< 

iho lummll "i mi i' 

two luui.. , ..r.bli' 

pul ol the county, call J md Ban J"»" 




niton which in 1 1 Inmtl f the Bants Olara 

■jj, raiioj between Ui lara ud th< Bants 

1 n i, and it Is 

;i i, ,,,1 1,1 nut' .- Ion I, "ii I n wldo, '"J 

. i' ipulsl 

■ I li> III. Si. 11 I'.. i,i! 
I 1 1 1. 1 . 1 ,: ■ 'I'll. M rlVI ih run In 11 

nortbwt >b i" dim Hon si row oti unty. it Is 

>i Hi. 1 . .1 1 1 in- State, 

1 1 , . - ,,.,, 1. . 1- 1 Ipallj ll* . black and wl 

„„,, lomc pine, to tli< i in nifflolent 


■ n , first, 1 boul ■ ■■.< 00 bi " ol blai ■ adobi and 

Willi b "" 

product mi 1 1 " B ( ''""" Boi ond, about 

land, thai li known as 

; 1 por- 

m.wltha blui ssudj subsoil, and holds moist- 
,,,,. „,n 111- principally on tbla land Ibat the large 

;,,„ ,1 ..1 Bblpped annuallj from 111 

Iliii I, al I ; wbal 1- ti rmt .1 

lusted In 

mi 1 a n oquallj ol adobo 

..,, ii,,- land nioal ol tbi baj 1 ropi are 

1 tit 1 "n ■ " ! -'"" li valleys running In 

, ri ,, dim [tan 11 tppi t 1— thiii-. capable ol 1 

I nl 100.000 I kt 1 

, 1 1 1 • mountain land bul what Is suitable foi 

Oui i-ih.T abounds in the mountains bi oael 

.„!, .,1 tlio count] there an 10 to 13 locations whloh 

with B ' Indications, Obrome 

ind ml in Hi' rii Inlly. 
,,, u, 11 trati 1 la obtained ttarou B wilt | 

forming the line; ou tbi south bj Ban Dlogo.and on the 

1 Ingolcs 1 Ki rn. it contains an an 1 ol 

1 '."". icreaol surface largt r In extent than aeroral 

..I the n ii,. 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 > 1 i.7 10,000 

in r. - ..1 t hli vail oouuir] It 1 barn a d< n ri and mounl 

"in w ssti . or mini ral landi \, 1 ordlng to 1 bt 1 

., *i could gi 1. tbi '• are about 

i<ir agricultural purpoaci and 1 culture. These 

lands ara nearly all In the southwestern portion ol tbi 
county, which li called Ban Bernardino valley The 

South in i' 11 it,. Q illroad 1 1 1 tbi 10 

geleu, southeast to \ num. which Ilea on the Colorado 
river, and Is tin nt 1 ■ ..1 1 lallfornls, Tin. 

Colorado la uovlgabli for several bnndred mllei north 
from Vuma. The Banta Aim river, lu tba Boulb-wostcro 
pari -I ii., oounty, li tbi nesl largest stream The 
mountains surrounding tho valloy arc tilled with mag- 

ol 1 1, cedar, and ol bi 1 tlmbi r in 

1 ,11 boasl aa gri "t »srli ty as it can 

..I .inn,!, and physical features The oumeroui and 

rit 1 ilng dlBoovi rlca wini-ii have been made during 

I two years, are already attracting considerable 

attt rn.. .11 abroad, Ho li bi than eighteen dlffi ri nl dis- 

1 ,i in. h bavo Quarts mills loop. 

oration. Numerous placet nun. have been worked fur 

man] years In different portions of this vast territory, 

tin principal is "i whlob are known as the Llttli 

creek placers, Bear valloy mines, [<oue rolley mines, 
Bluck Hawk mini b, Drj lake dlttrlt t. Hi n fork.Alvord, 
[vanpab, Uobave, Oro Orando, Orapevlno, Calico 
mountain. Ord, Bladi a, Pinecarto, Ban Antonio, Bilver- 
ado. All ol tLcso districts ore known t" hava good 
l.u.MiiH iiniuh.liiit tin y are mostly owui'.l l>.\ 11. 
. n 1-. «iin are ususll] poor nun, and it la not the pio- 
neer or foundi r ol 1 buslnt as who di rlvi •• the greatest 
benefit, These mines offer greal Indncomonta tooapl- 

running north and aouth, east and treat, and 

li other at right angles, TUi blocks, each con. 
lots, .,1 one BITS 

. .,. , tbli kly ituddi .1 with ir. cs, as la Indei ,1 tbi 

,ii, y, whit b, with tbc brlghl groi n ol tin gar- 
dens and Hurrouuding Holds, glVi ll more tho sppoarame 
, , 1 rill igt th in 11 California town. 

.1 tb< greal ■ bj Ban Bernar- 

,11,,,, [ 8 in Alnuoal Burrouudi 1 bj 

mountains, numt rona i'ir. ama pom Into it from all dl- 

r ia, whlli artesian watoi osn 1 btalued almosl 

anywhoroln the valloy, bj linking from 80 to 8 I 

. D ow over 600 Bowing wells In the 
fording pure water for tba household, as well as for 
Irrigation Owing lo th idai 1 water, the 

bave loss dread ol 1 drj « ison I 

enoed In other parts ol 1 1 .. - south, whllo a falluro of 

, thing wholly unknown. Wo now pass on, to 

111. I-, 

\ dlBtanci nf twelve mil - from San Bi mai 

niii gh quite youthful, i~ 11 thrlvlngsettlt ment. it i» 

almost ■ ntln I) bi Itli .1 i". Bash rn pi oplt . m 

ion ans, man] ol whom bavi locati >i In re foi tin ir 

i,,„nii. 1..1 tin |.i. "-ui. -1 "i iiii-n.ihi cllmato, 

lir I lu |nll'|' -■■:!■ 

1,1 wiii, 1, ii,. entire section 1b dovoted Tbt settlemonl 

of UiviTsidi- Ih 11 fuliiry, inni i» iil»"il twi-lvir mil, 1. in 

length, bj aboul four wldo. The pi oplt ii 1 1 whollj 

mi irrigation Tho colon] baathi watei right ol the 

,:k, river, whlob beads up In the untalna 

I from Ban Bernardino, and alao tbi watoi fur- 

niebedb] Bomi 160 artesian wells, fr Ban Bernardino 

rallej Ib allowed to flow on to Riverside Tho river U 
taken oul ol Its eoursi , and distributed, through bund- 

■mall ennui-, and ditches, f..r the puri 
lgatlng tho immense orange OTCbardl lu tht 

bills of 1 1 ii.ii- and in .. 

an . ovorcd with oonsldi rabli (I nix 1 PUi third 

section ll< a b< iwi en these fool bllli . 

ice ol tin- . .,.,,,: . lands 

t importsul Ui|<ographlt »i ft 
count] Is II . i'i. go, 1 iiu ft h 

three wide, i» almost laud 
looked, and 1 nti »i nd ■ g 1 au 

fOI ih. I 11 

mint ni.ii Railroad 1 11 a through Boi 

cuuuiy, from it" oorthwi il boxdei to 

for 11 dlstan 1 108 mill 1, 1 hi California 

Boutbi mi baa reci ntlj bt 1 d bullt s from 

B. i' , a I- -hi Dlt - 

-m ii ' 

- ol 11. county, 

nuty tin i" il "i snipping 1 n I a, both by 

mill. State, ii,. baj was iiim visited b] whl 
. an utt. r 11,. 
1, 1 ol I mi 

in ih, i, riii, porl Ion Oi I In 
Bcotlona weal "i the dcsorl region, ... mor than 30 

fi n hun.ii. .1 to 20,000 ai rci . n n ral ..1 th. ae 
vs.Ui yssi 

the rolling Ian I llah naturo, nndt rlsld 

1 in 11 lands, ui ■ 

. provi .1 
in ii bj proper cultivation tbi >■ an q 1 
in la, ui in. - ui, In nl ■ 

10 I'n : nhly 

la conaldi rable available watt 

SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA-Fifth Street, Looking South Towards the Bay. 

in the north and eastern part of the county. In the 
Ticlnltyof Ban Felipe then.- are a number ol Bowing 
wells. stHolllstei irly to tho surf SCO by bor- 

ing lUl ' 

, m%7 seat and principal town. Is pleasantly 

'• l »' ' " """ 

cob] abrsnohol th. 

EUllroad frop OHroy. on II tin I 

muthesstfrom ■ " >> a » 

..andhssmspU-...l..l ByStem ... 

water-works suppl """ threo srUslan wells. 

«,|,ll .Illllll. 

.•hi i" from Bolllster. sod M milt 

I th. old lend 

„i.. One 01 the ol IbsIous, 100 atlll 

, »n.i used f« 



B0J ol thli brancb ol Ihi B P.B, 

" " f —. 

Trrt PI BOS, 

Which ' '" "" hl,l, ' l ' i '"' 

, alarge amount of grain and bay for the south. 

U 'J 

Una ' 

I "' ol »ht 1 1 ■" " 

""'" ralwd, 
Il "I BUP1 1' sl> III 

II uessg I »< 


n, callfoi 
Bla m miles aoutheaal n ■ 
bonndi "• '" '"''' "'"' "' 

M«va<U OS UI ""' ll " ''"'"' 

tal, which 18 bound to find Its way here, and the r. lUTOI 
rrom Ihe developments will bring In a One revenue 
from this part of the Slate. From the agricultural 
portion of thin county the staplu product is barley, a 
winter crop, and, In ordinary good seasons, ll yiolda 
heavily, Alfalfa, which la the principal 
cut from five to seven tlmoi annually, yloldlni 
cutting, aboul two tons. Vogetabl. sol all kinds attain 
an enormous growth, aa do all other agricultural pro- 
a,,,,. 11,,,,, ' ol Iroplcal fruits 1108. of 

,„,, r osrs. received 1 Isrgosharo of attention. and lm- 
,.,,„! land bave been dovotod to tbelr culture 
The principal frull acotlon lain and around RI 

itn 1. '1 "I . ountrj some twi h I' ' 

mi length, devoted entirely to Beral tropical fruits, and 

already '!"■ owners are receiving bands Int a 

r rom th,.. orchards, Riverside la now boring and 
shipping lorK" .iiiuntui," of ralalna, which an pro- 

,,,,, 1 by Judg«B among the bosl In California, and 

ansurpai edlnthoworld B Ud .tropical fruits 

,11 those of re northern latll is 1 an bo ralsi d, and 

1 In the 1. ii""- '"'" "" Hl11 '- 

md Davor. Although these fruits grow 

illcy.thoy donol attal al degroi of oscol- 

1 v.i,,. 1. 11, ii ..-.ii In Hi- mountains do. fikm. 

„i , , and, in short, all kinds ol fruits and nuts do 

wi n bero. 
A , „,,i„ , important Industry ol Ihe c » Is splonl- 

1, J di ■ 11 di '•"!' '' '•'"■■' 'i" mlltli - "' '-y lmv " 

■ "' i" 

huh Bornardlno, 

I inly "-at, and the prlnolpal town, baa soms 

3,000 ' ■ " »« I I '""' "' b l 

' ■■■■ i" 1 " " ,:l ' 

,,,.„ ,i,„n»., with bTOSd StNOtS 

This Is certainly one of tho handsomest places in Call- 



Ih the name applied to that portion of San Bet 

county old fl.n Bernardino, 1 

„,„i bavlng the Santa An,, rlvi c 1 01 Its north, rn bound. 

ary, while on tho Bouth II la boundi 1 bj Ihe 1 bills 

north of BauTlmol yon Therillofl Is delight. 

mily looatod. The fruits ol • y- tb " 

,„,.,,,.„,,,,.. ,t,i ,...1 grspo-sre principally grown.and 
„, with ih- ollvo.lht moal profitabl. Phi '""""" 

orangogrovool old Ban B rdliio, adjol [tbi wi 

on thewcst.and tbt frml grow I 

■ lied inywhcrt in the stuto. 

Ilmate ol the oountyls as varied as an its 

physical rostnros The valloy. owing to il Inl 1 1 

aUlon, possesses a Dllmsh differing from tbt 

towns, the dryness ol Its atmospbi re conatltuting a 

marked dlfl ce, Th. Bpringand fall 1 Ibaar. tbt 

ui. --- 1 . n Joy able, 


Borders ..n U> Ih- Boxlean territory ol 

„i,. on - nth, east, on to Prisons, the 1 oloraaa 

rm th. line: .ontbt Pa l 

II, .hi S 1. rm... [I IS 'I- 

nt] In the State, bavlng an ai ' 

Whichl sll] divided into I Motii 

, tern balf, I) " '" "" BM '' 

.,,... mbraolofl mon than ' "' ' 

.. 1 ' the greal Col ' 

ban --. I I > i' 1 ""- '" 

ictorlsodbygr to points, san. "■'" ll! ""' 

i vol .hot.] ".... ' " 1 ; 1 "" 

I ml,.. I ' 

Ban ■! I ""'" • '""' ' ''"" 

vu ii. j 1 plains, 1 i' ris. In th. irosl lo ih. fool 

hu.i.if properi] husbandod.'lhal would make Ihous- 
.,, r.". now aim. ■'■- "" si pro. 

iiu.i,,. land in tin- world. The farm produ 
md "-mi tropical 

English walnula all do remarkablj well. The oranges 

01 Ban Dleg ilj sn c 1 Bid. red tht 

Bavon 'i "' Ihe coast. 

«.,... Dleffo rn>-. 

•n,, re an n all] two Ban DI. 1 Ih. old idol 

,,,,. , uvi r . ,1 ro. fo.b. ing illnstcd font miles 

„„i, iqnltt distinct from which 

i" beaut ' ' "'" 

samt .wllhapoi n ol 

„,.,,, i„ 1,,,. the ouly town of any Imports - 

, ,,.. 1 lafi ''-' I ' miles fmmSBn 1 1 

according to tin r traveled b] land 1 t « il 

salubrious 1 1 matt . wliii b la »erj m Id, ind 

l si ,, iin.i.i. 111 ii- world, I,"- madi Ban 1 

,„, 1, ,1 lanllarlum. 

Null. .mil « il> . 

u "• south ■ 1 Iscc ',1 

v , I: ,i hun in. 1 Inhabitants. Th. shops ol th. rail- 
,1.1, 11 11 li tin tw t*d bt n 1 "• 

, , town, aboul 50 milt a nortl 

1 In H" Ban 1 1 Up. canyon. Grain, 

rrnlts, Ivcgolablos ol all kind 

,, iid mining bas boon • 

IBT4 Julian, s lltl 

„,ii,h north-ossl ol Ban Di »i ihli kly-\\ lod 


lull \ in 

.. ,,,. town "i the Blati 

ni.ry across the Colorado rlv. 1 bt It - 

The ' 1 i""" "" "I' 1 ' 1 ' 1 "' "" ' 

: ...»riM , D ,'' " ' '■'' 







v„. 330 suns. .11.- SI., Mull-. U Iliillillnif. 

ISSUED MON i ii i , 

Term* *2 per Annnm. 



When yon have rend (hfi paper preserve l« 

,,M. i ii to pour nelpnbon, "i aend II <•• 

- i i in flu* Raaleru, Wealornor South- 
ern Stale*. Cn in. England and Conti- 
nental Europe, who will vuliie the Informa- 
tion n contains, and mlirhl be likely to come 
or tend Intelligent, Indnatrloua runner* lu 
settle in California. 

Till* number, by the hundred, "ill lu- 
gs cent* per eopy. 


; reSswork of this paper is done by the 
Purine Press, Oakland. 

We present to our readers an illustrated 
double edition, containing 30 pages of valuable 
reading matter. In ordei to supply the great 
demand for reliable information, regarding our 
State, we publish, in this year's anuuul, n 
general article on California, giving ii- geo- 
graphical location and physical features; its 
climate', soil, and productions; its manufac- 
turing and commercial interests. The article 
ulso contains n vast amount of other valuuble 
information, regarding our young State's pro- 
gress and advance, from infancy to man- 
hood. The annual also coutuius fifty-two 
articles descriptive of the conn tienol the Btate, 
They will be found interesting and full of val- 
uable information. They will contribute 
largely iu making known theadvuntages which 
tij- (i ilden Stale oan offer t<>i settlement, We 
take this opportunity, as we shall have an un- 
usually large audience, to say something con- 
cerning this journal. The purpose for which 
The Rxbotxbcbs first presented itself to the pub- 
lic, was to make it a thoroughly reliable medi- 
um, throngh which the people oi the United 
States and other countries, could become ac- 
quainted with the fact, that California offers a 
ti. Ill for immigration, enterprise, capital nud 
labor, such as the world nowhere else affords. 
We think we have shown clearly, nn, , [| 
stalled, that she is fully entitled to this high 
tribute. The information we spread through 

iti lumns regarding her soil, climate, pro- 

dnclive interests and commercial advantages, 
both by sea and land, creates a desire to emi- 
grate Theresull Is that they come here and 
Bi Hi- in rarions sections, where, by industry, 
Ihej do well al Ii ast, and ufti d bi come wealthy. 
It gratifies onr pride to know that, through our 
exertions, we have i" i u instrumental in doing 
something by which a desirable class of i emi- 
grants bave bl I D brought here, who will uid In 
tli" growth and dert I. .|. meat of the Stale. 

Now, we are ol the opinion that it is only 
necessarv to show that Culfiornia deserves im- 
migrants to have them, it strikes as thai the 
accomplishing this most 
desirable object, is Bimply to maku known 
abroad, fairly, Ihe advantagi a the Btate has to 
industrious immigrants. And we urge 
"l"" r California readers, who bave inquir- 
ing friends, either in this country, or in (he 
Old World, to inform them of these i 
""■-' '''" BWOOUOBEB OF ' 

"'" , " Hi' in also, that lh< re an 

fflt *»ln the broad limits of the State, bi in ral 
lonnlii b, each ol which contains land enough 

f ei ""' ''"' by the plow, to form s prinoi- 

""'">'• Tl "' information thai aaoli du u 

,f lbia journal i „ Wl ip8a ] „,,,,, , ,,, 

bly to theli Judgment and vIctionB than 

hundred* "i pi [vote letters. 
11 '" »" '" hoped that foi (he benefit ol the 

Sl "''' M u ' n " oui own, In the lu , 

*"" "i' 1 "-' "' " efulness will be o |« rublj 

" l b > """" liuwal mpporl , own 

'Id fetln prfdi Id d publloa 

""" ■■■'■■- 1 ' I" doing o much foi ihe State ,.„ 
inrnal Is, and tend ll to tuoii friei 

SO.Ulvlll' I'll! »l>\ \ \ I «M II s I ,» I I. 

oi I I. US I'o sCTTLEKS. 

The poaalinr and favored "conditions of Cali- 
fornia, r. ii. i< i bi i in attractive field, uol only 

to emigrants from foreig uu tries, but lo 

those from tho more densely populated of tbo 
Atlantic States. The comparative remoteness 
of her situation, and 1 1 1 • - absi a f any thor- 
oughly organized scheme to advance bw re- 
sources in the quarters where the newly-ar- 
rived immigrants from the old woil.l nec- 
essarily ocentrate, have operated to her dis- 
advantage in the acquisition of Bettlers. 

But thes- drawbaoks are being rapidly re- 
moved. Information regarding our condition 
and resources .is daily beoomiug more widely 
diffused, and the question ol distance is no ob- 
stacle now that the Southern PaoiBo Eailrord 
is completed through to New Orleans. It is 

believed that a line of steamers will soon con 
nect with it, for the purpose of bringing pas- 
Bengers and immigrants from Europe to Cali- 
fornia al much cheaper rates than formerly 
prevailed by the old routes. 

California, us a field for immigration has no 
advocates in the E isl. in press; therefore, cur. 
rect information iu regard to all Ihe points 
bearing on this subject must be circulated and 
sought for through other channels. Oui ef- 
forts are constantly directed to the object of 
supplying this needed intelligence, and fur- 
nishing such facts aud statistics, us will ena- 
ble all whom this journal may reach, to draw 
impartial conclusions. When a more aoourate 
knowledge of the generul conditions of our 
State prevails among the people of the Atlantic 
States aud Furope, there oan be but little 
doubt as to the destination which thi 
bulk of intending settlers will select. The 
spread of correct information is the only 
means that California need employ to attract 
the immense immigration that she wantH. And 
let us add, that in the effort to make such in- 
formation more generally accessible, she will 
confer a great benefit on those in sear.-h ol 
new and permanent homes as well as on herself. 
A farm of 1G0 acres, iu almost any of the 
thickly settled portions of the New England 
States is worth from $4.1)00 to $5,000. The 
entire products of such a farm, unless within 
ten miles of Boston or other large city, would 
not amount to $500 a year. But ten acres of 
orchard in this State will produce more than 
three times $600 worth of fruit, with scarcely 
more expense in the way ol labor than the New 
Eoglund farm would require. The ownei ol 
an Eastern $5,000 farm is contented to oleai 
$100 a year one year after another, but the 
$5,000 judiciously expended iu good vines in 
this State, could hardly fail, within n\- 
to net at least $1,000 a year. 

There is no oonutry where, in proportion to 
the labor expended, such results can he ob- 
tained from farming as iu California. Asa 
rule very little of the new laud requires oleai 
ing, and the immigrant has not to devote the 
labor of years in bringing Ins farm into a tilla- 
ble condition. He nnds it all prepared and 
ready to his hands, requiring nothing but his 
work and industry to reward him with abundant 
returns. No great provi Ion is required in any 
portion of the Btate against long an. I -.■..,, 
wiati rs 'i be greal majority of those who 
hav- come to California with the objeol oi 
farming have prospered. The discontent.-,! , |. 
ement. which is found to prevail hi re, as In all 

other count i, consists ol those who I 

lied too much on the natural advantagi with 

wnioh they found themselves bu nded, i 

i tpeoted to secure a iesa wltboul muofa work 

The rigbl class ol agricultural laborers seldom 

'"' of -" bore, i to iui b do Stub Iu ihi 

Union off rs gn ati i Indui i mi nte. The bulk 
of oui tillable soil is far from being exhausted, 

and there are millions oi aoresol the Sues \- 

u " l ""' 1 »nloh bin | yel been touched bi 

the plow. With fertile lands, an unsurj 
climate and a market at bis door, the immi- 
grant cannot, anywhere, find a more favorable 

l' 1 '"'" '"' ' emontthan California. Tl <i, 

oui a v.iy large Beotion ol the country the 

rainfall Is Bufflolenl for all agricull i pnr- 

' VI " '" the dryesl BoasouH. 
'" , " reclamation ol our swamp and over- 
flowed, whioh Is being prosoouted with n il 

W , "" 1 vigor, hn«. already, prej i foi 

"ettlemcnl a lurge aroa ol tin i | productive 

'"' '" ,lir world [rrigal works bavi madi 

■■'"' ll P«ogrc»i, Ibal In Ihe drj Beotion . I i. 

""• ""' now offered foi Bale witboul the moans 
, " 1 "" 1 ' "" neoosBarj I ■ being Qrsl pro- 


An immense del i is thus open to hi rs, to 

better their oondition, by i toC ilifornia, 

a i'i;\v PACTS RELATIVE TO mil BIA> 
In the oourse of a lecture, recently delivered 

in \.-\i Voi k ( lity, b> a Returned Californian, 

he Htat-.l, anion;; Mil,, i limits, " Thai ill Ho .'III 
years since Hie Ai mm people got fairly 

Btarted in their California career, they bav< 
performed an amount of labor, and created an 

a nut of wealth tbnl is absolutely marvelous 

to contemplate.'" And yet then on "in-; who 

say that the Stat- lias DOl ninil- nnoli pj 

old was discover! ,1 wo have produced 
a i -I sen) into the channels ol Ihe world's com- 
more than n billion dollars worth of the 
preolous metals. Industry in ail |, nis of the 
worl I has fell the benefit of the stimnluB thus 
given to universal trade; the demand for labor 
has been everywhere increased and its reward 
enhanced. Our whoat exports, during the lasl 
i id a century, have not been fewer than 
1 mi. iiiio, null centals. 

Apart from the preolous metals, our annual 
export trade has attained a value of nearly 
970,000,000. Our lumbei trndi h i ■ di n loped 
into larger dimensions. Iu agricultural pur- 
suits our chief reliance has bei n on « beat, and 
it will, without doubt, continue to be our 
principal staple product for Home years to 
come, though a more diversified system of 
farming is beginning to prevail, more and 
m ri , to the great advantage, not only of the 
but also ol >be general in- 
ten i ol the State, The area of land under 
wheal culture, during Ihe past season, is esti- 
mate,! to have been about 3, nun, nun acres ; the 
yn Id ol which we assume t.> be not less than 
10,000,000 bushels. Our natural advantages 
b that, notwithstanding our great dis- 
tance from the principal wheat morkets of the 
world, we can compete BUCCl -sfnlly with Rus- 
sia and the Atlantic States. A largi i an > 
of land is ev.ry year being "devoted to this 


Our wool interest has become ol -rent value; 
the clip of the past year being estimated al 
ii. aily I i nun ooo pounds. Judging from pres- 
ent Indications, our products in a f, 
will include cotton and silk, experiments in thi 
cultivation of these Btaples having thus far 
been attended with encouraging results. Our 
win- inier.-st is inoreosing in growth and value 
yeai bj year. From Ibis industry I alifornia 

will reap an imn imounl of wenltb in the 

neai future. Last year's product Is estimated 

0,000 gallons, while a large amount of 

brandy was distilled from grapes. For frail 

■ no part of th- world has mi, I, 

California, (he variety >.f soil and oli- 
in ii'. in the different Beotions, being suitable 
foi Ihe ohoioe desorij 

Senator .Miller, not long Bince showed from 

Btatistios that ool withstanding the many druw- 

,i Btate has labored under, on acoonnl 

ol the Chinese question, its remoteness rrom 

the great centers oi civilization and othei 

OaUBeS, yet nearly on- I, mi I h ,.( ih- ,, 

commerce of the nation, since 1848, is doe to 
"aliioruia alone. In general commercial and 
i .1 affairs, the position attained by the 
Stat.-, ami more particularly Ban Pranoisoo, 
during the period ol its • ilstenoe undi r Ami ri- 
• ■in rule, exhibits a degree and rapiditj 
gress altogether without parallel In history. 
The world is beginning to have a oorreol 
"I'l lotion ol the natural wealth ol Califor- 
nia People, who a few years ago, regarded 
ii merely as a gold and llvi i produi lug State 
on now awan ol Ihe (a< t, tb il b< i agricultu- 
ral and othei products are oi a ri than 

ail iin resoorcea ol hi >■ ml) md ral 

liable as they ore, 

The banking capital of the State amounts to 

about 1150,000, I, oi wbiob sum $8 i 

are r< preseuti d In oui vurious savings inslitn 
nous. The value oi n porta by boh, dur- 
ing the past year Is pm down as ovei - 
074. The value ol our manufactures, yearly, 

is something ovei 100,000, , i ■ . 

'slue ol iin- tax .bi- propi rtj ol the Bl iti Is, 
acoordlug to the anthoutlo asaoBBora ri turn, 
more than $850,0 0,000. Those Qgui 

" i otlng the mora aolh ul fi ntun - oi oui 

Young Btuto's oondition Bpoak foi themselves, 

1 lug faots and Bguros, wi trust, 

U|M P'ovo "i" utivos i i , in , a - to oon 

Unui ,i o ti ■ pi i ii and aolh m 

T " 1 Kl " i oi i'm dtoiinxj in ii,- betl 

r"i'"' '", the Coast foi farmora. 

J rir >nary i 


Santa Anita Vineyard, 

San Gabriel Valley, California, 

Vintage* of 1875, 1816, and 1877, 

Will be found v«i v rich and choice, 
Warranted pure and of full body, 


Vintages of 1815 and 1876. 

This is a \\ in«- oi Superior Qual. 
iiv.iiini such ;■* has never been 
on the market in any counrr] 
This article SHOULD not i )e 
classed \\ iiii tin- Bo-called Angel* 
ica Wines «»i this < oast, hut is of 
a rich, rare flavor and lull nod- 
led, and no < ORD1 \i. can com- 
pare with it. 


Man n fit. lure of 1875 and 1876, 

Cannot ■»•• excelled, having been 
but a fen months before the 
Public, it is meeting with un- 
paralleled favor, in the excln- 

si.m of all other brands. 

Special Cold Medals 





ALL OF" Till 


Are Manufactured from the best 
selected grapes, grown upon soil 
peculiarly adapted to iin*- bran- 
dies, and is always retained in 
private stock until over Bve 
fears ol age, and none offered 
for sale at a lessage. Guaranteed 

tree lioiu foreign spirits 
terations Of BUJ kind, and the 
identity ol the brand always pre* 

served, whlcli is a guarantee for 
fine quality, flavor, and purity* 

sk IBxperta |ada«i ol I Ilea, of all 

i, ,. ii.,,.-, ii... (..,.,, ,,. i •». lei hi. -, ,.i prc 

nonnce k. j. ii *i.i>\\ i\s 

The PUREST and BEST In tbo WORLD. 

One of Many Testimonials: 

- J - ■ . i In Bon.u 

Ij i Ineed In 1,:,,,,, md i ,i. ubl 

ktl nld i.- 111. - Ii - I Ion il tl 

an i th Hi id doyi a iu r, i . .. ■ v ,, ; tin i ■ 


ii hi i iiu] irli udi 

tl a llllt 


l Bin. vers ii,.i\ . four*, 
ncd i •) D 

1 •■• Bol ••• < old P h. - .in- it ILDU in" 

BR4ND1 i.. i .,,,,, I., i i llclnal 

pur pot vt n Ii in i a hi ...I ..i in] i i "• " 

■ i ■•> •■ i, .i,i. ii u ,,i nareoabl i hooltti" 

f"i. nml no i.e. ... n. . i »i...i- 

ova .i Uj Ita ■!» ii. i- ..i.i.iii"! 

■ id] •< now i nit .n." 11 ' 

■n, •■•■iin. i.i. iapoeli.ll] foi II m "•• 

'•» " Hrat. obomlaf, ». 

' Itlfi i uffea an. i mollowa IM 

brand] « lorfully, In ,. Him 

Poraali . ,.., UcrcbanU, 

I i ;i . 

ED. .i. ii vi.iim i\, :i? i in- ■(root, 

■Mi.. Baldwin Bol* 

*. \\ i u w. IN. o. 










Standard Stationary Engines. 

The cui !■ preai nta our Improved Blido Valvi 
Stationary Eugines, i icept where tlio variabli 
cut off i» used. TUcy aru simple in construc- 
tinn, wiili tin fewest possible parts; *oine l.eine. 
dispensed with that aro in D80 in the ordinary 
engines of thia olo88. Tiny are solid - 
symmetrical, of ibo beat material and workman- 
ship, and of liaudBome finish, 

The Steam Cheat ia caal on the cylinder, dis- 
pensing with u troublesome joint. 

Tlio Vulvo is a SI iilo Valve, working on the 
Bide, thua doing away with the wear ami tear of 
the rink shafts. Tlicy arc made to open full 
port ami to cut off the steam from one- half to 
Avo-oights of tlio stroke, thus securing full 
pressure when moat needed, and ns early a cut 
off as possible with the single valve. 

Tlio Guides are bored and in a lino with the 
cylinder, aud so arranged that they may bo re- 
moved and replaced again with no chance of 
getting out of line. 

The Main Shaft and Connecting rind are of 
hammered iron; and the Piston Rodi Vnlvi 
Itod, and Crank Pin aro of steel. All the bear- 
ings aro broad and lung, with gun-metal boxes 
securing the least possible friction. 

Blpiyer Maraf'i Co. Bells. 

Church, School and Fire Alarm. 

The Blymyer Manufacturing Co. '6 Bells 
average in price less than one half as much as 
the copper and tin composition bells and mount- 
ings, and arc warranted against breakage twice 
as long— two years. 

As to the quality, they are fine-toned, can Ue 
lieard as far as copper and tin bells "f same 
size, and they are moro durable 


Bel 1. 

IB-inch ...918.00 

Fire. Church. 







215 00 

i i(j fjo 

11. von 
165 on 
210 00 
200 ni 

Portable Engine on Skids. 

The Engine maj be detached from the boiler 
if di irod, and bi I • p as a Stationarj Engine. 
All that is required iu addition to the Portable 
Engine on Binds, as bIiowii in engraving above, 
i- connecting pipes, 

Ti ii oh furnished on applii 


Improved Calvanized Iron, Portable 



Dryer and Baker 


The above engraving Illustrates the Victor Cano Mill, the leading Mill for Animal 

Power in all states where cither the Sorgo or Bu rown. It has been awarded 

tho First Premium over all competitors al Fifty-one State Fairs, and was 
awarded the Crand Medal at the Centennial Exhibition. It lias mi I ovorj mill 
of any character in all tho countrj at every Working Trial, and lias taken the Premium 
overall. The number sold since 1863 exceeds Twenty-two Thousand. 

Bendf u Illustrated Circular for Horizontal Mills, also for tho Celebrated Niles' 

Mills, foi Steam Power and Coi Ii Evaporator 

No. 3, Large— Dryer only. 

Wo offer oar Dryoi and Baker to the public, with 
urance thai we have the best combined and 
, ,i [ron Machine in the markot, com- 
bining, n- it does, the following nun"! ton I and i 
tial featun ■• i 

[t is portabli Are-proof, economii il labor-saving, 
oouvi hi. hi Ii will nol i ii-i requires no paintii 

and cures fruil and vegetables equal, if nol 

Bunei I'u i" anj Di yoi in 11 ioj ki I 

Furthermore wi havi llio approval and hearty en- 
dorsement ol iioarh nil tlio leaning fruit ami agri- 
cultural Journals ol tin intry and the God-spetd 

of ail who havi an d it oi bi en il operate, 

No. 1, S50, No. 2, - 1150. No. 4 - 


We are Sole Agents on this Coast for the following Lines of Coods : 

MINING & HAMMER STEEL, from CANNON STEEL WORKS, Sheffield, England, in Bond or Duty Paid. 

Farming Tools ; Diamond Axes ; Paci6c Sledges and Wedges ; Black Diamoud Files and Rasps ; Chester & Harris Axe, Pick and Sledge Handles \ 
The Giact Riding Saw Machine ; Zimmerman Power Meat Cutter ; Enterprise Windmills ; Gemsh Submerged Pumps ; 

King Lawn Mowers i Queen Lawn Mowers. 

Please send for our General Cal ilogue, or Spocial Descriptive Circulars. Correspondence- respectfully Bolioited. Solicit amoa < lorrespondenoio en Bspafiol. 


323 and 325 MARKET STREET, San Francisco. Cal. 





C O >I M I •: K (' I A L K A. IV K. !-» . 


Anahoim, Ban* ol inaheliu 

Benlola, Bank ol '" "" '» 

Hull- I'.uintv llnnl. UUICO 

Oallfornia, Bauk ol Ban I rati - 

Oallforula, 8tato Bank ol Baot u 

Oallforula Safe Di p isll and Pnwi Qo .. , ami Franuisco 

Qhloo, Bank "i 01 

OltlEona' Hani, ol Ni rada city .., Novsds Oity 

Colusa Oouuty Bank Ooluso 

Commercial bank ol Banta \un .SantaAua .. 

Commercial .v Bavlngs Bank ol Sau Joso., sau Jose .... 

Consolidated Bauk ol San Dli'go San Diego 

Dlwra, Bankol Dixon- , 

Farmers' Bankol Wheat! I Whuatlaud 

Par s" Exchango Bank San Bernardino 

Farmers' and Meohauloe' Baul Healflabnrg 

Former.-' aud Merchunls'Baiik I.os Aug. I.s 

Farmera' Savings Bauk Lakeporl 

Former- IUO Fresno . . . 

rr . ano Count] Baul I " »uo 

Qraugen' Bank of Oallforula Ban Jfranolaeo 

Ollroy, Bank of Gllroy 

Hi iidBburg, BanK of Healdsburg 

Holllbti i. Bank ol Holllstei 

Humboldl 'ii nt v Bank Knroka 

Korn Valli j Bank BakersOeld 

Lake. Bauk ■>! Lakeporl 

La Porto, Bank ol LaPorte 

Los Angeles Couutj Bank Loa Augek-8 

Martim IF, B iuk Ol Murlim/ 

Mendocino I Usui -unt Bauk klcudoolu 

Merced Bank Merced 

Modi ato Bank Modesto 

Mono County Hank Bodle 

Napa, Bank of Napa City 

Nevada Bankol San Pranolaco Sau Francisco .... 

Pacific Bank San Pranclsi ■ 

Pftainma Savings Bunk Petaluuia 

Baoxameuto Bauk Sacramento 

Salinas City Bank Salinas Cltj 

Sauta Clara ■ ' mnty B ml; Banta Clara 

ruz Connly Bauk Banta Cruz 

San Joaquin Valley Bank Stockton 

S»u -To-.-. Hani, .it San Jose 

San Luis Obispo, Bank of San Luis Obispo 

Sauta Rosa Dunk Santa liosa 

Bsvlngs Bank ol Sauta Boaa Santa Rosa 

BlBklyou Connty Bank Vrcka 

Bl ii i' db Bank St Helena 

Stockton Savings Bark Stockton 

Souoma Ciniuty Bauk Petal uuiu 

Boi ia Valley Bank Sunouia 

Btlisun, Bank ol Snisuti 

Tehama Oouuty Bank. Red Bluff 

Tomali'B, Bank of Touiules 

Ukiab. Bank of Ukiab 

Ventura, Bank of BanBueuavuutura 

Visalia. Bauk of Vlsalla 

Wells, Fargo A; Co. 's Bank San Francisco 

Watsonville, Bank of ft'atsonvllle 

Willows, Bonk of Willows 

Woodland. Bauk of... Woodland 

Fobeio.n Banks (Sun Francisco Branebes). 

Anglo-Coliforniau Hunk, Limited San Frauolsca 

British Columbia, Bauk of San Frani Isco... . 

British Nortb America, Bank of inn Francis 

London and San Francisco Bank — Limited San Prani i 

I'll.. . 

i lonni j . 

I . . ■■■ \n [oluH .... 



Sin I 1 l in. ilsi ... .. i .... 

-.un Fram Iboo . . 

N. Y.nla 


i "- tngoles 

Santa! llara ... 

-M, hi. gO 



inn Bernardino . 


Los Angeles 


i 1 1 mo 


San Fran, i- 

Santa Clara 

Si ia 

-• .I. Benito 





Lob \ ii ties — 
i Costa 

Mi udoniuo 

Mi reed 




un isco.... 
San Francisco — 


Sai i auiento 

U i i. roy 

Santa Olara 

Santa Cm 

San Jouqiilu 

Santa Clai " 

Luis Obispo . 



Naiia. . . . 

Dan Joaquin 

S Ilia 

Bouoma. . 





8 hi i- 1 miolsco . . . 
Santa Cruz 
i !olusa 

Pri Bldi nt 


S in i ranolsi ... 
Sun Fran. 1st 
San Franofsco. 

s ii Moll 

A .1 

S H Ituloont 

•V. Alvord ••• 

N. II. Itnl. -.111 
I Ii. 1 " i \ 

r . Ou n 1 1 J 

,• M I'r. I..II 

ii roe Hug ir 

Ii lluihi.iiiy 

B D. Mnrphy .... 

s witiirrby 

s Q Little 

T s. Swing 

i.. .in., Mgr 

B ii Barm - 

1 W Mi Ihi, an . 

U. C. B.iggs 

Lewis Lea. It., 
Jobn W Hinds 
John Lowelllng 

I. A Wnit. Iiui-I 

ii ft Wilson. 
r. s Hawkins 
.i ft Hi nd 
Solon Jownti . 

I laiiK H Tl B. .. 

i , Bi indou — 
i s. suulBon. 

I, I I- 1 - 1 . 
Eugene Brown 
Samuel 0. Bob b 
\ . i, i in 8si | 
lioberl Un ton 
Lewis Li h I 

i I Fl I 

K 11. McDouald . 

II. T Fairbanks 

C. H. Swift .. 

1. - -. i . Can 

Klli. ii \ii-lin. 

O.I. I., a. Ii .. 

T. E. Beans 

.1 p, Andrews 

B. T. Farmi i 
\ i- .... cton 
rcrome Ohurohlll 

i wet 

H. S. Sari 

Win. Hill 

David Bun 
i; n Robbing .... 
■. ler 

W Dutton 

i; McGarvi s 

T It Hani 

It. E. Hydo, 

Lloyd r. vis 

r.| ... 

WD. Rid.. 

J, D. Stephen .... 

I' r Low, Mgr 
w. Powell, Mgr 
A McKiulay, MgT . 
A. Scrlvem t Mgi 

i , I,,, i 

Quo H shall r 

A. P lidding 

i'. Fuulkui i ... 
riioinas Brown 

\ M.I.mII 

It Tin. nil' ii I l 

\ ii On n 
John T Morgan 
w P ii iiTlngion 

W, S Harl.ll 

II Mil) 

Hi \ mm I Hi .war, I 

ii ii ,i kliisi in 

win Luinbard .. • 

R II wariiuld 
.lulu, Miii t, Hco'y . 

.1 W. Mmliiill 

w W Phillips 

C (. Ilili.s 

I Moutpi III. i- 

" liersey 

Corn Bponding Bank, EubI 

Flr-t Natlunal Hank. New York 

inn 1 1. an Exi bangi •. Hi w 1 u I .. . ■■ . Nl H 'ill 

1 n I i. in;'. '" v. I ml 

.i si w a" iigu . 

i irsl Natloi lank, «' ''• Uori 

\ in. I (I ItaUgU, Nl W Yi.rl, 

First National Hank, Ni h Vork 

Eugene Ki lly it Oo . Ni h 1 

I' irsl Natl I Hank, N, u \.il 

- Hln 

.1. J. BOWI 

W, M. Hunt, ii 

w Fore 

c i' Hastings 

Dixon Brabb u 

II I. Ma. ni, I 

W. M II . 

Win He. SIT 

Hai . Bowi ii — 

k.i , 1 1 M ii. urj 

II F lln-lui; 

C K i, nil, ii,ll ... 

.1 s Angus, Bei y. . 

D. B. Fairbanks 

Ed n Hamilton.... 

W S .1 .111, SOU 

0,0. Hayward 

i i i • 

F .1 HugglUB ...... 

.'. X. Park 

w E st. .-. 

ft l: \n. ii.iuy ... 

,i i. u idsworth 
i p Haall 
Sidney Newell .... 

1 S \ an Don I. 

Jesse BtirrlB 

Win. W....I: 

Tims. J. Abll 8 

s Win. Ii r 

Honry ■ Hay 

0. .i i, ni. i 

ii Wadeworth.Troas 

W i Murdoch ..... 

w c Bush . . 

i. ..'mi.'. Bros Ni v. I ■ 1 1, 

Dn tel, Mor tan .\ Co . Ni « "•■" k 
Luidlav .'• Oo Ni n IToi '■ 
Droxel, Morgan & Co , Ni h k"orl 
.1 ,v w. s, llgman It Oo . Ni h S 

First Nan lank, Novi x"ork 

Imp. and Iradi rs 1 Nat Bk, Now ITork 

Horgan .^ Oo . Now STork 
i. -, ■ I. .i i ron b, Ni >^ J ork 
Seligman .<•- '.'.'.. New York .... 

si. mi Bk "i Coi i ' . Ni a \ ork 

Wells, Fargo & Oo . Now York 

i ... ft Bellgman .v Co., Komi x"ork 
.1 k w. Bellgman It Oo . Now I 
Countze BroB., Ni w Jfork 

i i . ililiifnla 

Pa Bank Ban Fi bco 

Hunk ..I Call la, Ban E 

Loud in I sun I i BCO Hank, S I 

First National Uold Hi. I 

\n,.|.. i lalll >"' B ink . Ban Francisco 

in Fran 

Hank nt fjulll Frai 

Bkol I .i ,8 i i ' '■ Bk -I Loa Ang. 

Ii. n. iln a , K. Ilj .V 00 . San Inn 

hi. in. Bank, nan i ram Isi o 

mi Gold Bk, San I i mi 1st o 

i :il Gold Bk, San I ' 

I a/ u .1 I- n reB, San !■ ran. ISCO 

London ami San Iran 

Hunk ..I i liiillni i, ia. San !■ run, is. ., 

London and Ban i ram 
'nglo-Csllforulan Ban! 
Hani, ..i Oallfornia, Ban t rani I 

I , -.. .-, II, I I ,ii,. is, ., 

'nglo-Oallforulan Bank, sun Pram isi u 

Lai .i.i i " i. b, Now York 


Sellgmau h Co , Ni « Vol k.. , 

1 enoy, B3 Wall st,,, i, Ni n STork 

■ and Nil. r- N ii Bk, Ni w fork 

Konntzc Bros ,Now n ork 

i. Kollj k Co . Ni w York 
Laidlaw It Oo . Now York 
i ir-t National Bank, Ni n i 
Drexel, Morgan I ork . 
Imp un,i Tradi r' Nat, Bk, Ni 
Nni Bk of Stati . S \ 
Dn ■ i. Morgan ft Co., Ni n York 

Nl W York 

Wells, i I 

P N. Lilienthal 

nun N„i Bank. Ni n JTork ... 

Dn •.. i. Morgan tt Co., Now y i rk... 

Laidlaw & Co . New JTork ... 

r. & ff. Scligmn I .rk .... 

. irk 

I W Sl llMinm li Co . N 

Dn tel, ii , i '. 

Bk ..i Oointm rce, Now York 
w, lis I i,i .. | i . . Nl w York .... 
K. K. ll, > a Co . Ni « I.. 

n York 
National Baut ol I lommi rco.B - 

leligman k Co., Now 1 oi i. 

i Montreal, Ni 
Hani, ol British North I 

lir, (i I M 

in. ,i,„i Gold Bk, 

tnglo-Oallforul »n Hank, 

I illfoi man Bank . 

lUfO» Hani. 

Hank ,.t i lallfornla. Ban 

Pacific Hani,, Ban Fran 

Lazard I n n b, Ban i ran 

illfornlan Hani, 

\ nglo-i lain oi man Bank 

Inglo-Oallfornlan Bank 

San I , . 
Sun [ ■ , 


San Fran, i-. u 

tnglo-Collfurnlan Baul 

S'. I. 

lanl "I Call! 

illforoiau Ban! 

I'allant \ CO , Ban Iron is, •,,.. 

Hank of California, San Frauel 

. [rsl National I 


- ,n I ran. Is, ,, 

London i 
vnglo-Callfornian Bai I 

Pai in, Bank, Sau Pi tin bi o 

Donahue. Kelly & Co . Sau I'm 
itionol Bank, San Frnt,, U 

i 10U.000 

.. Ill 111,1 


ii ii in a, 



200 ni", 


1 imn.n, n 


inn un,. 
I"'. i 












Hi?. I,,, 


5 1,861 , ,., 



Head uiUce 

IV A. T I O IV A J-. II A N K B 


First National Bank 

First National Hank 

Fir-t National Bank 

Onion National Bank 

First National Gold Hank 

National Gold Bank of D. <J. Mills & Co . 

First National Gold 1 

First National Hank , 

First National Bank 

First National Bank 

Stockton National Bonk 


■ ■ - 

' lakland 

Oukluud . 
Sin rain, nt<i 
San Iran 

San Jose 

Santa Barbara 




: • 

Main. .la 



Levi Jcnks 

E F. Spenco 


Ii. A. Palmer 

I (, ft nl;. r.-li am 

i i „, HIHa 

San Francisco |lt. C. Woolworih 

William D.TiBdBle 
W. W II., Ulster.... 
Frank Btewi 1 1 
K. W. Tully 

Santa Clan 

Sanla Barbara 

San Joaquin 

San Joaquin . . . 

I'li-lin i 

James E Baki i 
William Lai ) 
Charh s ii 

Palmer . . 

II II Atvt .t ■ 

Irani. Mill, r 

I. I' Uoi n 

I. .. Nlsmlth .. . 
Aiuasa L Lincoln 
II H Hi ' 
U. W. Tull> 

ponding Hank, i ml rnia, Capital. 

rYorl Fir-t National Q < ancisi • I 

First Nan . . >. 1 1. Pai Bl 

N d Pari ii N Y h Maverli 

i'ii. mi,., rk 

Firsl Nl nal Hani,. Nl fl \'il 

Ann r 

National < 

\ ,1 I ,ll an, I I ii-l \ || I.,,, I 

01 1 Nun. nal H.i.l V fl York .. 

first Nali, in al Haul, Nl » \ „i 

Wells, Fargo ft Co ,New^ rl 

. .in nal Gold Bl - 

Bank of Calif or I 

anglo-Ca.1. and i I s. F . . 


Wells, Fargo A Co , Sau Francisco., 

1 00,000 


- ,,.i 


W A. V I IV G H B A N K ^ . 




Pri -i,l, ni 

Corresponding Bank, California 


Oallfornia Savings and L^an Society ... 

French Savings ami Loan Society 

German 8avincs.and Loan Boi Ii tj . 

Hiberuia Savings aud Loan 8ociotJ 
Humboldt Savings uud Loan S.., i, t , 

Mendocino, Bank or 

Merced s, ouritj Savings Bank 

Oakland Bank of Savings 

People's Savings Hank 

Ran Fram [BCO Savings Union 

Santa Cruz Bunk of Savings and Loan.. 
Saving- ami Loan Society 

Security Savings Hunk 

St.ickton Savings and Loan Society. . . 
Onion Savings Bank 

Vullejo Savings and I'.iinunrelul bank. 

Ran Fran, 1 600, . .. 

sun Fram iai ... . 
an Francisi o... 

Sau Fram iSCO 
San Fram is, ci 
Mi mi... .. 

Oakland . . . 

s„n J i un. is. ,,. .. 

Santa Cruz 

San Fram ISCO, . 

sun I ranulace 


San I ruUClBCO.. 

I I am ISI i, 

Sou Francisco, . 

San Francis, ,,. . 
Sau F'ranclBCO.. 

Mi ndoolno 



Sai 1 1. in. nto 

8au Francisco. 

Santa Cruz 

San Fran 

San Franolsi o.. 

San Joaquin ,.., 
Alameda ..... 


D 1 ''lirqillial -,,|, 

\ Weill 
i, Gottlng 
M I, Bwci 
,\,i,.i|,ii c Wobei 

I i iwn ..... 


W. Beckuian . . 

i. ni., - lull, a,, r\ 
K Austin 

•i.ilni Brleki 11...... 

J. Lincoln 

L. U. Shlppe. 
J W. Martin. 
E, .i Wilson . . 

V. Campbell, s, , y 
a Brand, - 

K ,i Xobln 

A Hal liiianll 
ft Hln, u IK 

n ft Weatbj 

ft ft ..„lll, wait. 

w i Huntoos 

I... veil White 

Cyrus W i 

w s. .inn, -. Si . I 
F. M. WV..I 
H. A. Palmor, Tn as 
Joseph R.EngliBb... 


F, b W. Bellgmai 

Ninth Nat i Laidlaw I I • . s S 


W, lis. Fare,, A Co . BBU I 

Natl,, nal HaliL Ol I lOO n I NOWl 0] I 

Laldluw \ 00 , N,m \,,rk 

Laidlaw \ i la , Ni » Eork 

i n'rg'o"&'Co!,Ni n 


i , ., . Sou Francisco. 







r» R I V .V V E B A. N It E II S 


Crafts k 8on 

P, Davis .^- Bro 

Andrews ti Molleubeck 

J. P. Browu A Co 


Hayford & Perkins 

E «', ilir 

I irgo& Oo 

H. Scammou 

E L. Mi 

v, .- !■ :, .... 

J. H. Buriihaiu 

Charles Hrfntzen 

a h Oarlock 

WelBBboin Bros k I 

Harris k Ithine 

Wi lis, i orgo '- Oo 

| lewi t; 

Hi, I. .,nt ,v bimil, 

Walter win. y 

O. 8cblund 

i B Oo. Am i, 

Phillips, un hardaA Oo 

Itnl. nut, Smith ,'i Oo 

Huuli...' ,'.'..... ... 

- . on 

. rati 

BiVOTBldo Bank ... 

fames i i. 

W a o Bmltfa 

I), ii. Oarvi r 

U A Km. 

!i i, 1...11K and Hhmighttl Banking Turn 
Ijoiio I, h. lly A 00 

1). Iln, ItCO 

)■• Barton It Oo 

Alfred Bon i I Co 

Lazard Froroa 

Hstli.r A 00 

TolUnl ' I 

H I . Ill uring Il.iuwi AHHuclktlou 

i; B.Gordon b Oo 

George Wood 






Cedar vi lie 





I'ut. Ii Mat 

Dutch I'lat 

Fi .is. ,in 

ForoBt City 


Grass Valli j 

i mi, pi ndence ., .. 

Iowa City 



Michigan mini 
Mol • innim iiiii 

Napa • ny 

Napa ' Ity 

Nevada Oil 

I'll,. .Mill. 
HI,,. . r\ ill.' 

Red ninii 



si. Helens 

Bl Helens 

Ban i 

san Francisco . . 
Ban i- rani In o 

■in lac 

Ban i .un, ii..-., . . . 

San I' ram I . . 

San I run, 

Ban i ranolsco, ... 
san Fram Isoo. .. . 
san Pram Isco . . . 
Ban i run, Ii i o 

Han Hal a, I 
HI, ii„ Vi.ll, v 

eli s 

Him . r 
Yuba . 


I'la, oi 

ii Dorado 


i ounty . 



Sacrami nto 








i'la. . r 

i ':,li,v, r„K 


Ni vada 


Bl Dorado 

i-.i Dorado 

I. Iiuinii 

sun Bernardino . 




San I'll . . 

Sau 1' ranolsco.... 

Ban fi, 
Han Fri 

Sun I iuiii'Isc... 
Sun Frauds,.. 

su„ Franclsao. . 
sun Fran 
san Fran 

Han Fran 




Dyi i Bros , Banki rs 

ii w Harrlos, Agt! ! 

a. MaKlnlaj 

i 'hln, Bloopor, Mgr.. 

Oi ii' Bponding Bonk, East. 

Wells, l'ar,:,,.\ CO., N„w York 

i iiuihun, N„t' Bank, Ni n York 
w.ii-. Fargo ii Co , NowYorl 

Nl ml Hank, Nl B \ ■ " I, 

Corresponding Bank, California. 

w. Ms. Fargo b Co., Now York 

w. lis, Fargo a Oo„Ni « York 

w, lis, i an., ,v Oo , Now York 

w, Us, Fargo & 0o., Now tfork 

0. h Ltli harde k Oo ,New \ - 
Wolla, Fargo k Oo . y, « Yorl 

Wi lis, i in,,, j oo , Now Stork 

Mm man I ll I,. ■,,,,■, Nut Han, 

American Bci bangc Nut Hank, N, S 

i nidi aw ,\ Oo . Ni *> fork 

Am. in un I .. ,;. Sat, Bonk, N. Y.. 

Laidlaw ,v 0o., NowVorl 

i i, , • National Hani,. Ni " Ifoi i 

Nai ,,1 Park Hani Now ITork 

I.imird Froroa, New York 

■ rt \\ v. n Willi Btrei I 

Biigono k. iii \ Oo . Ni « ITork 
i Von Hoffman & Oo . Now York . 
a. ie.ii,, .. oo . Ni n i l i. 

.. u V,.|l, 

oxol, Morgan ii Oo . Ni « ITork 
■-■"• UoBoubaum I Oo . Ni n ITork 
Droxol, Morgou S 0a , Now fork 

ii nil wb, Ni w York 

Wells, Fargo .-. Oo , Ban Francisco ... 

first Null, nal Hank, San 1 mi 

Wi m- Fargo ,v i ,■ . sun Fran 

Wolls, Fai ' 

London and San Fram is, ■■ Bank, B i- 

FlrSl Na'n, nal .1,1,1 Bk 3 

i Irsl Nati, nai Gold Bk, Ban I 

WoiIb Forgo ft i 

London and Ban Fnuiolsco Bai 

Anglo-Oallfornlan Bank, Ban Franoiseo 

Wi lis. Fargo & Oo . Ban FrauolBoo 

Wi 11b, I ai 

Wi lis, Fargo \ Oo . Ban Francisco 

w. lis. Fargo 8 I 

\n i,, Oalifornlan Bank Ban Fram laci 



Angln-i'iiHt, .nihil, Hunk, Sun 1'raiiciscn 

London and Ban I ram Isco Bank, B I 
Bank ol Oallfornia, Ban Fi 
kof Oallfornia, Ban I 

Hank 01 lalll, ,1111a. San Irah, 

Wolla, Fargo .\ Oo , Ban Frani Iai o 

F Bl rtOU \ OO . San fiaii, i-, ,. 

i. .ni. i in. i San 1 1 i.i,, isco Bank, B B 

Hani, ol California, Ban Frauolsco 

Satin l ,S OO . Sun I- is, ,, 

, III. an Ian Hank, Sun I lam c. ,. 

Hank of Oallforula, Ban Pram Isi 

Pai un Bank, Ban t ram is, 

Laaard Fri n -. Ban E rauolsoo, 

Bank Ol lalll,, una. Sun 1 I am Is.a, .... 

Bank "i Oallforula, Ban I ■ 

I'lii'llh' Hank. Hun I'l'iiiiclHcn 

eW a\ yjf Gn enwichne 





I ^ 



M \i O 






/ -• - 1 " 

_ Ml ST J 

3 w« • i.-f 

: F 

■ o '":■. i 

ir,/.'.„. .1 


rfVJfl * 



' i sun { 


n c in i.i. 

40* JfefcJ 


1 H 

- 7 


' I 


<Mm Shv ""' 

. AoL 



y | WHITE HF] \ E j 





(HAMILTON ' V, r<. ; 

!7i*Mi rrl (^ 




//",/, .,.,, 


, ft I 

l ^ 

\/ ! M 

*IL ! 

//\U "A MilMII 





1 // 




* map or v » 

s'.. v/ ' " .1 



A XI) 


//,. ly .t/,„tff 5 iv, 1,1/ w/.Y.I 



js;t,v fJ.ffAfl v,/ 



ft.'"-'?2C""" ! ' V * <-* 

/■'/"""««V-- _^'_ «■-; \ 

[ -• — *- 


n , , , . ivr e x i 

■>•) LiMiyiiMdr w'csl ^'e |- r ,„,| '\V„slim w lu'n »'l ' ^' 


* J ** ^ ,\, -l hS|,. Wuslnnghm*! 40 39 "^ "=' 

Revised and Corrected for THE RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA, 320 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



LLOVO 1 '■ 
J«>. J \ . 

• ml Superintendent. Sail l-rauclica 

(kill i 
i ii i Vork. 

II. WAI . : i mclico. 

WALLAC i . CI i miOI/SG 8: Dl.ANDINC. 
Allorneyl, San 1 r.inclico. 

Office of the 




8a n eFt-cwicLvoo, ^jauuatij I, ISS3. 

Dear Sir: The following is a copy of our Annual Statement of Precious Metals produced in the Stati 
Territories west of the Missouri River, including British Columbia (and receipts in San Francisco by express from the we t 
coast of Mexico) during 1882, which shows aggregate products as follows: Gold, $30,193,355; Silver, $50,155,2 
Copper, $4,055,037; Lead, $8,008,155. Total gross result, $92,411,835. 

California shows a decrease in Gold of $1,696,351. Nevada shows a total falling off of $1,484,188; thi 
from the Comstock being $1,333,018, as against $1,726,162 in 1881 — a decrease of $393,144. The product ol I 
District is $3,176,656, as against $4,127,265, in 1881 — a decrease of $953,609. Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and 
Arizona each show a notable increase on the products of last year. 

The increase of transportation facilities for carrying bullion, pig metal, ores, etc., Iris increased the difficulty of 
verifying the reports of products from several import. mt localities ; and the general tendency is to exaggeration when 
actual values are not obtainable from authentic sources, but the aggregate result as shown herein, we think may be relied on 
with reasonable confidence. 











New Mexico 




Mexico (West Coast) 

British Columbia 

Gold Dun and Bul- 
lion l-y Express. 












$25,939,2 10 

Gold Dust ninl Bul- 
lion liy Othl 1 
convc y .1 11. 1 









259.55 7 


$2, 167,699 

Silver Bullion by 

$5 9.342 



2 57.597 

Ores and Rise 
Bullion by Freight. 





4,92 I,000 





$l6,3 I 






25,9 3 
3,667,1 v 

-5 7 

\ 2 , 44 1 


The gross yield for 1S82, shown above, segregated, is approximately as follows : 

£? ld 32!%%. • • • $3o,«93.355 

^ llver 54t¥o-% 50,155.288 

c°PP er 4rV*-% 4,055.037 

Lead s tVo% 8,008,, 55 



1 mt . i-ls-;. 


Products as per 

f- merits, 

including Am 

from British Columbia 
and West Coast of Mexico. 

Product after 
deducting Amounts 

from British 

Columbia and West 

Coast of Mexico. 

The Net Product of the States and Territories * louri River, exclusive ... 
Columbia and West Coast of Mexico, divided, 

















84.5" 1 













8,oo8, 1 



















$ 898,000 






■ 1 1 1 . 1 ■ 

The exports of silver during 
Southampton, $27,390,000. From 
Total, $43,266,000, as against $2 

the present year to Japan, China, India, the Straits, 
Venice, $9,695,000. From Marseilles, $806,000. 
7,000,000 from the same places in 1881. 

J NO. J. 

San Francisco, $5,375,000. 


'Manul'ueturors ••' 1 l»c 



Pat op In Uurrcl. Expressly for Uome Can. 


In Uuriela for Export 


At Lowcit Market Km... 

Office: 326 Market Street, Dp StaJra. 


Shipping and Com mission Merchants, 

325 Market Stroeti 



rnorairrou of 

«iueen City Market, 


Oholo.rt Bul.1 ,«,.. , ,„„„ „„„ 

Korultfn KOuM|{ttt of all Kindt. 


1164-11"8 Market St., and 8-8 Taylor St., 



Paid-up V" 1 '"" 1 "*'■ iOOO 

Hairpin* Puud and 1 1. ,1 

1 ro "«» 9 480.000 

President R , c . irooi.wnuTH 

Vlce-Prei .I...I ,, , »,,.,,.,, , N 

tu,, "' r I. U. MUHCiAN 


' 2 , w w " r,h ' ''• l,r Do 

1 Uookor, Jnmoa Phi ItD, 

Uror K «> A. Low. .| lllll( „ Ml , m ,, 

U N. Vmi |i, 1 




l-ANl LOMUAliU si 1,1 1 1 

Hill I IM.I 1 l; ft HO 


111 I NEWMAN & CO 


Dl in IN 



Onml Ulllliin, In I, , „, ( ',,,,1 1 n, „ I . I„ ,„ | lt 1D j 

"v.bT./.iX,:;: |b ' »• ™»«w « i p«». 

...,V; ..'.", •:,:;.';". ;■,".': I .: , . , ; , 1 '" l » ,ura > ■• ■* •« 

*uau.ukl"r."" l ' c "'"' " u "' I, "" vUI "« 1 ''. Ilnu, Banks, 

_^ January 



( Branch of New York) 


816 and 818 


Cordially Invltea the public hU Mw 
atore, where they will ,.-.. the lar K r.t , Bi 
Oholoeat Itoelc »f Engllah and Porel K n ,«. 
OinlUea In Woolens Tor the .Sprint; 
Give am cull. 


Examine oar Now Styles, Price* and Qatl. 
Ity. Civility to all. No trouble to ,h<m 
goods. Lightest and Largest Tailoring K* 
tabllahinent on the coost. BatlateeUn 
guaranteed. Store lighted by Electricity. 




Tin- '"lli n threads among tbo grtea, 
J2sth> tie colon blended in between. 
1 bl -ilv, r threads mlied In with brown- 
All colore Id wool as soft as down. 


Pants from 8 5 00 

Suits from 20 00 

Overcoats from 15 00 

Dress Coats from 20 00 

Geuuine Gx Bearer Suit- 

from GO 00 

Black Doeskin Pants from 7 00 

White Vesta from 3 00 

Fancy Vests from.... GOO 

English Cords for Hunting Suits 


With Instructions for Self-measurement 

with our Gazette of New Fashions, 

8 l : \ T F n e K . 

NICOLiL, Tin- Tailor. 

Men's Furnishing Depart- 

Also lm Ilea attention la hi, \. ». Parnlahlaf 

Depi m t- the lunresl lto< h ol the lineil 

i ..-i. nice 


NICOLL, The Tailor, 
Ready-made Department, 

Boa a large atook or Men's, Boys* and \ •"•''"' 


n. nreal Patterns and li !!«»••% 

thru nk. Uen'a xolia from 91a lloya* ■>■*•• 
tivoreuuta, i lalera 

MfMClAL u n BNTION paid "■> i»«tree» 
fiuiu i lii. ilium i > . 

MTOI.I,, Tlie Tailor, 


MarlLot Strooti 





niL iiai.i.u in no i Li.. 

The above i >n Illustrates b dot and vorycompleti 

Uttlc D»icl ,lnvi ntcd by C H Baki P.M. E.,l 

in- quioksllvi i Into the batt rli ■ ol gold quarts mills 
eh. mi chanli il i trlvance and opi i illon ol II Is 

■bout M f i 

Within the i lr< ular box, the low< t pari of which also 

actsasaquli i. llvi i rvolr.Jusl baolcof, am u i»lcd 

ff |tb tli< shaft "i the gear wbei I, Is a i ow I 01 

, mil .,, | th the shafl On Its outei arm 

i, in, d bnlb iui i" ad, wltl ' Its bsso, 

dlowsof asmaU eavltj ol auj 
belog formed bclon the love] ol ihi apexol two oblique 
- n i,i. b communicate from the oppositi 
rior of said bulbous head to the Interloi 
piBsage in arm runnlnir to the bollow ahofl 
wheel befon Bpoken of. Themodn operandi would be 
this Power bi log applied, bj mi ans ol belt, I 

. nnall pulley on rtght, tranamlt'ed thi nci 
bj worm to worm wheel, would dip hollowarm down 

jalckstlver n si rvoir, and, as II slowly turm d and 

, Li vi Is, all Burplua quli ksllvoi abovi 
sorewoavlty would Qowback Into reservoir Ibrough the 
holes, until, as the arms continued to ri volvi . 

t.-rior of Bald oblique paSSi bolni 

thereby higher than where they Join In the center ol 
arms), and reached Its highest point, thi drop would 
Bow down and out oi shafl Into tubi li ading to battery, 

, nine havlDg few parts, I I gvesysli 

trucUi D.wlll not gel oul oi order.and oannol bi 
worn out within any reasonable time. Already II has 
proved Ita adaptation to the work, feeding once in ten 
or fifteen mtnuti s.ori ven ii, thlrlj mlnub s, a large or 
small di '■ "" qnentitj I 

alated iu a moment by a aet-acrow, without Btop] Ing 

e.Trlnl.Tr tins Iiub be, il don- l"> baud, and 

the attention or Inattention ol I peratoraol mlUs, 

and often, from necessity, much gold la losl ri rwanl ol 
the proper reeding of qutclnjllvi i II Is pul al the low 
price of MS. with all the fittings necessarj to pul II to 
work; weight 

Manufactured by the Globe Irou Work-. 
Fremont street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Between Montgomery anil Ki-iirny Street*. 

The early growth oi I lalifoi oia Hops neither h pnasei Undo 
iiK-i with favor at borne nor abroad; thej were 
said to be rank and bitter and devoid of keep- 
ing qnulit ii B, 

il 1870, tii. ywere n glnl here at len cents 
pi r pound, and one intelligent grower, in that 
year, told me l>" despaired "f ever raising a 
re illy No. 1 article in California, 

He bad been cultivating his ground for sev- 
i ral years; bad made quits in improvement iu 
the moil" -if "living ( I iini'i' Ii" lnul patented 
it; had been) very careful in picking and dry- 
ing his lust crop, but was In despair about the 
ultimate Buooess. I had been using lim hops 
and found them remarkably good, and advised 
him to ship direct to England— to this, bow- 
ever, he was deoidedly opposed tit first, us be 
hud, yenrs before, sent some from tin Bame 
yard with tli" moat unsatisfactory results. I 
explained to him my theory of the matter, 
which was, that new soil oontains a vasl 
amount ol alkalis nml Bubstances deu'imi utal 
to their keeping qualities; that bops greedilj 
absorb these matters and carry Bome pari ol 
them into the extraot; there they produce rabid 
uud ucetio fermentations but retain all the bit- 
ter. After arguing the matter with him - 

time, be concluded to send 100 bales to Eng- 
land. Messrs. Buss & Co. bought Eome of 
them, and the nle made from them took the 
prize at Sydenham in 1871. 

This brought the foreigners into our market 
next season, and hops ruled at 50 ceuts per 
pound. Tins price, of course, being very re- 
munerative, many went into hop-raising, and 
comes our next heavy set back. 

Knowing the aversion brewers have to hops 
from new soil, many of |the growers sold their 
crop without name or brand on the bales. Un- 
principled men, for immediate gain, took ad- 
of tbis and put on favorite brands, 
with the result that might be expected, and the 
fair fame of our State suffered severely. The 
samo practice has been carried on again this 
year, and unless a 6top be put to it it will be 
worse next year. As your excellent paper 
reaches almost all the growers, I would suggest 
through you, that they lose no time in getting 
a bill before the Legislature compelling every 
grower to have a specific brand, recorded at; that it I"- Q felony lo Bell Ol 
remove a bale or package of hops without the 
grower's brand beiug placed legibly thereon; 
and lhat it be a felony to copy, counterfeit, 
use or remove auother's brand. This may be 
crude, as I have stated it, but something of the 
kiud is absolutely necessary. 

I would remiud them that growers Norlh are 
mncb mm- careful than we are, aud it behooves 
us to look well to our laurels. There is no 
place on earth can equal California, it due care 
is observed. Respectfully, C. WttLMOT. 



i.t of n V.'l- 

xrMii Pro|>,l.-tu 

On tho llrBl day "I last nth the Baldwin Hold 

mi mi of II It Pearson. Tljc 

r siucc it was or I, bei d ri 

i Hug hot i "f this i oast, snd Its On il 
mi., the bands ol Mr. Pearson Insures thi 

malntcnai t Its reputation In erecting the Bald' 

win ii" wisest i an was exnrclsi d to pi t< i s building 

boti i lilthi ii- ubItui ii d, and durlDg 

,, i has be n "i" n to Hi" public do partli u 

I Inn blob mon beaut) op I 

-> '• oould have i bi oun d Evi rj 

• ,!,, miouf -t di 
1 1 and ploasure of guests, for whom it im» » 
,.i so i 'I'"" building Is nro-proof, 

, gtructed, looated In the mosl coutral Bpol In khi 

i ity, close to the m insloi I Mob Hill, and In « i>«- 

midal "f i,ii places of amuaomi nl Pox the Btrsngcr In 

San Fraud thor i > ■ ■ t- 1 is oh well situated, and 

ird in 

The Leading Market of the Pacific 




Goods purchased In tbi» Market need no other recom- 

THOS. BROWN, Superintendent. 


D. -T. Slnpl'S. President of the Firemans 
Fund Insurance Company, has, for the eighth 
time, beeu elected, unauiinonaly, president of 
the s in Francisco Board of Fire Underwriters. 
This is a very high compliment to confer upon 
any gentleman, aud Bhows that Mr. Staples 
iharged the responsible duties of the 
position wild credit to himself and benefit to 
the association 






i ■ 

Address PACIFIC PRESS, Oakland, Cal. 

Tin. Equipments of «*»«■ Bouse, 

They ore nol surpassed on the continent. Thi i i 

in, ,1 i luir nr" handsome nn, I roinrortnlilo. tin nl 

num. rOOB :ili'l Wl II tr.illn d, BUd HlO tlbll 

in-arB the bcsl fare In thi State rbi D 

the flrsl promlm nt Bights thai i atoh ti"- eyi 

he reai in - thi city, an I onlj to 

ih" travi ling communil bul 'nr Into thi 

dm World, as a place pat excellence XI ffii 

as perfool b picture ot magnificence as marbli floors 

nml inters. plati-Klass ami polished w Ih, nil kepi 

scrupulously i lean, can offect. Lo 

blbltod from the offlco, and ladies can attend I 

i. inter without Injury to ii" Dm 

bllity. B|>i- gdld parlors for I 
the guests, grai ed with One paintings, plat- 
rich carpi I ind ■ loganl rurnlture I 
out Ho- bouse nr" electrlo bells, messenger calls and 
evory coucvlvable convenience. In the lower balls sre 
tropical planl ' beauty. 
For the pleasure ol male gnosis, a Dret-olass billiard- 
room, patroniaed by the beal gentlomen In tl 
and one of tho boBt bars In tho olty, are located on the 
ground Door A barber Bhop Is also adjaoanl to thi 
i hoi and oold baths i an bo i d Joyed without 

Leaving the housi . bsthr as an I i losete being 

Connecte.l «lll< Every Suite. 
Tl" dining ball) situated In the second story, is a 

master •• ol art, olegant In bvi ry detail, and i qualed 

n, its .i. lights only by the apli nn an fare with whii i> 
its tables aro laden. For six years tho Baluwlu bos 
been thi • bosi n ubode of more tout Ists and i ountrj vis- 
itors than any other two hotela in thi city Thi 
of thlB State and Oregon. We ' '»■ * D,i 

Arizona know that their wants can bl betlei 
ii,. re than anywhi re i lee, and whi nevi i in] publli 

assemblage oalltng the attend I Inb rlordi legates, 

is held in this olty, they maki their headquarters al 
thai place Expeclallj 

charge Will II"- inllnui . Mr Pi 

■ . oldi -' an i i" "i bo 

the Onlt. i 91 lies tt i i bI born In the business, 

ond has been connei ted wit! t« Ii evci sine. 

,,i,i ue has, at boiui time, been 

wuii nearly all the beal bot< thi Coasl and II n u 

andex his managemeul thai thi 'tan be- 

came to popular ..ii this slopi He boys • i 
needed for the hotel Drsl bss I : "' » lit > 

middlemen, and Insuring bis gui its the Ix si artlcli - to 
be boughtln the market, wlthoul being compelled to 

stlnl ii" in I" quantity to ofBs I commissions i out 

„,,!,. proOts Hi has taken care to Burround birasi II 
win, ii..- besl men In the bot< I prof" asiou, and iioaBts a 
corpsof asaiaaanta whii b cannot bi rlvali d. Bardenberelii 
Chief longed totbl m. George, of Sacramento. 
Inltahalej lays, then to the Russ House, the Occi- 
dental, the Cosinopolitun,i.ii.i the Qrand, being In all 
., the most popular clerks ol the Isst 

as yam. M. a. Prenob, i iBshler, was mected 

with the old Rassette House, and was csshier ol the 

dental, nndertha management ol the Lelandi. H. 

a ,,,,,,,. , blot eaurci ba bad s wldi and loadingea 

Hehaaaoted In iho as eapai It) in thi In- 

DBl.of Virginia City. Nevada. II,. l Al [ton.ol 

B»nlB Barbara, the Auaerals, ol Ban Jose, the Qallndo 

i Oakland, the Ocold ol 11 Y, while 

bj thi Lelands.and has lust I - lf»m 

,,„ loading hotel of the 

uh.,1. Wot si The night elerk Is fl 

,., the proprietor,* 

»ud i" vei falls to satisfy people with whom hi - 11 ) 

trsnsaollous It requires only a cas »isil to th. 

Baldwin to obtain It c I lor belug admirably man- 
la alnglo traosacl with Mi Poaraon satisfies 

mforl will be al 

fflthl di barges for thi i il 

-, , perlor iocommodntlonfc 

Anyman, single, and benl ileasur. »ri 

with tho comfort ol al lyl ' 

d wl spendonodsy lerthocareol Hi 

, »istau»a,wlllDol fail t "'i' 1 ' 1 " 

irinthooltyund """" 

and keen 

utenabl. thene- 

autsol ,: run .i to« '" 

,„,.,. , ttentlon. Ko doabtos bI stto thoout. 

mi Pearson' tu I king town Ita 

Dsldwlo The in- wrdsg ro nitj 

■ IhopubUolh nj othorwltl u n 

tbi oldest inhabitant, and tho pi H 

mttiod bythowholi pi 

ors,aswi ' 

i to .tu. , i 101 '"" ;' ■; 

hotoi, i, "ii"- ." >■• """; " " ; 

and the beat hotel proprietor are brought togotherfor 
public r. eon mil on oommoudatlon i 

accorded them, without hesitation, snd with truthful 



Th" twentieth nun, mi statement ol this coropai 
ton n- showsthattbi past yrsr, slthoiigh unfortunate 
to underwriting, In general, hu boon aprofltabli 

ilia handsome II 

mi buslm is and t surplus. 

Tbccapir ..f this company, during tiie paattwonty 
,,, h n complete r, i ord ol the Insurani 
upggof ,-.,. iol onl] did Hn company Issue 

the Drsl in.- Insur polli | ol any Pacific Coasl com- 
pany, non ' : '' "" """ "' "" ' 

throughout ii" i- lat.thi I ilonopi ptlj 

iini.ihi •. . and i.i" i to cull ii"- honors 

„„,i profits "i n ; Ihronghoul tl Ited 

,r alone more than Its entire 

t"|T. -■nl ktlTI "I Oallfi ■ 

in all ii. yean— 

Bob ton , Virginia Olty, Portland, Oregon— u 

well as In il» lull BUBl 

which bavi swopl out try so constantly, of late, 

■ ' prom tlj Inti 


itegrity snd sbllitj which has p 
In the vi rj rronl rank ol ttri ondi rwrll 

i and, whlob bad np to this 
time 1'" n doing an i ■■■ luslvi lj Dp Insnranci bu 
eommonced U i '"-■ u| -"- thai dopart- 

of Win. J Dutton, ti" 
Companye tary Atthat tlmelhoi 

i locals and a number ol fori Ign 
actively engaged in tiii^ dcpartmonl ol underwrit- 

. hroughoul all tl 
business rim mi; the pa t during which 

several companies h« 
partmi nta, and tb — lei) Marlni loi al baa r. tired from 

in, Murine branch of the Firemans r*u 
been uniformly profltabli and baa Increased In volume 
until 1882, ii" Marine premiums ol the company were 
new ly II nol quite double those of any other American 
compouy orgauized west of New York Stato. 


In these days of bo much food srlull 

ui to i" abletorecommen I 
Ii t being all thai is 
claimed for it. which is put up in cans of full 
weight, and composed only ol tin- best qualities of 
and bi-oarbonato of bo la; whii b 
all me lical and chemical authorities agree, when 
combined in proper proportions, consti 

I,, vim of the manj brands of 
kot, a lulterated with 

redients, to take tl" place of 

other :ii".." ' . ■■' ' l "'" ,it 

into tin- pocket of the unscrupulous manul u 

■ : in then el le of a baking powdei I « 

use at I ■ ind we know, from prai tical ■ 

, ,„, t h a | thi \. n England brand will 
i„ ti. , itisl v Hon than anything else of th 
obtainabl P invariablj ahon the 

I powder to pi 

results in cooking, while thi ■ "' "« 

,,,,,, nn ! chemists jatisfactorilj provi that 

it is o |>osod onlj ol i ronn I »oda, 

combined in bucIi nice proportions to evolve tl"- 

nit of l. • ""' l "'"'" ;i "' 

.i, in turning oul th. lightest and moat 
whohwomi <n i " ; ! ] '"' ' ni' ' : ' • 
all g I housek to set on their tables. 

The "id adagn, " thi proof "f tho pudding 
wbtlsl being a very homely one. seems lo "i press so 
mm b.and appears tot ' • | '"' "' append, 

„,, proof, as connected with P 
. lodi-termine the quantity ol the vai 
mtalned In the CincAena Rubra bark, Is noces- 
gBrj ,,, the pp paratlon ol averj batch ol Peruvian 
' withoul whioh ibis 

mi Id rhave acquired II 

,.„, W ell i wn reputation. With this, all may feel 

mured tbateveryl g Is being done to prove thai Ihi 

■ .,,,, ,., the confldi ncei 
,,, ,,, and the pnblli ma] real assured thai nocoln or 

palnswll spared In Keeping Peruvian SiUtn up to 

n„ mars i Ii id-tho sol ol Its kind 

I uarmaoe tloal <'i" mlat, 

na Itutira bark govo 153 

,8 grain.. 

rn" ii" 

'. II" ' .. 

Olnehonla •"' 

Till'. < u.iiimimv MARKET. 
This marki t.nndsi Ihi able Buperlnti 

Ivi s ontin sal « ,N "'""y P* - 

i UI irki i alwaj italns the bestol ever) 

tblua thi . i Bl i I from Bomt-tropli Csl 

,u parts "i ii" world Ml ihi 

In ,11 thi rarlonsdi pal Uol this markal an polite 

Mr Brown b 
,,„i kaedisobsi 

11 verj plal annei to thi 

,,. n, i,, una strikes wialtors 

u i i is t\ orful.foi ii-" H '-;•" 

tl bai ii- ii Ittultand Crostastol rogoUblu 

i„«) uol ii" aeon. 






, in ,i- month, and •!"" tly opposite the o tfa -i thi 

,, lhl . i i. red tin hottest pis Il " 

Count. «« ii" ire ire, on in ovorogi . 580 ■ 

y,.»r Thore an i number ol Hoi towns and pro- 

olnoti i" ii.- couutj Tin po] a In 1880, ol tbla 

pi ... i nntrj was 8,018, bul will; i bei 

fully 13,000 at pn R at 


i„ M;,,. L8S0, thi Oil] i I Ben i i ■!" I Urel • nt< red 

upon IU formal ami Ii 

Indopondi ul "in lilt] Tin Oouuty ol Ban Frnn- 

olaoo Uad b on dul] orgaulaed the i procodlng. 

Forupwerdsol 60 year* tho two dlsitnol government 

c ,,i. mpo ran, iousIj lotained n"i ndenl ai nlstra- 

. . i, ii,,. game geographies) I s, On tbo Ural 

,,, j u iy, 1856, the ini ill Is v ' '• uniting the two, 

„,„i utie "i " ri" OI13 and Count] ol 

l ugh bul 21 roars 

•• Hi mpllshmenl ol this consoli- 
dation, Mokonlog from Its Indopendonl birthday ol 
.,. i ; ft in 1" Way of the presi nl yi ar, will hi 

the exact ago or theolty, The il land una of the 

oitj and oount] la 20,081 acres, bj r»r the smallest 

nl* n, II"- 31 l,r ' i" 1 "' '""" ""'an to 

ind -half, by six andono-half mlloa 

In length. The peninsula on whloh the oltj Is located 
is about so miles long bj Bfteen wide, the cltj and 
county oeoupylng the western end, Then are l.uDI 
a tn i ta, avenues, and alleys, which appeal on tii" map 
of the city, uuil 27,060 buildings, about 5,000 of which 
„r" brick; the- balance Is of wood. There are 93 Church 

unusunllj Isrgosmo ol beoi muuufauturod In San 

PrancUco, A uumbi r ol oui largi si bn wi ■ ■• an In 
Xhi*e an throe dlstUli rles In 

the Btate, tw whloh an In this i Itj 'J be manufai - 

turool cigoi land tobai bo i lorgolj luoreased during 

thi pasl feu. Thon an about 800 white i 

wblti '• males, and t,600 Chinese i mployod In thi i 

in." Ian ol 1 1 | an il 70 I I and sboi i 

n in the olty, iloylng 3,61 <nda; II Is oa- 

tlmali d thai fully 3,900 ol thi The man- 

uin. tun "i i lothlng ,11"! nndi i m u baa Ini n swd from 

■•., to 10 i 'i . bul we an uuabli to obtain thi i u I 

. u ij in thi year, We have sli oxtenslvo box 
. besides s num- 
borol smallor establishments ol this obsracter, there 
ni-" » large uumbei ol Important Induairloa thai eannol 
appeal In so brlof an article as this, suob as powdoi 
m. b, silk ii" tory, Jowi Irj works, carri- 
age aud wag lotorlos, billiard table works, wine 

tank builders, sssh, door, and blind factories, soap 
works, agricultural works, mirror works, glue fai torli b, 
typi foundrli s, trunk foi torlos.ti rrs i otts worl 

work . i mini ni" in, t is, harness and saddle factories, 

unit canni rli i, oil works, marble works, i rai ki c baki r- 
lea, glove i." b, eti ItlslmposBlbli lo glvi ■ de- 
tail ,i description u mi tropolU ol thi Psi 

in an article as i>rie( as we aru obliged to make this, bul 
the ni" bird's oye elew, with Its hundn da ol ships and 

.from ail parts ol tbo world, lying at anchor, 
will glvo our Eastern and European nsdorsofab Ides 
oi Ban Francisco. 

Is bounded on the uorth by Sacramento, on the cost by 
inwdor, Calaveras and Btanlslsus; on the Bontfa by 

Stanislaus, and on the west by Alanieda aud i ■ ■ > ' • 

h, „,i ol ii,, Btookton ohannol, on the lino of thi Con 

i,„i r,,, in, Railroad, 01 inlli ■ from Bai I 

mil, an, mi; tnllci bj water, This ohannel in „ wide 

and doop arm ol thi Bai ramento rlvor, which i» mivi- 

gable ii" n Bsols "i 000 tons capai Ity The oil 

ovor an an ■ ol four «queru mill ■ The charai ti i "i Its 

buildings ibstantlal and 

portion i" Infl buill ol bI i otlroly .■( brli k, 

,\ systom ol slrei I railroads affords easy socon idatlon 

between various parts of tho alt] Btookton la conceded 
to bo the ii" -i Important grain market ol the PaclfJi 
Coust, outsldi "i Ban Frauolsco Tbi doop, navigable 

ohannel, radiating from the rlv todifforenl points 

in ii" city, glvo o convunienl wotci front ol many miles 
,n , v i, ni, i in ii as Is not p ed i Isofl bi re In 1 1" 

Btato. Bubsisntlul wharves have been built, with an 
I, ogtn "i i" srlj s mlli (n fa< Ultli •• i"> 
ii portatlou, Btookton Is anosusllj fortunate Rail- 
roads radiate from this ccntor in all dlrootlons; north, 

ti,. last.jin.i west, co ctlng directly with thi en 

i tint ni,, and Ban Joaquin \uii, j •• the mountain 

country on the east, Ban Franclsc tbi southwest' 

ami tbo Eastern Btatcsb] both thi Contra] and Bouth- 
Rallroadi \ dollj Urn ol stcsmi i» runs 
n and Ban Frsi Innnmi r> 

ablo crafts, carrying thousands ol tons ,,i grain to8an 
t*r»u"isco, ami returning with coal, lumber, and mer- 
Tho manufacturing Industries ol Btockton aro only 

Bocond to Bon Pram lai o, 1 bis, bi Ing u central i lion, 

convenient to tho great Mount Diablo coal Oelds, fuel 
ui„> b dolivend cheapl] bj water communication; In 
i„, i, the ia, llllli - >'" in Iffbtine, fui I mati rial ol all 
kinds, either by watoi or roll, an not excelled bj an] 
locality on the Ooaal Btockton has msdi npid strides 
In her manufacturing during the lastflvi yean, Two 

wheat, 1 1" itowu i ,,iii.nniiai„,ui /in, ,,, ,,,,!,. , fi|i| 
south from Btookton i» 

rii" jiii" i", ii ,,i ii" Contra! and Boutin rn i ai 

II lama I, splendid : ,|| ( 

\ boul lift, i , 
ui Lathrop is 

•I'rm j , 

Tho junction ol tho Central and Man Pablo and Tol 
dlvlalon "i thi Bouthi 1 1 

an i i.,; 

Thi tow I, i onti ioui i ■ 

in ii" ■ 

Camp, 76; Atlai ,. , n(41 , 

Dollota, "H, Collogovll . n , ,„' 

s \\ j.i is OB18PO < 01 .\ i i 

'•""""' bet Wi i ii latitad 

86 and 80 dogs., north TI tanci rronj Ban Fnuu 

1 I" il,". IDll \f,u. 

the latti ii i- mi" mill 

Ban i." boundaries ol 

north, by .,,. ,,„ ,,„. M , UIL 

by Bants I 

bj Mi «li an | rani tltli • , and I 

un tains ami thi 
divided bj ii" Bants 
parts, about one-third lying •.-,, , .,, lllw> 

It ii nil 

watered oi westsldi ol tbi mialDstn 

nun,, n •■ atnams thai hi id up in n,, 

rings Mb,, I, ui.,1 ti, way vest 


orKBiiizatioiih, »n ,.,f which havi bouses ol wonhlpin 
various parts uf tin- i.ity. Twenty-throe large brick 

business 1,1 oi i bavi been added, all o! which an I 

blghj besides tfa »er 260 dwellings 

have been built or commenced during tin year. Thtj 
are generally neat, two-story bay-window, 
ityle bouaea, boating from »i,ooo to $10,000. Boveral 
veryelega coating from 180, 00 to 860,000, 

havi been buill In dlflj nnt portions oi our • Ity 
Miinaruii M, ■■-. 
Then *r,- some BJ0 dill n ni manufai turSngeatabllsh- 

d this city. 997 ol thesi an rporated • 

and altogi thi r employing. 10,00 • baiilca, 

manufai Inrod produi t ol over 

i v, in ii" largely Ini p 

yoar, The mammoth i ugai n Bni rj ol Clans 8pnckli . 

compli ted a ten and twi Ive storj brlok al a 

hiding mi,, i, ,i„ ij, ul 11.300,000, will turnout, 

when In mil operation. 000 tons ol 

;.' ,i i twelve brass f Irles In the 

di rolling mill, glvln ploj to 160 mi n 

■ mi boys: oni "ir" i ploying somi 00 

bands; t iir«-«- glass works, two ol wlilota 

llabed in 1881, fnrnla n employn foi 1 10 i and 

rho an principal!] engaged In manufacturing 
ias has ns 

:, un, i, . bnl ii i" ii" Intent to itari 

.iik. furnishing employ- 
moni for 80 'in d and 130 boya: b n Ooni an I 
mills nr" oonaUntl) omployod, rnrnlahln Bow and 
r, , ,i. w hi, ii " i i i" fori Ign ooui I 

ta 'lea an rtpi od In Ibis oltyi » ■ ,,i thoao 1 

howevi r. ar<, located In ,i i ii, ,. ni i "i 1 1 ■ "i ii,, Stato, I 

. bovi ii in, wi i 

let lu this ultyi Hn Boea, located In tho Blerra Nevada 

in», Ii.n lu in adquai b ra ben , and thi iTed 

rli.kaburg, of Han Joau, haaulaoau iuuucy. Then lain 

.1 baa an ar. a ,,l 928,000 am . 

this Is owned and aaaosaod, thus luavlngonly 
81,818 screi for waste land, which Is river-bed and 
Borne broken land In thi northcoatorn ami aoutbweal 
em portion or the county, ii la watered b] the Ban 
i '""p mi rtver, which passes through il from south to 
north, spreading Into tbrei ohanm Is a Ii n ml 
Btockton and taking In ita embraci two ol thelargosl 

Islands in tin- Btate. So Btroama ,,i an] Impoi io 

■ni' i ■! from ii" wi st, i"ii ,,n ii,,- eaatorly «iii". within 

""• ii nitaol ii int] tin Moki di snd tbi Btsnls- 

r« join ii" Ban Joaquin, with » h i suffli Ii nt, 

in ■ i rtaln k i oa, to ronder tbom mn Igable foi a con 

lid lodlsl , and furnish a supply ol wnter ado 

qnsti to ii" Irrigation ol the lands lying i„ twti 

ombrai lug tim rlohi mi bi ctlon In ii"- | 

Tho huh ol ii" rlvi i bottoms Is s rloli sand] loom, 

wi ii adapb ,i to ii" growth ol swi 1 1 potal hope, 

corn, peanuts, Sax, hemp, Juto, ramie, >. melons, 

hi, mil IiiiIIh, vi-iii I i.l.l. i, ami „|| nuiuni i ol I I topi . 

produeinn: enormousl] The county occupies a mosl 

favorable am portanl position, on sooount "f Its 

acceaslbllll] to the rkets ol I navigable 

-in iiiiik, ita • icolli iii rallraod I Its Inrg 

,,i tillable BOll.ol ii" in,, si productive ohsrsi ti r B bill 
grain growing prodomlnatea ovoi all othi n stoi i> rala 

lnu forms n alderablo part ol Iho Industries ol 

ii"- oountj i rovod One-bred i i, oaltlo, sbeop 

■mi swim havi boon Imported from oil rlea, 

riiviiiK H" li ipn a .i i. pu- 

tatlon, For thi past few yoan ( ,.in leatborsus 

i„ iii,, Btato ion ii in,, i in un ty, Dairying 

ami Un- raising ot One eattli an i arrli d on I — mi i i 
i, nt, whlh ' i" i p i bandrj Is qnlti an Important In- 


I hi ■ "iiiily H"»l of Han J,, ,,, pun I OOJlt] . Il lOI "l-'l »l thS 

i, i iii.' largi bI i moat eompleti flouring mills on thi 

Ooaal wi n built bon 

mi Bxte'nsli rlcnltural machlni shops, tanneries, 

ami Bhlp-bntldlng furnish employment foi mon men 

iiia, i .mi "ii" i u 1 1" I loaal 


Xwi Ive miles north I ""n Bto kton, bai sprung Into ex- 

lal -H" • ii" -I"" lion ,1 Ibi >• i' i- B . and Is 

now at I If ul village ol i. Inhabitants, it laic 

, „i, ,i in "ii, -I ii,, Bnoal •grlcultural aud fruit - ■ 

n Mn', Two iin,i ,1" iiaii ni'i. s oorthwesl from 

Lodl la 

W Ibrldge, 

Beautifully situated on tbi banks ol the Mokelumne 

river, al tho i" ad "i navigation, fourte Ii 

Btookton. Tblalsonool the oldest plseea in tbi oouuty, 

mi, i nan a distributing port foi upplloi fort i li i ■ 

In oarlj daysi II foothills i l| bl 

miirs northoaal from Lodl Is 

I.,,, ur,>ni, 

in tin i. nt ■ r ni n iim farming coi onitj I 

li ," n thriving now than foi monj ) pa»t,aud it 

coutolna s population or sno. 


mill a ■ aal "i Btoi kton, i» sun ided bj tin 

■ li ini tutng lands In thi i ounl | 1 bis i ■ 

i iim, ,i by ii, i, ,i ,,iik tnes, gh lug thi lai 

ii ii" town oontalus shout 160 Inhabit' 

tanta, and tho surrounding aountr] Idend the 

duolng seolion In the county Blstoen 
miles from Btm kton, on thi llm ol lb< Blot ktoi i 

OOPPOrOPOllS Hall... ml, || III" villi ' 

I'.,, nil,. ulnii, 

W bli i .in,, i, a b) a i>, h fi : Irj 1 1 

farmers lu the Vloiult] al J I] all I DgS| I 'I >•> ralaliiu 

to tho ocean The Salinas and Sao Joan riven. WljJ 

Hull I,,:' 

running In a northern direction 

ml.. Ml Ol 

on tii.- weal aide ol the ring* 

,,r mountolni li i «ti I] rert 

black adobe snd loom natun 

iiik. Th" miii. j i inds ar, >.• ii adapted I 

ind wheat. TM 

rolling aud bill] 

,,,.i an i" it i 
todairyln i ■ Idi nl thi ran • ol mount. 

„ ii" i ■ gravelly dbIui 

:. 1,1 „l„ I II" ■ 

adapti ,1 i" ralslug grain, fruit, and gn| 
i.,,,., bands -I "i", p sn ki pi upon it. 

ai„ui i I Oblsj 

nl lands, Chrome Iron on •'»' 

quloksllvoi ai" found In many plaooa, lo paying 'i«» u- 

Ban i."t» Oblapo 

Tho oountj seat, Is I ed about ■ 

, asl and Is coi tod bj 

I Sanla \1 a, ' 

ppliig point tor iii, lown rhi 
botweou the htllaon thi Ban I 

Bi i, sotU .Orsl settle. 

.bllsbctl Upli 

b f, n Uundrod Inhabitant i, wbi u tin ti 

,„i„" .i buill up ii" ' • si pn out, li i"'«""> 

,i Is Thi '' M " . 

,„ii, , i, , n aah udi i l """ ,s -' 

Qarford, i .,. thoi 

\ , , .., ,. (., i,,,,i.-, 
a diatanoe of :ii mile, south. Thla place bu > 




: li situated to « dnawrli ultural 

< II » III IPH. 

,,,, Btloro bay, it about 90 mllM north from Port Ear. 

i, mi. mill »" many aouth from 8»u 8ln Tbe land- 

ti nin i wards 

laid out built, wltb Orati 

rehouses and storage m foi Bblppera, whoro 

in, r.„ in,- Ooul »li ami u visits twloi a 

„,, i, op and down the Ooasl Chi town hessi in. up 

within tbi several hundred 

Inbabllaota, Land In tbb vlutniiyla oonaldored the 

boat dairy laud In tbo Stafc [I la prl lally ssttled 

by Swlae dalrj Thi vlllagool Mono la i ilm it d ■ 

i - wutli on the oo is) Hi ri Is ■ iral liai bor, 

,,i, Uorru bay.fl awharl bai been built. In the 

flclnll] tbe land I II la i" tti r idapli d t.> 

fanning than dairying. 


Una canyon, 81 milea north from 
-,,n i. a i- Oblapo, and about two mill ■ luland from Lei 

fliiMWf"'* landing, win n s< i ra i all In wluler, ami 

mi 1 1 In rammi i I hi town b i 

babltanta, a g I aetaool, five stores, and two carriage 

and wagon abopa, itachiel support la tbo dair] Inter- 
, || boyi ral rich quli ksllver mines are In tin rti Initj , 
:. t worked, al present, on icoount of the low 
ih, metal, Ono hundred milea distanti ia 

Nun Nllll,-,,,-, 

Tim finest lamiiiiB south "i Sun Francisco n | 
i y ....I wharf ami warebouaes, and the Pacific Ooaal 
steamers call twice a week Thi Qovernment has 
ereotcd a llgbthouao. The town is small, ami tin land 

fur miles aroinnl is nil ,,wni 'I by "in man. 

I in I'asn Uniili-.s In. I and • "lil BUlpbur Hprings oru 28 
milea from Ban Lnia Oblapo by stage. These spriuga 
are famous i (jr. DghOUl the United Slates, ami an- vis- 
lied by miirists anil those suekiug health from all parts 
,if tti, world- 

Thi'otln i towns in I he* county are Cholamo, Joseph- 
me. Ln Pauza, Mustek, PotO, and Sun Ulguel, ulmli 
are all quite small In lssfl the population Dl thll 
,, nniv was9,I42, but tbo railroad baa been i 
and many of the large " ranches" ir. I" bag snl. divided, 

and aettlera are taking advantagi "i these cheap, pro. 
.in, tivi lands, so that the present population Is fully 


Occupies most of tin- peninsula ibat separates the ocean 
from Sid Francisco bay, and is bounded on (In north 
by Sao Pranclsco: east bj thi bay and Sauta Clara, south 
by Santa Cruz, ami weal bj the ocean; it has an area of 
292.500 acres. The shore hues, ou both ocean and bay. 
are exceedingly Irregular. The Gabiian sierra Mori do, 
or sauta Cruz niounyims. traverse thi entiri lengtl 
and occupy nearly one-half Of its surface; yet, full] 

one-hall of San Mat nntj la bubi eptlbli "f cnltlva- 

llon. On tin i aat, 01 bay Bide Of the county, is one ol 
lb. finest littb vail, ya In the State. On the oceeu sub 
then are also from 17,000 to 20,000 acres of level land 

these, there arc severs] other valleys, aucb as 

Canada, Raymondo, Upper, San Oregario, Pon 

and others of lesser note, This county is ooiv about 

fiVS milea Wide at its north end, and some eighteen at 

m i mi. with a ii ngth of (9 miles. Ban Hateo 

llngly well watered by numerous small Btrennie 

i. thi OCi an tidl , the most important are 

PUIan iltOB, 1'urlssima, Lobitas, Tnnltaa, San QregariO, 

Pompouio, Pescadero, Bu'onio, Gazo, and New Seat 

: u lin b have considerable line farming 

lands along their courses through the mountaina, ofti n 
DBiderahli Bleed valleys. On the bay 
-i. i. Btreamsan less numerous, I be san Mateo and San 
|ulto being the only ones of much Importance, 
although there are many small oni a. As is well known, 
San Frauclsco draws her water 6«pply from San Mateo 

ug Valley Water Company has large n 

ami works along the entire length of the mountains. 

ImaU is quite as varied ami diveraiflcd aa the 

It baa been truly said that in California one 

may find i v ry variety of climate; from frigid to torrid, 

i i„l bun Idlty. This as- 

-irin, n is well Illustrated In 8su Mateo county, ezcepl 

that the extremes are not so great as above I 

In tin northern portion it bears some resemblance 

tO Soil : ,| WITl'r-. Ill I I 

and aoutbern parts the winds diminish and the eilmiite 

mild and delightful. On tb an aide the 

II in f r. .in the Pai in. , and ki ep vegetation green 

iti i pari "I the year. This county i 

i wll, ti,. in ol whii 1. is verj fertile. The 
prodni in. ns arc barley, bay, oats, win at. |i"tatoe», cab- 
bags, and all root crops Bbipplng faollltlea are exceb 

■ all at various i 

but In irinti rtbi tfa winds make it danger- 

one. Vloog thi i .all crafth 

■ i.ay. while farther Inland the B 

P B, i. ■ thi Bm st Improved val- 

Coaat. During tin in it twenty years, the 

fnl bnalnesi > "i Ban Francisco nave bnlll 

beautiful , .,„, try p snl. in es along thi 

It, , ntlri i, Dgih, ■ '. odlng to BsnJoae, 
a dlatanei "i fifij miles. Small towns ar. 

Redwood City 

i,. autlfullj altnated along tbi 

v. ill, both Watl i ami raili"Uil 
:iii Of San Fran- 

' a bai il i i •• Inhabitants In 111 vicinity 

, . : . onntryi i difomla 

BpanlahioM ■•, 

on Ball atbon Day, In a nu>. agricultural country; it 

i.n. Sun Mi Ml nl" 

Park, and Belli an r > suburbs i I 

■ ■• man] dI bi r an iltbli il oitlau ds, 

I', .. iiili-n, 

Ethei inthi n I ol II nlj II la a fino 

. and is an ronndi d by an ■ u i Hi nl 
i ban bn towna an Bearavllle, 

Mlllbi. ma, and Ban Ore- 


wood aaw tluiber, but moat of It lm« been OUl mil has considerable llmbi r, whli b is fast be- 
ing rapidly oonvertod Into lumbi i 5 be population ol 
tins county, in 1880, was 7,074: but, at the present writ- 
ing, it would amount to folly 0,000, 


Lies betwci n Ban Lulu Obis; a the north, Veuturaon 

, Santa Barbara channel on tbi south, and the 
Paclflo ocean on thi weal Tbo island! In the Pacific, 
aomo 30 or 80 miles out, belong to this county, Below 

Point Conci pt iin coasl Ilm b< ode ibarply to the 

' i paralli I with tbia line is the Banta Vn, ,■ 

untaina, from 9,000 to 4.000 feel In height. 

traversing the county from oaal to weal Beyond Ibe 
range, running In a oortl Hon, llo the San 

Bafa i mountaina Uargi portion ol thi northeaatern 
purl of tin , "in, in |i ,, i iig| ,i. ,, Dtalnoua region, con- 
taining a few email valleys whloh ard fi ftlfe, but the 

b .i i. n waste, U< twi en the Suuta 

Shea mountains and the baj Ilea tbo celebrated Santa 
Barbara valley. This valbv is Unparalleled in the 
world for Its healthy, equable climate, the Islands 
making thi. winds. The most delicate 
flowers bloom every day In the year, and Invalids num. 
hero from all parts Of the world, and many of them 
pi rmanently n tile here The soil ..f this valley is of a 

dork, Bandy loam. The shortest way of reaching 

Banta Barbara 

Is by way of the Coast steamers, u distance of .'00 milcB 
southeast. The town Ilea within a space of time miles 
iquari . gradually rlaing Irom the sea to an elevation of 

.US) li. 1. Hore may In sieu the best preserved "bl Mis- 

few yearn ago, no sign of a habitation could be seen for 
miles, except, occasionally, a border's camp. Now, 
beautiful farms, fields "f grain, cottages, and school- 
n ■ t tin aye on ovi ry band Loiupoi baa about 
BOO Inhabitants, and II will, ere long, be a railroad 

town, as the S L. U. ,v. S M.road is to be I 

from Arroyo Orando, which in no* completed from 
Port Harford, n distance of 80 miloa B< twi en Lompoc 
ond Sauta Uarbara is tin- village Ol 
Near the boundary line oi Ban Luis Oblapo; it is situ- 

at. ,i in ,i fine agricultural c try, and bas aboul 100 

Inhabitants, Central City, a small vil 
miles east ..f Busdalupo, has a plcaaanl climate, and 
unding scenery Is voryattractlvi Loa Alamos 

Is a smell settlement on the rand i tbi aami i 

Tbo Loa Alamos valley, which li nary fer- 

tility, is im n i h rented in small tracts to farmers, 

Is in "in "I lln most lirtib villi, .ys in CallfoiX 

Is mostly dovotod to the culture oi tbo Lima bean, it 
is sheltered by mountains mi three sides, and 

li Is situated on the Inn between Santa Bar- 
bara and Ventura counties. A new Industry lias Just 

bi . ii .n mgurated bore, via . the cultivation ol 
for distillation, such as roses, violets, Jasmlucs, orange 
flowers, etc. The vlllsgo In the valley, ol I 
name, has several hundred Inhabitants. 

Golcta is a small village, eight miles north west Ol 

Banta Barbara, and olalma 200 lnhabit\nta. Thi 

latlon of Santa Barbara eouuly iu 1880 WSB 9,689, Which 
has Increased, within the past two years to aboul 



slon In the State, with Its whitewashed, adobe walls, 
it is still occupied by the order of Franciscan friars, 
tim early archives, and, perbapa, Ihe moal correct earlj 
history "f California * row milea distant ar. the 
mountains, towering several thousand feci above the 
town. The city, at preai nt, has B.OOO Inhabitants; but, 
irbenovei railroada ente^ 'ins ravorito spot II will 
I mi tb I Bsnitariom foi conaumptlvea ami in- 
valids iron, all parts of civilization. In the gardl IIB Of 

ganta Barbara may to aeen tbo palm from India and 
other dellcati plants from China, Australia, Africa, and 
South America, Tropical Jasmines tl lai ol Leb- 
anon, tbi i gyptlan papei plant, tbe bonej tret 
,M,i. n. tin . amphoi trci oi Japan In fan t, om i an bi i 
n greater variety ol choice and rare plants, treea, and 
,i Bsnta Barbara than Lnanyothorapot luAmer- 

,. i In tbi opi " air. 

ici Montecito, 

a abarmlng valley, aboul rout miles oaatward, contalna 

,,..1- r.snl s.nml Is, pr..p, il) speaking, 

burbOl Santa Barbara viill.y II, s .Lis,, to the 

foothills, and opens to tbi soutbweet Into tbi sea Pin 

. ,, 11} hinall. ami inn -r a Ulgt stub ,,| , nln 

, ,. i hi ban ma, ■ natlvi ol tl ulh h i Islands 

. ..,,„. h, re, and, In some placi > In thla 

llj llml ffatSf l~ alnm 

,,„,., tbroughoul Ibi rslloy. * large porth I tba 

i y || m ii adapted to to g, bnl baa bltbi rto 

i„ , n in Id by largi laud-owners, and wholly di rotod to 
u, , p ralalngi but, la«oly, aomo of tbo great » ranobos" 
,, aubdivldi di 

I.n,,, pOI 

lain the mill, .... item portion "f the county, whoro, a 


This i- one of the most proi ml counties in .ill 

i luliforni i in ngrit ultun . horticulture, i limate, 
and beauty "l aaoner} li ib bounded on the 
north by Uameda, on the oasl bj Stanialous an I 
Merood, on tlm routh bj San Bonito and on the 

ui-t bi Santa Crtu and San Mai ities [I 

I,.,-- . i .,1, n. 1 1 1. .I, « nil San i ii " bj three 

lines of railroad! also watoi cominunioatinn »in the 
Bouthoni arm of San Francisco baj 

■|'in topographioal featun ol the t ountj ar i 

the two ran ■■ - ol mountain thi i i li . « itb 

ii,, i ,, , v ..ii, y ol Santa I 'larn betwoen, a levol, 
fortili plain, running down from the northwest to 

tin iih. .it tin entiri length ol tho i ountyj it 

im about 54 mill - in li ngth and from I ' to 18 miles 
u ni,. 'ii,, ivi .t. in i .. mi I,, in \ im. "i tii" count] 
runs along thosummil ..f thi Santn Orus moun- 
tains, tho highest elovation boing Mi Bai he, 8,700 
i, . i above boo lovol Tin an tern line runa 

tho -'I nt of tho Mt Diablo rangi thi 

highost i it, Ml Hamilton, I | 1,440 tai I 

highs i 1 "- " ' ll " || " : ' 1 "" 1 , " 1 ''" ' " ''■ ' ""' ll ''" IA . 
ii,, luaton of which tho roadi i ol Tni Ri soonoi a 

aro doubtl • familial tvith The countj hru on 

area of 023,728 • 

Santa Olara has no large rivoi the largost 

li. i.n. linn ■ I .ill". I fl rfVOI , it thfl ' '"\"t' . 

whiob rises m the easb i d i •>• • • il Uilhi, ind anil 

in i, Bows louthword 

■ io twelve or fifteen miles, when il break i 

through the billi iboul twentj miles ith 

J id "ii mt" ilm boy, 'rim t luadali 

Btream of neni •■■ 

• in bills about Bftoon milt di tanl from San Jose, 
seeks the contoi ol the valloj and Bows |,;i«t tho 
wostorn portion ol thi i it) ol hen it 

a n ith Los G thon 

to tho bay San Pelij I. foi m thi southern 

boundai ) line between tliii and San Benito coun- 
ty; it takes .i southern direct , emptyii 

i -I- Numerous Bmaller streams How into 

• j . their watei - linkin rovol as 

thi j rem b thi plain; but fi « i ountii i b ivi bettei 
than Santa ' Hara The moal in- 
ure of the valley i- the flowing 
.ii watei ia ubtaine i in the countrj 
around the head oi the bay, and exten Ling touth- 
ward to and inoluding the city of 8an Jose, in f.-ict 
to the extreme southern portion of the county In 
the vicinity of San !■'• Lipi lai ' lis aro 

easily obtainod, varying in the different i 
from ".ii to 350 feet, 
No hotter soil is found in tbe State than Santa 

('lam valley possesses it, i . in ■ plnci -. 

rich .i lobe monj feef in depth, in ol 
inrly I". im. and Ln oth b grav- 

elly loam «itli olay mixed with decomposi .1 rock 
This Intl. . natural roil for the 

{rape, the choici -t and tenderest for 
of whioh grow hero to perfection On the hill 
tides the soil ia mostlj of a gravelly and elaj na- 
ture, making the best "f orchard and vineyard 

land, whore the aim I, pear, apple and many 

rieties ol fruit are successfully i 
Many small i i ittered through the 

mountains on eithei ide of the Santa I Hara valley, 
There ia an abundani i of livi and whib oak, 
Cottonwood and bi vera] other mel 
through the valli y, beside . thousands of euoalyp 

be. li [ilantt-il, s.ilnr "f ul,: 

'Im. fi . t in .h.ii,., t. , and from 60 to 100 feet high 

hi the i intoins, on the Mt Diablo range, there 

pine, while on thi Santa < Irua rangi 
i- considorable redn ood, 

It is difficult to givi ription ol cli- 
mate in California, a it varies -• mui li with every 
locality Santa Clara valley ia bo peculiarly sit- 
uated, just across the hi-t range of i tain and 

at the Bouth end "f San Francisco bay, that it 

certainly bas the finest and most in in the State On the coast range, in the 

Mt I liable •!>'■ i ion, snow falls in winti i 

little Bnow ever falls in the Santa ' !i uz ran 

in the Santa Clara valley snow seldom ever falls 

1 mi I .n..- 

tin most tender plants, but never tn interfere with 
in of .my kind, The 

■ from i anber t . April, and o> i 

.ill\ as lai M . Thi is not a continuous 

me I.. i\ sup] i, but ihow ei -. sometimes 


of pli osant weathor; thii constitutes the " inter in 

this valley, Fruit trees Bhed thi ir leaves as in thi 

i ijn-.ll> ptus, livi ...ik, and an ondli - 

"i .tin i tn ■ ■ put ..ii their dai I. gn on foliage in 

tin winter months, when everything i- brown and 

Beat in tin East In thi lummei tbe cool trade 

n eep tl ast regulai Ly each day, c ■ 

mencing at al t ten o'clock each i ning and 

continuing until sunset In the remote valleys, 
beyond the reai li ol the trade winds, tho summei 
hi it i intense, while in the coast valleys, liki 
Clara, Napa, Sonoma and man] others whi 

winds are broken by ranges of i tains, the 

summers are mild and lalubrious, neither too hot 
or too cold 

Snn Jose, 
l- the county Boat, with a population of 16,000, It 
ranks hr-t in architectural beauty, location 
i -l.i l neatness and educational advantages ol anj 
oity in the State It i- , onnoete l vv , 1 1 , San 

ilm . lines "i railroatla, also « ator com- 
munication to Uviso, within six miles "i the i ity, 

aci bj eithei line is from 17 t.. 52 miles. 

I h laid off, with broad straight 

itroel . " •■ ., , , 1 1 1 ni i s ,, |, ii hoi n sj sb ui of 
street railroads through different portions of the 
city, two competing Lines t ■ • the town of Santa 
t Hara, a distance ol three miles; one oul to the 
Willows, when maj be seen the Bnest orchards In 
tho State San Jose lias an abundant watoi Bup- 

plj Lob I h»to ■ I. is brought in pipes from 

tin SantaCmi mountains, besides thi numerous 
artesian wolls tliroughoul tho "its. 
siiMiu oiura 

le il tow n in t im . ..nut > . .i.ii in ■_■ bat k to 

1777| the ti f tin , itablish nt "t' the Mission. 

li i- .. beautiful town "f 9,500 inhabitants, only 

th null- from San Joao, and i oonnootod bj 

two inns .if ateom and two linos "i hoi ie railroada. 
This is i|iiit" d in. mui', i, -tin ni.- town Betwoen 
s.iu Jose and Bantu I Hara i Poploi City; roollj it 
in ono continuous town botwoon the hvo oitios 
along tin- famous \ lame la \ \ onuo 

Llll Ullloa 

nl ii s.,1, Jose .'.."it ton milea to I bo 
southwest, "ii tin in,, ..i bin P ( 




I, and at D DOinl Oil thfl 1 G 

where the Santa Gnu (Jap opens out on the Santa 
i '1.,, i valley, The town ii 808 feel above m level, 
Dad hoi n population of 7K The plat a Is much 
too ht Foi bj i" ople nl weal 


i . ,i. d il the head "t nai igation on th 

9 vo i i knd "ii the line of the S, P. ' '■ R. 

i; , and at one time, bofore the railroodt v ere 
built, nrai quite an important point It hoe Bonn 

ol S "•' • i Batbrii i. wan bouse . a ■■ 

Ing mill, one store; a lii I daily iteamon From 

hi re i" San i'"' moiflco 

tynew'a Station 

I the s P. 0. R. B , between San Jo i and 

Uviso, in n fine fruit and farming counb j 

I- situate I in the extreme southeastern portion of 
the oountj "ii 'I." S, r i; i; 30 miles From San 
Jogi The tow ii contains a population ol 1 ,600, 
and i i fine agricultural oountry in the Santo 
clam valjej \ dail] in- run from 

here to the fai u Gilroj Hot Springs Th" re 

ire si veral othor small towns In this oountj ; Mil- 
pitas, on the S P R. R . '-' milea I i San Fran- 

oisoo, and Mayfield, a nice little town, only 35 
milea from San Francisco. Santa Clara county 
oont lined 35,097 inhabitants In L880, wliich would 
numbei 38,000 at the present timi 

s w r v tin '/. COUNTY 

l.i i - ..ii the coast between latitude 36.30 and 37.20 

degrees oorth, aearlj Bouth of San Francisco; dis- 

-. rail, 80 miles; Bteamer, 78 miles, Santa 

Cruz i-.. in of the smallei counties of the State, 

embi icing 276, i" 11 aori -, about ►-third of wliich 

is fertile valley, plateau and rolling hill land, and 
fully 10,000 oi rosof rioh bottom land. Thecounty 
is about 36 miles long from a northeasterly to a 
southwesterly direction, and nearly fifteen milea 
wide. It- has about 50 miles of coast along the 

in in I Monterey bay, « hioh bounds it on the 

west and southwest. On the Bouth it ia bounded 
by Monterey county, east by Santa < Hora and San 
Benito, and on the north by Son Mateo counties. 
The county ia exceedingly well watered, first by 
Sau Lorenzo river and it- numerous branches, 
heading up in the northern portion of thecounty, 
running in a southern direction and emptying into 
Mmitcm i"\ ueai the ■ 1 1 \ of Santa Cruz. So- 
,!„,.] , .,-, ■ -i.|. of tin county anil 

takes ■» southern direction to the bay of Montei ■■> 
San Benito creek forms the southern boundary 
line between tins and Monterey count] 

The country facing Bouth from the Bummit of 
the Santa Crus mountains, which forma the north- 
ern and eastern boundary, makes an amphitheater 
cf almost perfect aspect Facing the baj ol Monte- 
rey on the south and protected by high wooded 

hill- mi the oast and th. the highest point, Lo 

ma Prietiv, ia some 4,000 feet above sea level. 

Pajar.. valley. ">■• "f tin- most >liaii -. an 

pro In- tivi < aUeya in all i loUfornia, i- in the south- 

n porti if the county. This valley ia 

about fifteen mile- l"ii).' and from -i\ t" t.-n mil.- 
wide. The b"il ia of the richest garden land, seem- 
ingly inexhaustible The valley is situated close 
to the sea, with a railroad running through it, and 
it i- ma le upof beautiful fields, fini 
alluvial bottom land- and fertile hillsides, winding 
Btreanu fringed with trees, and here and there 
several beautiful lakelets, a ran-.- ol wood-covered 

mountainaon the northeast, the danc in g Burf of 
Monterey bay on the southwest. Northwan 

near th>- in •• I raletoa valley, running 

in .in oppoaiti direction, a beautiful Btreano bj the 

same name running through it, Furthoi up ia 

,,'ll'V, which extends up to the timbere I 

im mni. on- where the redw ' timber belt is 

reached, which extendi the entire length of the 

county, affording g I fai Uitiea for building roada 

up th. c inyona, mal ing the re Iv i- act essible 

foi lumbering. 

The oountj is well supplied with railroad and 

shipping facilities. The South Pacific Cos I Rail 

I in,, from Ban I i mi i ■■ a t" Santa 

ilea) through the mosl romantic 

. mi the i ou .i The railroad i onnei ting 

i ■ . ia Wal -"in dl", has re 

. I bj the Southern I ' ilifornin 

I ' pan) . and ■■■■ ill be chan ■■ I into a 

broa i i -i. hip i '.. 

i oute hero; bi Ldi thi ri 

a in. i .." other vi .i constant!) 

i".! 1 foi lumbi i i i, Ii ithor, powder, grain and 

Thi ' ill The i boi 

..a tin prinoipal itreet, on I an n oatlj built of 

i.i ii i. The W at "I. ■ iii. Mill and Lunil l 

pan] i" i Iquart - of thi ri Iw I lumber trade 

"i thi cos ' . hip i". i" ten to fiff Ilion fei I 

,,l Iniiil.. i aniin.ill', 

i third town in th .' j i the irfll i 


Situ . t - - 1 . •. .ii mil. Ii OUI [) tin- San 

i , and mi I In .-'..nil Ii I'... iln I 'on 1 

i ... i. This i •.|ni'. a lumbering an I lime pro 

■ foui 

teen uul«« up into thu nidv, i fori il whore iov« 

mills an loe it d, manul u I g lumberl 

and mingles, and floating down the H i to tin 

railroad, where it is Bhippod on the cars t" San 

r'l.ini-i-. .. Thi Santa < irus Bi L, vow bul 

..ii.- and -halt miles 1 1 , ,m here. 


The fourth i illago in n» in the count] , is lot at I 
I', ,ui and one-half miles east from Santa Cruz, on 
iln w atsonville and Santa « Iruz Railroad, and two 
miles from Montoro] bay, in n rii Ii agricultural 

OOUntl v A |..i|.. i null, -;in null, and lauu.-i J ire 

i.„ ,,i, i hen Tin place has manj attraction , 
and mi- 200 inhabitants. 
l. a- between Soquol and Wataonville, eight miles 
, a i ,,i i i 'in.-. Mr I llaus Sprookel - owns a 
i i has oreotod •■ mognifii i nl 

hotol Foi tin- nmodation of Bum travel, 

The I", in. ..I i i verj di tirable and pioturosque 
one, The hotel stand ■ on high [round overlooking 
Montoro] bay, and is fronted bj lawn and beauti- 
ful flowor beds; prettj cottages for fami 
i.i-i. full] grouped in the grounds; ever] in luce. 

nt, in tin- waj "I amusement, is offered hero 

The county ( tainod 12,801 inhabitants two -"iA 

.'lie half sear.- BgO Whiofa llOS inei".i-"d to fully 



la.- not far From midwa] between the two mosl 
important poi > on the Pacific I toast, i iz, San 
Francisco and Portland, l Iregon [1 is din otl] on 
tin overland route from Mexico t" Hnti.-h Colum 
l'ia. the connecting link to complete h hich ia now 
being built between Re Iding, She to i ount] . I a 
forma, and Roseburgh, Oregon, The rreat Sacra 
nnut" voile] ends in this count] Shasta count] 
is bounded on thi north, bj Siskiyou and Modoc; 
on the east, bj Liassen; on the south, b] Tehama, 
ami ..ii the west by Trinitj It I 
2,410,000 acres, and the Coast Range and Sierra 
\i i a ia mountains mo I within hi i bordi i I hi 
consequence is an immense numbei of canyons, 
i .ill. ij - , an i i .", in, ■-, through b Im li iln 
ii|.|i"i Sacramento, "i Pitt, and McCloud rivers 
ni-li, forming a junction with the Sai i 
which takes its rise in a large spring, at thi bo • 
of Mount Shasta, in Siskiyou, about 90 milea above 
this junction, Shasta has In ol valunl 

aid yellow pine saw timber, besides tl a 

and other timber in the valleys, valuable for fui 
only. In the southern end ol the "..nuts, at tl 
bead ..f the Sacramento valley, are the principi 
agricultural land- Further north is Shasl i i i 
ley an extensive plain, which Is occupied ohiefly 
!,_•. for eattie and : i ■ lea these 

tie i. i- a large number of small valleys, ranging 
from a I. n aoi ea l. sovi ral hundi ad. 

However, Shasta's great wealth i- in hei nun 

in,-, which will n be oci upiod, OS tin . 

i being built. 


Tin p., ■■„ i,i ii, ,i 1 1 1- 1 n fcoi minus of the D ol tin 

i r i; i; i ,i in tow ii Hi- tl" 

town in tin count] "id talus 1,500 inhabitant 

Freight t< am fi i reka, Bi otl • vallej . B 

ley, I "pi" i City, Wi avoi i illo, M it Sh i 

all direction contralizi hi n foi the distribul I 

Supplies and inn li.iieli |l 

a ndurson 

i ., i .... i it ■ 1 1 1 1 little village on the railroad, twelve 

miles -oiitli "I lo Idiuj, iii a tun ., i n nllui .1 

cnuntr] li has o population of 250. Five miles 

"iilli, ill the .nine vallo] , and al- i tin i nl- 

r< .ii, I , is 


In the extreme eastern portion ol the county, 
Large amount- "f wool, sheep, and ' 'Hi. are 
shipped from here to Sai rami ntu and the baj 

\\ hl.U'i |OM ii 

I .1 mining tow n, ii \ a mile ■ 1101 1 b from Sha il a, in 

the western part of tl untj There is a number 

. quni tx, and placer mini • in 
the \ leimt \ Tin place i I i0 inhab- 

itant », pi im ipall] mini > 


era] rusoun as, h hii li a ioIj vet pro pa i. I, 

although in i gold tea luwi j iolde l million ol 

dollars, Bine thi dayi ol 19 Iftoi tin i 
l, oi tionol ii" hi i " ' gravel digging . -■ lui b havi 

i"- ai \ i -ion Ij i n li. ■••in io I i ho ii i i to tud] 

..oi tin- problem ol whore thi gold, « hioh on to 

food I hi guli hi ond oreel . oome I >. prospoot' 

followed Thi re ull ho 

I., , ii n I n ■ i . i •. .in. ,1 n .n on 

red, ."I i"i "t quarts milla 

, .i, otod h i tin m the pa I ftvi voai Vlanj 
ol 1 1,, .ii ., ,,m i . i ■ ..i .|n. ii i / lodges are h il bout 

' i ' ute wui l. on a largi i di . bul . in 

il,,.. in i b, arastras are used profiteblj in 

.,,,. pi.,, aa ii... pi unit i\ ■ mow him I u it 

from .-.l.oiiii i" - 1 ,500 per wool \ numboi of 

III. ill I. ".Mi II [1 1 II'" J I "I. mi". I b] 

ill, i, on. s, thi largo i of v. in, I, i 

■|'h, o ' '•■ i '' ' l " ,ln l; ' ' 1p|1 " 

with ' population ol about I, luisto ia qulti 

, |.i. il. htii, i attain town, on tin lim 

i, to Woavon Ulo and S roko The I niti d 

,,,,i ,,iin , , i,. i uppi ' and ■ i nl' 'i I ''iii""" a, 

, i,„ ,i,.i in i. 'fin i '- I" ■ "i Got 

; ie dl itrii '. til iblo to fruit cub l.iilili. 

Fifteen mil. i ill I Sh i I '. i- om ■■' 'I" old- 

,.i mining towns m uorthern California The 

famous Don I""" i mini i i this vii initj The 

place has aboul 200 pi opl Thi prim ipnl town in iln o iv oa I ol tho Sacrninonto 

allll* IllO, 

Containin ■ 10 habitant ■ This place Iii • twi lyi 

miloa oasl ol Lndi i on, and li u ■ g I '"'"" 


Ooppei « '<) 

i.e in ib. e.nii.d portion ol tin o il 

roundod b] I thi Iw ' paying mi i i 1 " 

northern pari ol tin State South ami wost 

In i.i .i ii'inii i iinalli i tow us, »u li n I 

villi . Hoi ii town, Piotj Hill, 3 viUo, and I - 

H" i.i -I u in. I, isth ' important ' In tho 

oast aide "i tho Sacramento rivoi is n numboi "i 
small town dl upiwrti d bj tho ininin inti " ' 

i" tin o i dinte » li inil ) Furnaoi t ill" Boi k 

loj . ' i ihtown, r,i" I di. . uid i io 

1 Irook. \i"."i im i, . , ., .i i Shasta Is Pall 

rivor, ii in. Ij i n i, ultural tow u ol 250 people 

Lowoi Bods B] iin.ii. .1 some 60 mil til 

Of ItudilniK. Tim watoni uf tUOSO tpri&gl buve 

niedieiii.ii qualitii -, h hioh an bi ii 
ma ii . i '.. tie laki i ' i 

tl,, im. i picturesque - 1 ni in I olifoi nia 'n„ 

I I,.',. I "leel, fall.-, are .ill feet, high, "n.| ,,|. 

ii,., i quite romantic To thi tow 1st thi natural 

I .'land and • uLluin . in I ,,,| ,„,],. ^ 

miti Mount Shasta stupi ndous beauty 
I, i in pire I He- mind of p unt< i and p 
it* grandi ur, i -u, b a no si i nei j on thi l 

evoi d • before. It ia visible from all north.- 

ifornia, towering with its perpetual snow, 
covorod i" all I I. i |Kl ' ovel, and i- jn-t 

. line in Biakiyou Shasl i 

nettle, | to «liat. it. Will ""li I" \l ,,|, ,,,! tl,, 

population ia about 10,000 


W '• ".in. to II" mo uiity ii 

i 'iilifoini.i. the lowest point within it limit 

ovei ' l » | " fi ' ' • ■•" ii s level li di 

ii. mi. from the Siorras, which cross the county 

d north t" south, embracing thi whole of it. 

t. 1 1 itoi •. Sierra i b ided on the north, b] 

l 'I'll,,, o tj : .ai 'in oast, by tl 

. on the Bouth, i" I ,m the 

\ uba, 9 hili Butte Forms its north 
bordi i Sii rrs 
tending easl 

from in. i tb to south, it ia genui all] 3ii 1 1 .i has -"im ..i the gi andi t . h il 
li.H ating mount ain scenei j on I 

8 i i in highi -' i" akf i each lO'i 

Bon-lcvol Table Rock, Saddle Rock, Mount Ffl. 
nn. i, .ml Fir i lap ail n ich 6,500 fi 

u-lj 9,000 feet, This ia oi 
, - of the State, and from it- summit, look- 

■ .aid. ean be seen the vast bleu k 
ran ;ea ii • < ween the ho; 

alley of the 
the dim distance, darklj outlined upon the horizon, 
i- iln i i I'., low, north and south, an? 

Been th the north an In - ..I the STub beautiful ro- 

lo. mi ic -' enery ami delightful .1" 
equaled in any port oi the countrj Ii ii enriched 
\i itb in i 

white or balsam fir,, oi und yellow pine 

timber, of which thi ri *ii an es- 

timate "I over _'0(i,7iHl,lHHi t, ,r of -,.,i timber in the 

Mining, in its various branches, ia thi chief in- 

i-tr \ . The i nd here 

ii Iced since the 
California. Ci > in a northerly direo- 

ti - a continuation of the rich, am ; 

channels that paaa through Nevada count; 
li.iv . \ ielde I million -, and n ill mam i 
foi ,. Htm ies to . "im Al fii 
. he \ uba and othei -• 
rub in gold that fortunes were easily n 
ih, pan and km ki i But as thesi were - 

in,. i tlv i I.- of working had to be 

adopted to find the sei tl 

, ovi re I that undei the mtaina ol 

mi ient rivei -. in m i 

in In i than those that bad been v. 

:». i Qumbi r of - I pa] big gravi I mini - 

n I,,, i, we might name, in Bouthern Sii 
Golden star, N I id a numbei ol 

In the northern part of thi mencing 

at the lowei i nd ol thi gravel roi 
northward up the stream, we come to 

l'|.i\ and tin- I ni"ii Hillj adj"iiiin,- the.-., aie the 
I 'lei. land and Sii ria, and fnrtle-i U| 

also a verj neb place, b hew bund i 
dollars have boon taken out I 
still tin 1 1 . . i up thi channel, so deeply 
, ,,i, red « ith lava s to render hydrnulii b 

. we find drift minin 
\, i ,,„.,,. Haul., v, , Pittsburgh, Monum 
i .,,„. of tho richest h] 

and drift mine- ,u the stat.- There is an 
.,,„, | watei in thiaoount) for mining purposes, 

.,,„ t ol tie- .'■- OWn ami USe a g I wat« 

Quarto ininin- ia now tho leochng u 

. , ,, ,, milla in the county, fivi ol which 

u ,.,, ,,, pi ration thia - , aruahinH ovoi 100, 

000 tuna -I quarts B I the moat prom at 

,„, bodies or thoseol thi - I 

. and discovered in 18 

: ,,, operation ovoi - Th 

,i | ., ni. "I itampa I n <"- { 

twolve yoors npi ral i those inini , I 

v „i,i u .,-si,7i-i,i"hi, ,,„,l. in ■ ,..-i profll 11,069,001) 

■ih. ..,.- .- -I ' low gi Mia C !l h» v « ■' v f 

ipaoitj I atai foi drivin tho inachin 

or) is brou hi from8ardini and othoi lakes, atan 
Novation -I 6,200 t> [ "' 

i i average yield ol th m 

000 i uth \'H b) '" ih- Mn rita.wluon 

i v tamp mill Bi idi tin i tin 

usiun il k vol, Washuigj 

I ,„i Now \-ii- In tho riciinfy " 

,;,,!, I i.ake are tho W lohuok, WiUon « l'-' u ' 

, Phoenix, Haul--' Koj tan. Marl ' 

ouno, Lodi's canyon, md a uuml ' otho» 

, i pro pool thai this li tivoor»n« 



,,i mining will be Mb n ivoly | iut< d in the 

„,,i futun . '■ the va it minin n sou | Sierra 

i n more tl ughAj developed Nearlj .11 of 

til., cultivated land is lot ab d in 8ii m > dli >, 

ffhich i- rituatod in the i asb rn |uii ,,( tho ntj , 

, ( .,,, altitu le "i 5,000 root Thin vallej contains 

ibout 16,000 " " - of [oo I I ig land. 

Dow ntevllle, 
■ » In' li «.i- u n|, i n, L849, i ■• -nu- 
ll, -i. i. - ..I ih, \ uba rivei The town 
I,, . in .1 deep canyon, unclosed on all sides bj 
mountains fnllj 2,000 feel high, Downievillo was 
,,,„,. ti„ bus] ' enter of the riahest grave] - 
c.hi ii I'll' in .mi- are ipannod by two beau- 
tiful bridges Like all mining towns Dowoioville 
it irregularly laid off, the itreeta following the 
bend of the rivoi 

SI. IRS City 

[. lupportcd exolusivolj bj minei , as iti 

tha riehi -' quarts mining bi otions in the Stab it 

dm ,i population of 2,200, and has a livelj appear- 

hi, ,■ 

I-.. ..-.I City 

B population of 600 The Bald Mountain 

mines, located here, have yielded over 82,000,000, 

;„„l paid 1820,000 in dividends The 

Mountain Bouu 

miles north oaf from 
\, rods I i mi from In re to Nevada 

a Comptonville, to Downievillo and to 
Marysvilli . making connection with all the mount 

. - throughout northe tatern I lalifornia. 


" ia,lv " - ; "" 1 aerosol fertile lands, all 

u ''"' cultivation Fruits, vegetables, andoeraal 
'" ''" "'" Thi whole oountrj is partioularlj 

u,n "'''i' 1 ' I '•■ tool ng il iy, -,„ winter, it 

,; ""''' 1 "i"" 1 the meadows along tho treaws, whili 

""' Ulhades are oo\ i with bunch grat i I 

Vft Hey« oil afford g I jummoi pasturage, but thu 

'•'" "' mow is heavj at this altitudi . !.,,■ ■ 

: """""'- "' 8 I Qovi mi i land are not yet 

taken up The mountains and hillsides arc olothed 
with forests ol sugar and yellow pine timber, and 

"'" '"' ; ' " ■' our • ol rove i to this inty, oe 

:l " railroad is c pleted. 


The countj seat, is situated on iTroka oreek, in the 
western part of Shasta valli \. and contains about 
1,500 inhabitants The town was located in 1851, 

:l1 "' '- the oldest oi this part ol the Si 

has always been an important plai ■-. as noarly all 
the ovi rlaud travel between California and l 

hrough ii li i- Btriotlj o mining town, is 
2,600 above sea levi I. and has a g I. hi althj cli- 

I'ort Jones, 

Tlie second largest town, lies boi ighteen miles 

south from Treka, it 1ms about 500 Inhabitants, 
:iiul i* an important business i entei 

Bftna Springs, 
in tin same vallej . is a thriving place of some 100 
i" ople Hi- the hi odquartei - foi Fanm rs, miners, 
and the salmon river Fn 

s««)>i'. Bar 

Sierra's other towns an G [year's Bar, Monti U a prosperous town in the th-wostern portion 

1 " tv HiUi M it Pleasant, of thegoounty, acquired when Klrmath count 

.mil Bovoral 

i ribaonville, 
other mining 

•l" N acca rolli j and I Ho u laki ro id inb raecting 
with tho Central Pai ifio it Elmiraj thus the Facil 

itii '■■< tnuiBportat , i ithi i bj i rfl oi wab r, an 

the best in thi Stab Thi I nd irii tol tho countj 

ore mainlj aaturalj on tho south 

Soi rami nto rivoi , Suisun and 8an Pablo I 

il»' Straib of I larquinez, Putoh creek forms the 

ln " the north between this and Solo oountii -, 

and tho Bummits ol tho Suacol hills and Blue 
mountains form the lino between this and Napa 
countj on thi ! 

lono a population of 17,480, whii h hoe inon asc I 
rapidlj within the post two yeai . and we maj 

snfelye - on 20,000 i pie within hoi boi 

ii"- pn ii rn writin ■ Two-thirds ol tho land in the 

countj i- be itivatod M>ou1 00,000 ■ ■ 

Bwamp and overflow lands; fullj L0.0O0 acres of this 
are mud flats, left bare .it low tide, and about IV 

000 an partiallj reolaimod and fittod for 

agricultural and grazing purpose* Montezuma 

billi ipj 'I tin nab rn portion ol the upland 

"i the countj The north i n and i 

the county, embracing about 200,000 ocn 

level, fertile plain 

"i v .ill, j i~ located in thi louth 
portion "i the county, north across the entire 

countj This little valli j i noted foi it i lior, 

genial climob . being frei from fro I 
The A--,--,, i bos classified the binds of Solano 

countj into five grades. The first, of al I 10, 

acres, w the verj best qualitj ol vi gi table and 
fruit lands, ond, in i it ol i ii hm -- and product- 
iveness, ' annot be bui passu I in thi Stab . The 
- i md i iimprisi - thi bi il ijualitj oi grain land, of 

sishlMir COUNTY, 

The largest in northern < Sal- 

ifomia, with an area of 

3,890,000 acres, is bounded 

on tho north, by Oregon; 

on the east, by Modoi 

on tin BOuth, bj 

i rinity, and on 

the wi -t. bj Humboldt and 

Del Norte. As the two 

rages ,,f mountains 



abrupt mountain h .ill- prei ■ 

mil sin lil. ii little 

valli v-. Mount Shasta, the 

si peak in the State, 


or rathei between the two 

'i i- situated, in the 

louthi rn part of the countj . 

.■I tin foot of 

i valleys tint 

lie .a .in eli ration "i from 

?,000to 1,000 feet ah 

level In the northeast rn 

thi county lie the 

I k i ibed in 

Modoc county All of the 

part of the 

Btate, embracing Modoc, 

and the eastern part 

of Bisldyou, is called the 

"central basin,'' and con 

a elevated plateau, 

00 to 4,000 feet above 

irrounded bj ite< p mount una, rising 

001 . 10,000 feet high The nrhol. table- 

ome gn al vola verflov 

■rn i period Two great rivi i itart toward 
iu; the Klamath to the vert, 

nl 'I ith. Tii. numerous 

nto ona ". thi othei of these rivers, 

801 ' theae, like the McCloud and Pitt rivers, 

an tumbling tl gh Btonj 

abrupt ' liffs, around 

" rtainlj "in i- of the 

m mountain streams in the Stab . 

i"'""i' Iu trii "i n, i countj are mil ■. 

and lumbal 

oi . both plaa i and quartos, are 

I in thi State in earlj times thi v 

to thi bed of thocrecksi and the de- 

reatly re 

diffioultj of travi g 

Fran I n I i, the c tj 

128 miles north it is still 
from Reddii ..„ i„. u,u, m 

f 'I" whistle "i the iron hoi 

. I i ,, and Port 

1 1" ,, mining ma< him 1 1 i an easily 
ht in foi thi ill ralopmenl of thi rich 

11 tO I I I I,. , 'Mil; 

d, ehromi . and qnii 

i hi .■ .1. nit,,,, i re 
in in 

tl i Ilj tin i 

rivn . 

HOTEL DEL MOXTE— Fine9t Summer and Winter Resort on the Coast. 

,h i, i. i between Siskiyou Humboldt, an I I »el 

\,,it unties Several rich quartz mines are in 

the vicinitj There are a nuinbei nl mallei vil- 
cattered all ovei this mountainous country, 

in ig which we maj mention Boloo, Butterville, 

|; I i ,. ,. I i, ulwoo I. 

i . hi] i Franl lin, Bast Pork. Gilli 

■ i li bug I Ireek, Havi I insvillo, rToopor- 

ville, Lincoln, Litth 

th Pork, Tabli Reel I i Soda 

v"ini land, and a number ol othei Tho 
population of 8iskiyou, In 1880, was 8,610, which 
would numbei fully 10,000 people at thi • timi 


nl,,, ut 220,000 acres The third, a lowi i 
fanning land, inolude thi jwamp and overflowed 
lands, with an area of 220,000 acres The fourth 
.:, , I. , om prison the p irtiallj n ol dim I sw imp 
Ian In, bi I, and constitub about 

7 n The fifth gru lo of 100,000 icres 

comprises thu swamp and n^ erflow e l funreclaime I) 

■ nd the high i i m ;os, unpro luct- 

p| for pasture Tho hi -I" st ehu a 
tion is Blue mountain, Bome 3,000 feet above Ben 
level, located along tha line between this and Napa 

Thi Saci imento valli ) embracoi thi 
part "l the northern md i i torn portion of the 
oountrj Susool valloj lies west of tho Suacol 

hills, iiiiiniii- north from thi i itj of N 

l Ml " ! thnportant agricultural and fruit h , %na of |J|f m||i . v by al , 

uiiil, Suisun valley is al i -u\ miles 

luntios in ' lalifornia (I bos no superi I 

,,i , quo! in tin varietj md exb nt of its 
-ml. poi earlj fruit 

on th, li ■ ' m Pram la o 

ih, tii-i ,,f everj varii tj known and 

thern I 'olifornia. U Is • ol thi 

gmalli i i I I thi Stab . i, ' li 

,,,,.,,, Ti i verj cm ntrally loc ito I, il • 

Kouthorn boundoi | line boing a ithin "7 miles •■< 

i ii ,.. h in, ", unit pti d watei front of 

I,,, I, ,1, ,,,, the ^ ; " rami nto 

-.,,, mn b ij and the Strait of I larqul 

ii, /, and '• " on N apn ind Sai P 

i rood travorso the ont aunt | in vi • 

,|,,, , I ( In I , till I '.ill 1 " I'" IflO I HI 

,,.,ii,, .,, ro tin count | . fi ith < rth, an I 

ii,, 1 1, I tlj built it 

and lies north of the bay "f the Bame name, 

i 'i i ■. ill ) « i'i I, i" - in the ivi ib rn portion 

,,f the county, Is twelve mill - in li a th, with 

in avei mo and one-half mill Bi 

i.i, thosi then ire Greene dli ■• . ulphui Spring 

ralli j and n numbei of smalloi i alii j in thi 

.,, i Bouthi i n portions ol tho oountj 

The Snarami nto thi lm gi t rivoi in I 'allfornia, 

1 1,, eastern boundarj lino Putah i > i ok, 

i'. i,,,l, i,i' ,1 risi In Lai I y, foi m • tho 

,,,,, i hi i ', i ndai \ I How in in an i n tei ly 'li 

i, , i [on, a inding throu ii a r i h, lovol plain for 
ii,, ntj miles, then i i losl in tho tuloa whioh grow 

.,',,i," tha Snor into river, Swei nj or* k risi 

n, H,, \ .,, ., lull i, 1 1 mill " nofth of tho town oi 
11, flow in ■ in ii ill,:!' i.ilv direction to 

on, taken u» a wholo, i torn I loi of th otyi the vioinioj ol Main prairio, then empties into 

lough 'ii,'.' ii. .. numbei of small 
Htr.'uuiH, nich iLi creek, in the vicinity of 
Vai aville . Aiu in i k, ni u bj . P 

ind Sulphur Spring 
Solano :-. timbered with oal 

pitch pini Tho i it\ of 


ib rs of San Pram is< o bay, 

is the largest city m tho ity, and i o 

about 6,500 inhabitants li is thi terminus of the 

( lalil , iPaoifii i: lilrootl, and th ferrj . which 

runs up t,, North Valli .■ ith all trains 

ovi i Hi, ' li 11I1..1 Pacific and Southern Pacific rail- 
,,,., Is, "ii thi opposite 


i th, oldi -i , hi, ■■■ ,,, i lalifornia, beauti- 
fully located upon tho Straits "l Carquincz, in 
vi, u of tho Golden Gate It hat a population of 
3,000. The Central Pacific Railroad Company 

have My built then main trunk line tl gh 

thii - . tion, in • thi ti .ii' ..I, theii u 

•i, uii, i "Solano "th boat in the 

world, I'., in. i.i baa taken ow lifi iinco the 

impetus givi n it. bj the ruilroad, Thi place has 
works and ni w watei work Baker 
& Hamilton havi established tho I u 
tural works on the Pai ific i oaat hero, 

Halmn City, 
Ai the junotion of the I lontral Pai ifi, Eloili 
attho head of navigation inland Suisun has a 
population of obout 1,200 The town is built on 

an island, « ith low, level land on .ill ridi b \i t 

ono-half mil, h 


'I'll intj , seat, a small 

place of 600 inhabitants. 
The fourth town, in point "f 
population, is 

Ii has about BOO inhabi- 
town i- Vacaville, in the 
portion ,,f the 
county, and situated in one 
of the best fruit and 
\ ■ - | 
town of importance in the 
, ountj , and is located in the 
eastern part on th 
in. nt., river. It has a pop. 
illation of about 800 
Elmira i- sitn.,t,', I at the 
of the I P. R. R, 
'■ \ \ • I i i: i: , and 
has about 850 Inhabitants 

i lollinsville, on the 
ramento rivei . ■ I 
on thi Central Pacil i 
road constitute the tow ns ■•! 
Solano county 


I- bounded on the south bj 
the Bay of San Prancisco 
[tliis portion ,>f whii I, is 
called San Pablo Baj I and 
Marin countj , on tin wi it 
bj thi Pacific I Icean, on thi 

north bj M. in I, "in unty, 

and on the east bj N ipa ind 

Lake ities, The highest 

peaks are Ml 
1820 fi ■ t. in, I i ;, ) aer Pi ak in the north 
part, 3, 170 i. . ' high I In the west aidi of thi 
countj tho high are Mt Poll , 2,600 

feet; Pablo Mi I un, 2,440 fi ■ t high, and Mt 

II I, 1,500 foot high Between these ranges ol 

mountains several huge and fertile valli ys exb nd 
northw asterlj 
Wi ' of Sonoma valley, ind neparated from it 

bj ■' i"" range ol untoins, is the main 

\ alley "f tin i omit i , running fi om Sa P 

■ hweatorn direction the entire length ol » 1 1 ■ ■ 
countj The southern portion of this largo and 
fertile plain is called Petaluma valley, theoentral 

porti s known as Santa Rosa valley, and the 

northern portion as the Russian rivoi valli j I 
sides tl,''-. thon era! ot hoi ai ten ih • 


Tho area of S ma countj ii 350,000 tores, and 

the present population is 25,000 The natural 
, hi I,, -it i, - of Sonoma are remarkable, uch u the 

world-famed Goysors Litton S] gs are another 

u hero Si Itzer watoi it obtained, ^^ 1 1 ■ r . > 

8ul]ihui S] pring . M irl 

Udoi i lion Springs, dl have diffi n nl 
medicinal qu ilil 
No more diversified soil oan be found in anj 

oountj than Soi a i asses Fruit and othei 

orops thrive horo Vni no other oountj in I ' di 
I In, v> uii io mn, li fine agricultural land, has 

BUCh mn, I t iiiil.ri \l I ;,,. i ii, \ ill,'. 

twentj mill - northwest ol Sent i Rosa, and at oho 
terminus ,,f the s P. & N P. B ■ come 

'I,, hi "' ..' H" i. .i» I ato j il ro 

in round .'i.ii live ia« mill i, i luoin ■ from 12, 

000,000 to 15,0ttJ.iKNi feet oi redwood imuUu- anuu- 




ally. California laurel la a hard u I, a beautiful 

bvbi .iv, n, the timber « hieh takes a high polish, 
and i- ase i oxten ively For veneer Tin broc it 

found among the redw I forests of California, 

Madrone is another hard wood ( is boooming 
valuable for the manufacture of furniture, shoo 
lasts, oto, 

Ru -iin riveria the largest stream in ti ounty. 

There are ai vera) smaller Btreams, such oa Gualala 

river, Marl w eel orei k, Santa Roan o It, Sonoma 

creek, .01,1 Sulphur oreok. Sonoma hoa the follow- 
ing railroads: the main line of the San Francisco 
and North Pai ificj •> branch has recentl] been 
completed "". San Rafael, whioh makes connec- 
tion with the N. P. C R i: . and the passengors 
from both roads are transferred across .the bay on 
tin' latter road's beautiful ferry, which 1 
convenience to the Russian river and upper country 
travel; tin- old route 1.- by way of I lonahue, .1 dis- 
tance of 56 mill'-; a branch from Fulton, ■•' few 
miles west "t Santa Rosa, to Guerneville, a dis- 

tance of sixteen miles; Sonoma Railroad, fi 

Sonoma Landing to the town of Son,, ma; th, 
Ninth Pacific <'h.l-i Railroad, running north of 

S;,n K';if;i.-I. aln 11- tin- r-...i-t, a distance Of NO miles; 

the uppei end of thia road runs through Sonoma 
county from Valley Ford to Duncan's Mills, a dis- 
tance nf eighteen inili-s, where it terminates in the 
great redwoods of the county. 

Snnla Rosa, 

The county seat, with a population of 4,700, ia sit- 
uated in the center of the valley, on the S. F. & 

road is now completed from Sonoma Landing into 
the valloj foradiatan f fifteen miles, The en- 
tire vall.'\ 1- taken up with vineyards, Sonoma 

valla] i- f igliteen totwentj miles long, and 

from one to sis miloa in width, There are al t 

7 ( »' 1 pie, ni in 11 Ij all nationalitii 

< I01 erdate, 
At the In .1 1 oi Russian rivoi valley, ia the termi- 
nui of the S, F & X. P C, R, R, [t boa popu- 

lati I 800 

Fulton is the junction of the S, F. & N. P. 0. 
R, R, and the I ruornei ille branch. 


l ' i" the liveliest towns in < lalifurnio foi il 

I11 foui extensive saw-milla, which cut and ship 

about ll'.IIIIO.IIIHJ feet of redw I liilnl ier aimiiall J . 

fu tho vicinity of I Guerneville is the 1 rreaf 1 
Quicksilvor mine, at present employing twenty 
men, and producing KM) flasks of metal per month; 
tho Mount Jackson mine, near by, producing 

al t "in Mask- per month. Besides the four mill- 
in operation in Guerneville, there are two at Occi- 
dental, on the N. P. ( '. R, R, Ton miles further 
west, at the terminus of this rail mail, and at the 
mouth of Russian river, are 

Duncnn'n mills, 
1'roiluciiiL,' largo amounts of lumber annualh . We 
make the following estimate of standing n-ilw 1 

\"i in S ma county: In the vicinity of Gurne- 

ville, 100,000,000; Occidental and vicinity, 25,000,- 

( ; Duncan's Mills. 75,000,000; headwaters of the 

Gualala, 150,000,000; total, 325,000,000 feet. Sum 

and which have a gentle, uniform slope, favorable 
to irrigation, are gonorally in a position to be well 
watored from tho Stanislaus and Tuolumm 

ami mi the smith from Tulare lake. The San .loa- 

quin oonal, on thowesl side, now irrigates some 

'0.01111 .,, |, . ami is intended to lie carried 00 dow n 

through the count] in the near future. Tins is an 
excellent opening for fruit culture, 
From lie- best authority wo could obtain, wo 

wool, I rate the price of Ian, I 08 Follows: W [thin 

radiua oi ton mill ol Modi ito, h liii h If the central 
portion of the oounl j . the Boil ol n hich i ali ht, 
sand] loam, and at present ia farmed to wheat, is 
valued at from MO to 950 per aero, Rocontlj 
•ill large orchards have been planted in thi 1 1 

clnity. The [and on il ost Bide of tl 

Joaquin, and between the Stanislaus and Tuol- 
umne riven . ia con idered the best land in the 

• it] ; it I- valued al fi 815 to 850 pi 

the latter figure embracing the best improved 
fu in- immediately i ast of the San Job [uin 
nvei, from one to five and six miles wide, the boH 
is an alkali and salt grass, ami the land is onlj tit. 
for grazing; it is valued at from three to ten dollars 
per aero. In the eastern portion of thi county, 
along the foot-hills, the soil is red-land, winch ia 
Bummer-followed, and two crops of whi il oi 
in three years; thia is excellent vineyard land, 

North of Stanislaus river the soil is a dark loam, 

some of which is adobe, On the west side, or be 
tween tho San Joaquin river and thesumrait ol the 
| oasl Rang) of n utains there are one 00,000 


'"" I '■ ■■■•■" " hn n popub f Jp^* 

nurroundod b] a larg. section o| i 

• try. 

Knight's Perry, 

The '"""" ' '■ ' << ol Ita 

oatodin the foothill , on the Star, 

tho • ' torn I rid u ) of the . „i, ,, 

a flourishing mining town, hut !,„ 
,,, 200 peopli 

""' * owin i ■ 

river furni I il. ,,i. e. ,,t. , ,.. 

mill i located here, and ..,,„„. :U)I) ( ., 

cniefl 3 •" •' ivol gold mining, 'fl 

towns in the c 

■""' ''"■ , «'i lattoi I .-'lla'. |'*J* 

It is loeat,,l „n the S, P R |{., ail( , j .. 

puifi i ' foi io •■ quantitii 

1 iIu8 '°n ( '" will jaj thai the pre em 

lation oi Stanislaui count] is in no,. 

-" ,M "'"""- i " ;| ' I on „, th,- ., , 

Knighl i i ,. 

Chinese, ol which tl 

When this county is sub-divided, am] 

brought in from the i ntains, and th 


the wealth in < lalifornia. 

i of the twenl ,,, w|||h 

divided in I | 
comprised part of what u-i now i 
eountiea Its present I adaries an » tl 


tV P- <-'. R. R. It possessi ,,,. water- 

works and , vera] i,, , . railways. 

Pel ultima. 

Numbers 4,600 i pie. It has excellent drainage, 

and its streets are well graded. It is well watered 

1,v the s "ia County Water Works, and is 

lighted with gas. 

Mi :. Ill- 1. 1. , - 

'i miles northwest from s.,nta Rosa is. one 
of the handsomest towns in all < lalifornia, and now 
has a population of 2,000, It is jituated on a rise of 
ground between the two valleys, on the line oi the 
S. F. &N. P. R.E. ft is well built.and has fine, 
handsomely shaded, and ia 
Lighted with gas, It'has an abundant water sup- 
ply The climate ia one ol the finest in the State, 
and no bettei land can be found in any i ounl j 
than in the vicinity of Eealdeburg, The uplands 

will I fu. in„ ..,; , and excellent 

f " ,iu "'•" "'• notice I ,„ ,,.„ tillage of Bmall 


''IsburghaHfine e| |„., and , ,,., ||,. n , ,„,!,. 

'" '' ' x '■ « mil obove, on thi Ii I thi 

railroad, ' '•'"••" S| ■ college, one of the most 

romantic and health] places in the state, 

Bonoma'i early histoi to 1885, when it 

! ""' '"• Goneral \ allojo, who is gtill living 

'" " :: ,li; ' "alio] i ,,i | bo m i] ( , ,|,„ „,„,,, 

t •'■'<•' S;i " I '" »m if the most eligible 

i""" 1 '"' ' ' trj I, idonocv [ta toil | 

h'lai' and bighlj productive, it olimati 
equabl and delightful, Tha Sonoma Volli El 

"' Ml - "i' s "' •' ' nty, bsb whole, we n 

it i8 one ..f the finest eountiea In Colifornia 


i situated in the great San Joaquin ralle] n 
western line forms the summit of thi Cos I Ran i 
of mountains, while its eastern border rests on th. 

foothills or has,. f ,|„ s„ , , , if, ,,| , (( ( _ 

bounded on the north by San Joaquin count] on 

the east by Calaveras and Tuol ,e counties on 

"""""" l b 3 Mercei I |„. „,.,., bj Si|i| , 

c,ara wunty. thus apreading across the entire 
width ol the valley, and in areait embraces 924,800 

•"" 'I'll. San. loa. ,,.,,, navigab]o .,,. m 

'"' ' '" "^ ll ' '" '' '" the year, il,,, 

"8 count] neeighl miles west ol the estimated 

1 '' cont °r. Prom that stream divorges 

two tributaries, the Sti laus and Tuolun both 

oaetword to the Sierra , and both I 

iftvigoble for three ths in tho year, are on the 

en I idefof tho SanJooquin river, i i, n,,,,. 

'"' ""' county from south t .u,. ,,„ ,.,, 

" f fcneett81 " l ' '" ""■■ of a sandj n.,i , vorging 

to a Ipomj charootor as tho foothiUa are op. 

i Il " 1 ri ' oi tho weal aid, , ., ,„,, | 0flIn 

ol indofinito depth, and, with an abundant I 

mol turo, yii Id largi i rops ol 1 1 n ol 1 1 , . i ,, , 

ll " ;,: " yield, in fovoroblo sooi [ ,,i i., ll( 

rainfall, la an indication that whon, in the futuro 
a system of irrigation is inaugurated, bj whioli 
tho ' lands may bo plentifully watered, tin Ii pro 

ductiveno h ill in mro tho most I tiful ri turn 

i in ?oUoylands,whiohoompri«othogreatorportion, 

acres of rich, aiaM. lands, the soil being oi a dark, 

loaiiiN nature, an, I \,iy deep, from 1(1 to LOO fl I t; 

thia i- iMeiieiit land to proiliiee, when there is 
sufficient rain, 60 and GO bushels being raised to the 
acre. All of this land will be irrigated in tho mar 
future, from the San Joaquin • mal. ulu, h paSSQa 

" gb lii re, Irtosian watei ia easil] obtained 

in the valley by boring 300 fool 

Th,- Southern Pacifii Raih-oad pa--. - through the 
central part ,,t the oounty, from San Pram isco to 

'■"- ^ngi lw. Tie- ten - of one of the branohea 

"i the Stockton and Copparoi>oua Railroad is at 
Oakdale, which ia located on tho Bouth hank of tho 

81 laua rivor,84 miles theosl fr Stookton, 

Tie count] Beat, i on tho Lino of tho S, r i; i; 
103 miles southeast from San Pram isoo, n was 

laid out m the fall of 1870, and po n bsi n poi 

tn.ii of 2,800. 


1,1 u •'•'"" pari ol th,- , u, (,.,, Inl |,. s | M .|,, U . 

K I - Forry, and 84 miles from Stockton, t - 

1 "" '''" i i' 1 '' Tho town lite is on n sandy 

Plntoou, thii klj covered with li\ I. trees. Oak- 

M ' ' "" sWpping point foi most of thofroight 

'""' kravo1 to 'I'liohnn nty, uiuei, , hi n 

transferred to team 


'" ""' wuthorn porl i tho oounty, on tha line 

"' ""' s - '' l; l; -. i« I entrai i i,,r a largo 

"'"I I fertile oountry, 

IIIII'n li.rry, 

tn tho south -wt el tortionol I lounty, on tho 

woatorn bonk of tho Sun Joaquin rivor, Isthonoxl 

Butte, west, Yuba and Pla 

i 'olusa, -outh. Vol,, and Sacramento i 

fhe Si nto River form- m orly the whole of 

the western boundary, while the Feather River, 
liter forming near]] two-thirds of thi wi st rn line, 
flow - through the southern part of the count] into 
tin- s Lcraniento. The fociliti m and 

urigition are un lurpaasi I. tho Sat ramenl 

Il at all time- ,,t the Mar S,. ,- 

Feothi r, ..- foi at 5 uba City, thi 

Thi Bi oi Rivt i . quil isi Ii i ibl 

through the southern part ol thocoimt] boforeil 
empties into the Peather Rivoi 

'I'lr Buttt I, a Collection Of mountain pc I 

ate, l iii the northern part of the oouut) . • 

, ., a ,,l folll b] 
tWOWl miles. Constitute the hilly portion . 

county, the bulonca ol its territory bauuj 'il lovol, 

and most ,,|- ii,, „,,i jn the count] i- a 
portion of uhieh is siibjot i io over- 
flow oausod in the hydraulic □ i along the 

upp) i S ubn an. i i;, ,, rivers v i, d i " ■•' 

till I bOttOm Ian, I, that « e. I,. 

e ni\ a- 18 iii io is ,0 ig h ,, u nbondoui d, '•■ i 

i I'd up undoi It md and gi-uvol b] tho 

OVOffloW ol ill, ,,. in, i i II, , u , v , i ii,,.,,, ,|||| i,,- 

ii ' largo portion oi tho oroa oi Suttt i 

11 • JOOd an I | In, In,. ., ,,, ultui.d land- I 

la in the Slal, . |„,, Ii ,pj ,,| „|„at, 

b ol' \ , o ,1 .. , ,,,,,. boUllS, |»l ttOI I, hop-, emeu-. 
Iia\ >il,i all tile I- ,,l I,.,.! , ropj I I » Ul .• I ' III llW 

Si Ito tain hand i and nf 

farm buildings than Suttt i count ) . whit h 

" "I II,, pro | j ,,, I;,,,,,,,, .a (I,,, le 



oality. The i iiin.ii. ol the appi t Sacramento po1> 

i. ) \a quite bol in rammer, but the night nre 

uool V*i ol iblos and fruita oi nJ] kinds 

m mi .in in iiri -i • , .,ii account ..i the i ,■ 

ad -iii mi l. in. . i | 

^ ulin CUy, 

The count) seat, lioi on the treat bonk of tin- 

r, ,iii, i river, onlj one mile from Mai ysvilli The 

river here Lb spanned bj n bi idgi , making commu- 

m u j n ill, liet on the " ' P l; 

R . (0 D.), onlj 60 inilos north I Saoramonto 

City. 'I'ln' Sacramento rivei tin at al] 

i' ill. \. H . thus i'. ii portion 

,,f the count] ■ I mavkol faoilil lea bj n atei 

i. mm, i - i mi pi rularlj on the Fcathei 
riror, from 5Tuba citj to San Franci co, transport 
in iii. oounti \ pro luce at choap rates, \ ubn 

city has a population of onlyol 1 700; Marj 

ville, which-ia, so close to it, is the prinolpal com 

morcial center for the uppoi Sacra ato valley. 

Xho population "f Sutter intj i- 5,159, prinoi 

|,,ii\ in in- ra, although there ia a number of small 
. the county, with one or two stores, such 

, Bear River, Brow n '-. Brittona, I lolum- 

i igli . Foirview, Franklin, Leo, Live 

Oak, Blurry, Nicolaus, Noys, Pleasant Grove, 

Salem, Sutter, Onion, Weal Butte, and \Vii],,w 

Pond. Sutter ntj is Bottled bj farmers, who 

haw spent large sums of money in levying in the 

and reclaiming Lands whio] n produce 

BnormouB orops 

ti-ii \>i \ COUNTY, 
In the north-western portion of the State, ia 
bounded on the north by Shasta, east by Plumas 
and Butte, south by Butte and Colusa, and west 
bj Mendocino and Trinity. It has an area ol 
2'000,000 acres, ami th- Sierra Nevadas occupy the 
..i i-iii part, while the Shasta mountains, belong- 
ing to thi I looal B - Phi mid- 
dle, between them, is really the northern section 
ofth .' il Sacramento valley. The Sacramento 

a- tin. ,iil.'Ii it, and tin- mnuntains an- nn 
ered with excellent saw timber, consisting oi yel- 
low -in 1 1 sugar pine, an l rii ia foun I, et peoiolly on 

the western alo] E the Sierras, The lumber in- 

m I only to agriculture, whii b is very 
mportant, especially in wheat, barley, o 
hoy There are two lands of productive valleys 
tlii' levi'l laml- in. H tin' rivi'i-s ;iii.| iiiiall Imlluw.s in 
tin- iiiniuitaina. Their K-rti lit \ i- a feature of the 
The soil of the volli y lands of Tehama 
i- .i dark, sandy loam, and verj productive. The 
black adobe lands, formerlj conaidere l volueli --. 
have been provi i to be some of the very best, 

i ir-fallowing thi y produce enormously 

Bond year, and an inexhaustible, win .a 
i- the largest crop at present. Fruit and 
, ult I..., omlng note I in Tinelan I Ex-G 


Si .mi.. 1. 1 i ,,, i ,,,,, ■ 1 1 . ,m,i preparing it foi thi 
plnntin ■ ol the lai i -i vini yard in the world, He 
has 1 1 ited the most noted \ ineyard oounti ii - of 
Bnropo, and employs hundreds ol men The i ii- 
mote, in the mountains, ia neoi Ij pet feotion; in thi 
vallej - the aummers ore hot, but the night • an 


Red Biuir, 
The eouatj » at, Iii on thi wi il bank ol the Sai 

rami nto river, 274 milea north fr San Franciai o 

1,1 il the i" i i of m:i\ i j. .ii, ,M, .in, i also on the 1 1. 
I». of thi '' p i: i;. The oity Buffered 
fire ,,, the roll of L882, bnl i rebuilt, 
11 i i'i' ■■> tontlj,' i in ,, in,, farming commu- 
nity . and has a populati f about 3,500. 

The -, , • -ii. I tow ii in the countj . has a <■■■< \ pli n - 
ant location, on 1 1 1. • weal bank ol the Sacramento, 
and at the junction of the I talifornia Pacific Rail- 
road and the Oregon Diviaion of the C P R, i: , 
twelve miles south of Red Bluff The C P B R 
hoa recently been extended from I Irland, and when 
completed to Beseburg, Oregon, it will b< 
thoroughfare between Mi i ico and British I iolum- 
bia, Tehama haa a population of 700. 
'I'll, ■•tin i tiiwns are Antelope, Butte Meadows, 

1 '" asl Range, Cascade, Copelond, Cottomv I, 

Elder Creek, Elktown, Elmore, Blkina, Floyd, 
Gleosonville, Henlyville, Howell, Hunter, John- 
Bon, Lowery, Live Oak, Lassen, Moor's Ranch, 
Montgomery, Murry, Oak Creek, Riceville, Raw- 
son, Reed's Creek, Red Bank, Stony Creek, 
.i.i.-in. i, Toomos, Vino, and others, The popula- 
tion of Tehama nt j . in 1880, wa ''.■'■'><>. but, at 

present, it would amount to 10,000. 


Lies in the north-western port of the State, and is 
bounded on the north bj Siskiyou, easl by Shasta 
and Tehama, south bj Mendocino, and weal by 
Hiuiibulilt. It i- about 126 milea long, from north 
to Bouth, and from 16 to 8G mliea in n idth; it con- 
tains an area of 1,680,000 acres The [reater por- 
tion is mountains, the Shasta range forming it< 
eastern line, and the Scott'a mountains the north- 

ern Hue. The countj i- named aftei it- | lipal 

river, which, with it- numerous tributaries, waters 
the whole of the territory. 

Gold mining ia the chief support of thi county; 
the gold Bhipped annually from thiscounty amounts 
to nearly one million dollars, The population of 
tin whole county ia onlj 1,998, nearly all miners 
There are main prosperous mining camps in the 



The countj Beat, and ■ of the prettiest little 

towns in the mines, contains 750 inhabitants. It 

is situate I on Weavei oroek, in a i in uloi bae I 

foui or five miles in extent, and ia built on good 

1 • round, Borne ol thi lots p t n worked to 

tin bed rock before the buildings won i 

1 nded bj manj Hi chorda, the fruit 

nf which attains on oxi ellent tl.n i this localitj 

Trinity Center, 
"n the stage roa I from Shasta to S n lu is thi 
Becond place ,,f importance, The callej has .. 
number of goo I forms, the produce of which finds 
roadj sale at I io to i i -. team itei -. and trav- 
elers 'I'll' n are joo I paj in • mines in the sur- 
rounding hill i Hayfork valley Is an important 
farming region, and there are a numboi ■ 
forma along the Hayfork and thesmaller itreums 
emptying into it. Indian Creek is a mining camp 
at the head "f this streai i the dh iding lini be- 
tween Shasta and Trinity. There are - g I 

|M\ ing quartz ledges in the t icinil j , 

Douiflnn CIlF, 

'in the Trinity river, 

road from Hayfork to \\ eavei villa, it thi central 

pointforag I mining reg Lewiaton is also 

on the Trinity, oleven miles above I lou| las Cil 
'I'u,, bridgi - Bpan the Trinil ) , one at Lewiaton, 
and thi other at a small place known > 
valley, leading out from Weavervillo. The Dead 
«•,„., I quartz district is in this vicinity Miners- 
villeisonthe east fork ,,f Stowart's fork "f the 
Tnnitj hver, in one of the i»'-t gravel minin r die 
trioto in the county, Cinnibar, oi fUtoono, is the 
in. -i northern settlement in the county, in 
small place. It is in the qui ksilver mines, which 
an now onlj partially worked, on account of the 
metal Junotion I litj ties southwest of Weo oi 

ville, in a g I paying gravel mining district, 

North Fork i- Borne eight milea below Junction, in 
a good mining district, Cox - Bai lies ton milea 
below (forth Fork, surrounded by rii h 
claims Martin vile ia in the north-western por- 
tion of tli nty. N. u River and Ra! I 

an -m. ill -,-ttli in, nt-, i .nl\ accessible I 
trains Canyon City, on i crook of the sami 
name, ia nun' milea from Junotion City and 1* 

from Weavervilli , in a - I mining district. Tho 

ii,,, -t serious drawback to tli unty i- it- long 

distance from a market Weavervilli is 218 miles 
north and west from Sacraim nto The route is bj 
r. nl to Redding, and from thence the distance i 
]sn miles bj stagi The mountain wa 
ai e usually goo I Trinit j I. ible good 

saw timbei , and 1 1 1 \ fan agricultural land open to 
settle) b. 


i mmediotely south "f Fresno, and is bounded 
mi the east by Inyo, south by Kern, with its 

western corner t hing on to Monterej county 

It has an ireaof 1,1 100 acres Tulare belongs 

real San Joaquin vallli j The typ 
cial features ,,f tho countj is ma Ii up of mountain, 

■ - ■ 

Peruvian Bitters. 








I ' 1 '"' 'alley, swamp and overflowed lands, U t 

2.000,000 at i. - being mountain, the hi [h I 

"' "" ■" '■'' Sierra range fringe tl astern border; 

Mounl Whitm y, i 1,055 feel hi i,. Mount William- 

h hi m ml ] 
i i 3 6j Mi ml Ks ,i. i i mum ,,, , 
ing fiftj in number, of over 13,000 feel ,.i 
level, are p md entinals of the Sierras, I 
above all other land in the I nib d i 

" enerj among thi -■ mountain i eak i of inex 

Bri hi low ire in the 

da c vollej te filled bj ice in the glacial period, 

and thi to 120 feel In 

m I 300 fei i hi ;h, an found on the 

mountain sidi - at an oli vat f6,000 to 6,000 fi 1 1 

abovi il.. . i \i„,,,t l.OOO.OOOacres ..ft)..- county 
ia broken land, with small, elevated volli 
oeptibli oi -in, I,,, nt, when thi I 
th M ii". lu of meep in I i attli in summer, 

The Viaalin land diatrii I i mbraci - EVi mo, 

Tulare and Eft rn counties. Thi se countiea com- 

"■ y, with the Siorrai on the 

1 " i the west. The} 

contain more than 600,000 acres of level land, and 

upwards of 2,500, acres of mountain ind 

foot hill land. Through the centi r of these conn- 
the Southern I . i The o Id- 

11 '"•"• || sections of land, foi twenty m 

each side of thi road, bi long to tli" Roflroo i I om 

1 ectiona of Government 

land, "iilnii those limits, are held at $2 50 poi 

■ these 
limit-, arc N 25 per icre N"om ol tho Government 
lands are subject to private entry; the] 
obtained onlj by pre empties an I hoi 

There is more orli - I ,, mt 

h»nd in al st every townahip in the 

amounting in the aggreati to man'.- t 1 

" ri - \ i>i_. portion of theae vacant landa are 

-' I. and are capable of pro luring, with propel 

cultivation, all the pro lm t- of the soil of thi t, m 

nd icmi-trnpical zones, Mui h of thi 
i ant Ian 

the district worth }25 i , i acre, but these private 
lands hove bi i n ini n a icd in i alue bj culti 
and mi ion, F* ilities are at baml 

to mil,, the public londs equally valuable 

1 veil wati i, I by numi rous 

Ktream . each head in the mountains and empty 

,,,' Laki . the San Joaquin, Kaweah and 

Tulare rivi rs being the moat prominent, 

1 the 1 m j, t bo ly of fresh watei on the 

in -a of al t 220,000 

i iH,,u outlet mtii thi 3 

Joaquin rivei . and seems bj nature to have i n 

I i, lei '..,ii foi thi storsgi ol water 
,'. thi arid west Bide of this irn at rivei 
The principal tow n in 1 1 •• - county is 

the countj seat It hoa a population of al I 

2,000, an l lies 239 miles Bouthi ast from Sa 

• from tin Southern P 

Railroad, but i i oi ite I h itfa - 1 eat t thoro 

by a pri Goshen Viaalia ia 

! > locate i in' branch ol the B 

river, amid grovi - of evergn en and dei iduou 
which ornament the country for milea on everj 


th,' ii Mini largest town in the county, i situated 
in the famous "Mussel Slough" i ountrj compi ising 
tin finest body of agricultural land in the county, 
II. mi. ...I lies 1 1 mill - west of the mam line of the 
8 P R K., on thi Goshen diviaion of the same 
company'i roa I. it contains 900 mhabitanl 

I \\ at, rWOl H 

Tin largest town in the county ia 

Tulare Cllj . 
I,... ited ..ii the main line of Southern Poi i'i,' 
Railroad and the tonninus of the northern division 
Extonsivo shops foi thi repairing of locomotives 
.i. I hi n . furnishing employmi nt for a 
numboi of mechanics, Tho town has o populat 

ol about 800 


i- locate l in an . xcellent gi tin and fruit-pro 
countrj . The land hi i ited, and pro- 

duces huge orops annuallj Thi town contains 
150 Inhabit mts 

'i'i,, othei t.'Uii- ..i the oounty are Lam , 

Porti rvilli , ( ■• ishi n,I n moi n ille \\ ood> ille, I '■> and 

view . Plana and Tipton, the two largest bi i 

in., i. .ml Portervillo, which have a population of 

ai i 200 e i' li I'I" capabilities ol this 

foi supporting a large population ore remarkable 
1 1, i . are in iu Forest - ,,t timbei 


in the weBtorn Blope ol the Siei i is, ni irlj du i 
, ., -i I, ora S mi i oundod on the noi 1 1 « 

\>\ Al|iin, . On th \\ mi, nil I In si, nl I, liy 

\i iripo a. an I "ii the weal bj Stonlsloua and Col- 
iveras Wil hin tho limit ■ of Tuolumne co 

iriety ol nit mi ,ii » ra, tin reoti si ol 

which is the Hat h Sotohi o valloj , I - si t ond 

..mIn to the Yo Si mite. Thoro are two bi 
groves; the lorgei on the Stonialaua river. In the 

th-wi itei ii I'M i ol th , "nut i , and the othei On 

Tuolumne rivor, aoai the southern boundary. Tho 




f 01 ,, ,1 uiia ' reatoi numbot ol bhi " Bequoia 

,:, uitla tli in anj on bhi I loa I Theso, and the 
main bfa oavc, latolj discovered, entitle Tuol- 
umne i" n plai ' Bi -' i" bhc IjbI ol itrioa of nnt 

,,,.,i wonders, The reason ol theii I - unknown 

heretofore, la hi i ause ol thoir r< motoni From 
rout, - ol travi I, and are bo Bituatt d thai thi J are 

i nnble bl I ana of an] conveyance, 

..,. n horseback, over rough mountain 

i i be mad i ni i ossible foi 

,i„ .,. i,i ., , ,- of ""i wondi rful oountry. 

Mini - and no on the prim ipal Infc 

,i„ county Thi Bxoclsior, Rivereidi . Buchanan, 

Qoldi ii Qati , and Sanl i M « ore •' ll l; "-" 

mines. \ network of ciunrti w in threads the 
,.,.,,,,1. and -i it< rangi », hundred! ol whii h in 

pel m,| pected. Among those thai aw being 

(forked, few, il any, aw fully di volopod There 
.,,,. only ten mitts in operation. Some parts ol 

river i hannela thai havi been 0] I have proven 

extrcmelj rich ^fli le " the [old minini bhi n 

ftD0Un a inexhaustible quantities ol d vorj superior 

qualit] of marble for mom into! and building 

I Limestone, Blab -' i ■ l ' ' * ■ ■ 

i nes are among the valuabli mini ral depos- 
its. The whole countj ie wi ll bimbi n d with for 
eats of valuable yellow and ro :ai pirn . Br, and 
"Sequoia" There are fully 500,000 acres of good, 
tillable land, open to settlement. 
Sonoi i>, 

The , ,,tv seat, is situated on the left bank of 

\\ ■,.., i- , ,,., k, in the Bouth-weatern portion of the 

Bounty, it has al I 1,400 inhabitants, and is 

reaebi I from San Francisco bj rail (by way of 
Stockton), to Oakdalo, the terminus of bho Cop- 
i„ ropolis roa I, and from bin nci bj i1 «e a distam e 
of 35 miles; the total distance is 157 tnih oast ol 
San Francisco. Then ore a number ol I pay- 
ing quart/, mines in operation in this vicinity. 

Next in Bize and c meroial impni I 

ColiimM •. 
Four miles north of the count) seat, in a rich 
section. It contains 12,500 inhabitants, 
Chinese camp, eight miles south-east from the 
county seat, has 4w> inhabitant Somi fifteen 
miles east i- Big Oak Flat and Garato district, 
amid rich and i Kb naive mines. 

Fruit-raising, to which the Boil is adapted, is one 
of the growin I (l " oountj Si mi 

tropical fruits and vines an cultivatt I and raisin 
grapes do remarkably well in the valleys andlower 
foot-hill.^. The area of the county is 1,260,000 
Forty or fifty thousand of thesi might be 
cultivated tn fruits, vines, ami cereals, The pop- 
ulation of Tuolumne, in 1880, was 7,848, but would 
reach about 8,<M) at present. 

.,i Lnacapa, i n orl foi the California 

oa lion; fathi i ■■■■ I thi I land ol San N las 

This Eb considered ol bho Bnosl agricultural 

,., tion In the tato Bi bwoon San Buenavi nturn 
and Newhall, in the Santa Ol'nxa valloy, liea the 

second largosl town in the c by, Santa Paula, 

-rounded bj I Iran e on h ird ind p lin fields, 

the villiage hai 200 inhabil ml 

\ famous re orl for i re and invalids 

isreaohod by dailj •■• •>• o and I locati I il I 12 

miles from San Bui navi ntuni in n Ii it U I now n as 
Ojai valley, il is bi autifullj Itu itod b< tween the 

\ i otura river on the ivosl and San Vntoi k 

on the ' •' il 


[ B ., - Ml .,ii ploi i . 51 ai thi ronowned Satiooj apring 

it i- the center of nil rii ulturiolooun 

try. Ventura countyolso boasts of several g I 

mineral springs, which are frequontlj visited bj 

nn.ili Is, 

\ ..i qualitj of natural loap is found here 
Large quantities of gypsum havo boon found in 
the ' Ijoi valley, and neai tho bi at ha vi rj supei 
i or quality of potti r'« i laj ^sphaltum is found 
along all the streams Then an 
thousand acres of overnmonl land, mainlj in the 

mountains. Thi re are ni is little valleys 

i through ill' mount dm whi n ihi i p mi a 
keep then Bo 


[s bounded by Santa Barbara and Kern counties 
on the north and west, on the Pacific Ocean, on 

the east by Los Angele rntj an I ini 

islan ^ of Nicolas an I I v " ' 1,296,000 

i - i. mountains foim 

the northern line, the Fernando and 8anta Susanna 

The itry i- well watere I 

Principal Valleys an Sir I Pesos Santa 
Clara, Pleasant, Ohi and Nordhoff. Frost and 

snow are seldom seen, and little irrig iti - re- 

qnin I, Los Posas i . pi rhops, the best in the 
county and its lands are all tillable. Santa Clara 
has an extreme length of about 50 mill 
measurers about 25 in its widest part, and lies 
along the Santa Clara rivei tl land « 
ind well watered, [rrigation is but littli needed 
hut art n be obtained at li 

here than in any other part of the State Word- 
Hey i- about 22 miles Ion ■ and 1 1 in width 
Through it, runs thi Ventura rivor.ina winding 
com »e, to thi 

'[')..• "ll ..f V. ntuni li;> ' •"■' ' l\ l " n '"'" ! " ! 

Tli, tin isl ml whi n this "ill be one 

Sun Itu.iiii » 'ni tirii. 

Ti itn Lb i on ii" i a i i" ai 

il,, mouth of the V ntura rivoi I 
mirablj a lapte I, b) natun , foi the building up "f 
mposing i il ■. Lool 

wai i we Id -■ ■■ 'i" broad valloj oi the Banta 

Clara, covered with woving green fields, and miles 

1 I »on, I ip thi I luo I a 

i , , ., Mount mi i" a lini toward Loi Angeles; 

furthei bo the righl Poinl Ma u, il bold blufl jut- 

, ; in i he mi Idli di I mi o, bo bhi 

1 1 ,, in, i.i -Li hou ■ . whii ii i ■ 

i ui ning north, up thi 

valley of the Vi ntui 

teadin Bn hard 

I i "i i Von 

1 in thi i 

in bract may 1 i tho Old ii 

in ii irchlvi an three 
old li .ii Im i bai kod in him ori| I ho foi I 

i i,.,i i . i I, v. .i fouudi 'l 



i ii i I twol ' mile outli woi I from Ban 

i ' Ituab 'i i 

,in,., i toui bin p thi ■ o i " 
•i/uth-w'^t, twalva d 

voi.o COUNTY, 

Some 80 mil - north and easl from San Fi 

,. one of the Bm il a jrii nltural bcm biona in ill I ali- 

fornia, the great Sabramento rivi i formin 

:, in boundary. Bolano Lies immediately 

south, ami Colusa bounds il mi ii rth, while 

the -iniiinit ni the < 'mi I Han ;i "I ruountoins, with 

Lake ami N.i|>a mi i 1 1,. west, form its 

western line, This i a pro pi rous and beautiful 
county, ivith an area of 650'000 •" n 'I I 

portion occtipii - ' ,ln I| ""' '• ' bill -■ etions ol 

the Sacramento valley, which extends wesl from 

the rivei adist mci ol 1 20 bo 25 miles, reaching 

to the foothills of thi Coast B 
which takes it- hi a i in ' Hi ni laki in Loki countj , 
i olo countj m tho northwi i corner, and 
in ;, southon item diroctii n 
naUj through tho i ountj ; as it i nb 
through tho Ooa I 

for several miles, « hi re thi i intaina « i 

into what is know n as ( ey, a beautiful 

country, of ni arly the use ol Napa valli j On ei 

thei bi le "f Cache crook tl I i • ellent for 

grain or fruit, this st fui nishin [tin 

facilities for irrigation. The mouth of thovalloy 
i- some sixteen miles wesl ol Woo Hand, the countj 
seat, Land i- \ nabli in price in this 

vicinity. The country all al rn slope 

,,f the l foothills, has 

numerous little valleys, which is thi choicest fruit 
land in the Stab . while the mountain i i 

usually held bj i «sorj title. The population, 

m 1880 was 11,161, an I at pn • nt would n u b 
11,500. I ■ ■ h-iii- and >> in 

sively i ultivate I. Some ol th i Bm I raisins in 
the San I '" "> olo countj 

Thi shipping facilitic ol the ntj i ■ i Uent; 

first, thi Sacn into rivor, 

of the countj . where bo it ■ ply up and dow □ 

Railroads run in different din i bion Tho I lali- 
fornia Pacific oxl bin outh i istern por. 

tion of bho count j , with a branch bo I la> i n illi 
north, to Kjught's Landing on tho Sacramento 

the m. on line i uns north tl gh thi i ountj . bj 

V7oo Hand, up into < lolusa Uuug tho 

westei n porti I thi count j i the^ ■ 

A i Ileal Lake railroa I, no« pli be 1 1 Blmira, 

of \ .!• avilli and Winb 
tl,,- present terminus Thi ■ roa I h ill dou 

ill' \ . with thi inb ni t 

going up that valli j into Lai u i onnt | 
will be .-'in that V,,|i. isverj a ntrallj li 

'l'h, counl | bi at, i bo mtifullj ituated on a level 

plain, at the junction ol thi ' lalil la Pi n" 1 

fsLai ling branoh, Tho town is n fularlj 
..iti, brood itn 1 1 i, which run il ri lit 
1 1„ place is wi 11 mpplii d with i 

...,,i. , i i i largosl town In bl ty ia 


! outh (vi ti rn portion ol bl nty, whi re 

the earlii il frull ' Thi land I all Bno 

Ian i o i I"-- Wintoi I i"- 1 on 

< "'i"ii Tho town ha da- 

, , oi , lupportod bj 

fruit culture, th. i Iilppod to San 

i i nd thi highi I i 

account ol i - ) "' "" ' 

Davlsi Illi 
t n , lino of rollrood botwi i n San I 

crte i in a tin., lovi I countrj . ol I four miles 

from bho foothills, i itn ib d in tho 

loworond of bho boautiful I lapaj valli \ Kni [hf 
I, in.!,,,,- r . ,,n bho Bai ramenta i Ivoi , and is tho tei 
iiiinu ol tho roa i from \\ oo Hand 

I in ll Villi' 

li. mi 260 mil 'i" 1 ml I number 

of -in. ill. . i town and pn • im • in thi counl 

.,- Bui keyi Blocl ( lottoiu I ( n, " lapaj . 

i Hark iburg, I '^ I I ■ Jeffer- 

-..n, Putah, Pine ' Irove, N\ illow Slough, and Yolo. 

Vi it \ < OCNTY, 

In Hi. . . ni. .i pari ol the th boll of < lalifornia, 

tl; in tho Sacramento valli v, an I 
far up in the wi born slope of tho gn ot Si" rra 
■I'll. ..ii. i. •■nt . ounl " in Butte, on tin north, 

Sierra and No\ oda, ho ousl . and PI 

Snii.T on bho Bouth and woi ' ifuba county li \e 

in area ol : '.'"'. 1 10 nan and gulai in ih tpi 

I ■-■ 50 mil'-, long m ii, easl 

Bouth-wi itorlj direction, and t 15 to 22 miles 

in width Tho Foathi > rivei t - the boundary 

[ine "ii th< wi t, ■■ bile bhc Yub i I 
countj ii Hi- ii rl 

tion b itli the Fenthoi ! I 
... river was one of the i ichi 
,,ii i scores of woi ki l-oul mil I ifyto thi 

prosp 1 1' '• that rei I 

draulic mi een dom from Timbuctoo to 

hundn I feet in 

l„ i-ia havi i" ■ ii b ashed i way, and the bed-rock 

laid bar dli a id Sicard I 

Flat, ' ' ■iui|.t'.ii' ill' 1 1 ok valley, and manj othoi 

places havo bi on woi kod on by this 

loh o n to i !.. In ■ 

i.i. i ih.. i- itry, both in iln mountain mining 

region and tho rich, rivor bottom lands of thi vail y. 

i' id ny private levoi 

in.. i . il,. in 500,000 'I'll. i. ..i . . ^i prosi nt . foui 

■ mills in I ho nl ■■ . b hii h d b ed I . i in 

0D0 foot of I boi last vcar, principallj yollow and 

bui .1 pirn I'' Hi. bi I mi'.. i in. ii., hi v.. ,'., ni, i 

g it, while .m bhi pi ople of VTuba countj i 

ghorl i ime igo, wo i i imab ' ! iw inn 


Mnr>.» ill. 

■ i.i thi inn. tion "' the "> uba im 

nt | Tl mmodiou ubstantial brick 

I...- buildings, 

am e of 1 I iblishi d. Fi 

ffi i od mon fi om i ■ 
tion and floods than Mnrj villi l < has at present a 
v. Ini. population ol i ||1 " 1 


'ri. in I tow M m iizi . i "in. i ■■■■• Ive mi • 

fi Mai •. ill. . ..ii ii" inn- line of tho railroad 

Tho ploci i ■ of but ' 

. i.i. i hod m I860, at tho completion of the rail- 
road ii is a ihipping i it I 

!. Tli. ton n i- thi 
• >f the fin mi portion of thi 


« am pi viiie. 
[Jp in tin in." 

with the opt ning of the mines in 1852. Tl 

has I-- '. ii.. - . in oi lai ji hydraulic op 

Im .il 1 1 i 

hotel, « le re al The tow n h 

nl, iti. ni 

Smarlsi nir, 

i ited "ii the uppoi > ■ a mile* 

.J..... . Mary villo This has been the scene of the 

' '"■ ' l '"' Partiallj dependent upon it- ,, hydrauUc ing in thi 

agricultural n , ■ 

"'" thirdof the ti „. ,,, ,.,,,„ Tll , ,,,,„ , towm ,„ , 
uscoptibli -I ].i..titil.l.iultr. ition; the i 
maindei ii devoted to sraring, and is rated as tim- ■,,. , , , 

'' ™ portion ol ,, , , , ,...,.,, j.-»t •• ••. ..i 11,270 in I 
' '" '« ''" '■ riting, 

to whi at, I'" li inning. 

i dong the 

■ bottom, in tin thi i n portion of the 

countj I'l" ravages committed on the fertili 
bottom lands, bj the san I woshi I dow n from thi 
hydraulii mine i, havi 

of Yuba countj Thej have been built alongthe 
Yiii..,. I-'. ..ili. i and Bi i ounty, 

\ n it\in mi i. i\« ki. v-.i 
imboldl ooau 

grain wi re t i ranch near Hvdes- 

viiir. tins Benson, in bti ' ss of ibi i nl 
.in, and tin 

■ ill ni- 
..iii grniu pi 

< H « V I I I « HtM.V, 

Assets, - 



HOME * * i ■" i ■' i « ' 10 : 

Southwest Corner of California and Sansome Streets, 


. unonto, I '' tl notion ol tl 

,„„,!, \i | ' ii" town I- ' population 

I | „,,„i m thi vi initj i tin im. ' kind of 

„„u i i ■ lui ■ dopo II i Putoh 

ii... an "' (l " '"" I ""i"" 1 hi 'I" 


T)l , tennin I '■'"' v v ' ' ' '' l; ''' • ' '" 

Bases Its clatms to patronage upon Its being the OLDEST 
ITS itiMd nil's, being the l. aiu i> r P kCIPIC COAS i 
ORD, having paid FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ft ises 

during the past Twentf years, and ii^ popularlti •- 
attestod by the fael nun lis PREM1I >« INCOME Is 

D, .1 M \l 1.1 ■ I',,, 

m.i'iii.i . BULL, \m. Pflalddnt. 

u ,i DUTTON, ... i.i .M 
ii. w. - \Ri'i s im. k 





MNK.vAiu), him: CELLAB and 

Near St. Helena, Napa Oounty, Oalifornia. 


— AJTD— 

Brands of Red and 
White Wines. 


Burgundy, Bordeaux and 
Rhine Wines. 

Orders Received and 
Promptly Attended to by 




A writer In tin Weekly Call baa the follow- 
ing: The coming grape, considering the de- 
Qiiiud f . >r cuttings lust year, appears i" be the 

Sultana, the well-known seedless variety from 
the Levant. From being little known five 
years ago, it bus come BUddenly into promi- 
ui'iiri '■■' iii-in mil wine, until Ibe planting*) 
tbisseasuii will I"- limited onlj bj the supply 
o( onttings. It well deserves its general pop- 
ulnrity. It nut only makes one of the most 
delicious Beedless raisins, but a white wine of 
dolicatfi and BUpi nor flavor, besides which, in 
favored localities it bos proved itself t" be an 
enormous bearer. How it ever got the n puts 

ti I being B shy bearer is a mystery to those 

who are fainilar with its culture in Yolo 

Ni\ years ago It. B. Blowers, the well-known 
raisin-grower "f Woodland, planted several 
aori a « 1 1I1 cuttings of this variety putting thi m 


California ships a large quantity of her 
lour in Texas, and Butte county furnishes 
the largest portion of it. The Gridloy and 
Oroville mills have shipped thousands of 
Backs Messrs. Hibbard & Shand, owners of 
the California Steam Flouring Mills in tins 
city, will shortly have roinpleleil 
for sending nearly all their flour to 1 
That State Iiun formerly 1 eceived its flour from 
Minnesota, but since the completion of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, she is drawing 
upon the surplus flour of California, because 
of a better quality than the flour of the North- 
wi item States.— Butte Record. 

TflK Ml SI <i VINE. 

Four years ago, Bays the Riverside Press, Chofley 
purchased one and two-year-old UubosI vines from 
n neighbor who bad l< st oonfldenoe in the raisin 
grape. He planted ess and a quarter ncrcs to 



Carpets and Furniture, 



649 & 651 Market Street, 

SAK X^ R A. N C I s c; o . 



Pacific Eifle and 1 stol Powder. ? 


Bright Glaze, in Iron and Wooden 




FUSE, Etc. 


No. 230 California Street, 





m iiiwn - .' on the lool 

li . and In 

.■,, tltliyi ii'"-' " '" ,l " 1 

,.M remain lu povi My 


i,i i 




O F 


& MANN, 

l\ os. 322 and 321 California Street, 

and 3U2 and 30ft San- 

souie Street. 

Scixi Fx-nxxGltsco. 

Ancnts lor Tlio 
DwoUIng House Underwriter*.. .New York. 

$2,100,7-4 4 06. 

Girard F. dl M. In*. Co Philadelphia. 

$1,101,313 20. 

I.a ' mil In». Co Paris, France, 


New Orleans Ins. Ass'n New Orleans, 


Standard Fire illli.,- London, England. 


•it, Paul F. «fc M. Ins. Co. ..St. Paul, Minn., 

$837,893 13. 

The Fire Ins. Ass'n (Limited) . London, Eng., 

$1,342,673 14. 

Teutonlu Ins. Co New Orleans, 

1 101,753 71. 
Watortown Watertown, N. Y., 

$1,006,656 23. 


The London and Provincial Marine Insur- 
ance Company London, 


La Fonclere Marine Ins. Co Paris, 


Capital Represented. . . $27,650,527 



Special Agents and Adjusters. 

F. P. BACON, Pres. C. L. FOUTS, Sec. 

Globe Jron Works Co. 



and FORGE 

Manufacturers and Eepairers of all Kinds of 

v mm mov flicirmiWUi 

1 1 11 

11.. 1. . 

. ioi II" DNI 

,, ton times or«. 

Dsrj /... 

pari mo- 
il I "II tusi 

rtnssciKkCo., l'orllsiid.Mslnu 

in widely opart, or at the rate of 515 to the 
aers. The first crop wus produced the third 
year, and the yield wus five touti to the aore; 
ond crop was at the rate of ten tons, 
the crop of the fifth year was twtlvo tons, and 
the past season, the sixth from planting, the 
mi,. - produced the enormous crop of Bi n " 
teen tons per acre. It is doubtful il thifl 
yield was ever before equalled in this State 
v, Mli any variety. It should he stated that Mr. 
Blower's soil in Q rich, Btrong loam "t great 

,1, p tb, 1 piouslj irrl ;ated, and rooeivea the 

best culture intelligenl raanogement oon be- 
stow. Owing to the untimely rains, whioh 
interfered with raisin working, the crop was 
sold too wine-maker (who found the saccha- 
rine Blrongtfa to be 23 per cent), al 830 pei 
,,,,, | aB { doable the prioe reci ived foi &tu 1 ati I 
ime purposi Mr Blowers has 
already received orders foi 140,000 onttings, oil 

1 1 in rlneyard baa 1 lucod SloBtoi 

th, ,n pari of the Btati , Los 
AugeloM OOunty alone having ordered 10U.0UU. 

these vines. The first season after planting he 
pinked Hi" crop dried the Bame and Bold the raisin 

t ,„ -.,ii, 11,, -,,;.,„ I ..ii.n n he Mnlil the crop mi the 
vines for $150; the third yeai bo Bold blsoropln the 
sumo way for MOO, and thia year be baa again Bold 
his grain-s on ti.. rim foi 8250. Fur four yeara he 
baa Bold blB oropa fur b total of 8060. The vines 

orlgnally coal bim al 1 188 be baa onltlvated 

tbo same fcur years, and the little rlneyard novi 
m .,,,,'. in". me on a valuation of about 
$1,800 per aore. 

We cull apeoiol ottention to lha Llewellyn 

Steam Condenser Co.'s u.lvitih t, .-Im- 

where in this Journal, whoso ftltei b< ■' nd 

eondensersare now in BueoesBful operation in 
the principal manufacturing establishments 

11 1 t oui oity ond oonntrj ' 

from tli- hundreds ol ti il "-■ 

thai thoysave from '""• '" fuel 

1 water, besides keepii th< Bteam boilers 

perfeoth clean, witl t th 1 of chemicals, 

ihismust b ioi the great. I InvontioMOl 

thu age.] 

Hoisting and 

Mining Machinery, 

Portable, Stationary and 
Marine Engines. 


Which does » 

Rods, V Boh. D 

equally ».u 1.. 

( ,rd..,i...u.. 

lore furnished free, upon application. 



SPEI iv l .11 1 VS. 


222 and 224 Fremont St., 

Between Howard nnd Folsom, 

£»c*,rx Francisco. 



Winter Arrangement. 

Commencing Sunday, Oct. 22nd, 1882, 

And until furthei notice, P MR *ȣ* "'"'", v ', 

, ,-o. Passenger Dup..t 

(Towni.eii.lst .between .M.-.I..I "I, si reels) as follows. 


iBBTi i 

t 6:60 a. m 

B io - H 

10.10 A. M 


too P. « 

..Sun Mateo. Rod wood... 
and Menlo Park. 


• 8fl0 r 

4. .;n r 

, M.l | 

,. M.| J . 


__ itnClarn.Snn .lose and. 

.Principal way stations.. 

in U) \ II I 

..and Monterey.. 

10:10 a M.| | .Holllst.r and Tn 

| GO'.' P.M. 

10:40 A. M.I 


and -int ' I'niz 

I .Salinas. Bolodad n 
I StatlonH 

002 P. M. 

ad Wayl I 6!M ,. H , 


.x.-rnt.d. ISnn.layB only (Spnrltnen'H 

Stage connections are made witb the 10:10 am I rain, 
except Pescadero Btegcs via 8au Mateo, which con- 

nect with 830 a. m. Train. 


Bold on Beturdays end Bundey mornings I '- re- 
turn Monday— -,, r0 
,,, Clara or Sau Jose *- •" 

To Mont-n yor Santa I'm.-. U" , , 

Also to principal points between Ban i n.ncieco and 
San Joso. 

Ticket Omcw.-Passenger Depot. Townsend street 

and No. 2 New Monty.,,,, rj street, 1 -alar. Hotel. 

a n T1JS5F.TT H- K. J UUAB, 

Al °* In pSendent. Asst. Pass. & Tkt. Agt 

*7-3. P. Atlantic Express Train via Los Angeles, Y.i- 
m^etc. leaves San FreUClSOO daily via Oakland terry, 
foot of Market street, a t 930 A.M. 





Oonnecting at Yokohama with Steamers for Shaughae 

Will sail from 8an Francisco- 



„,L.vir Tuesday. January •" 

XoStIC Saturday. February 10 

"J c Tuesday, March B 

...Baturday, March 17 


<>,„ ... the > inviting and attractive i no 

establishments in s,n BYanoisco, is known bj the 

namewhicb heads this ortioie. It tin Bra 

ti ol :, largo, three-story, brio* buildini 

on Sutter street, No, in. It is n 

ouslj Hu, i,.!. bein olo ■■ to the Pat ifii Ti in foi 

any, within n I throw of Montgomerj 

street, ol i a j acci to bin prin< ipal hotels and 

plat lot •! n iemi nt, [I is oroplj Bupplied with 

all of the modern appointments usually found in 
similar establishments in Eastern eitii i The room 
,. .,.„ ious, affordin | ample Bpoce for the tables 
and all ol thi neci ■ irj furniture. The table eov- 
, , . ore olwaj oloan and white oi spotli 
Bverj di h sorved is ol the vorj besl quolitj bo be 
f oun d in ,,„, morketB, The butter is the sweetest 

and puree! that con be prooured fi thi bt il 

doirj formi in Un si ,.,■ The oolored waiters 
omployed at this place are dressed aeotlj and 

tidily, whiol 'responds witb the general attract- 

tivt nt lobsi rvabloin allot the surroundlnf I this 

i im -■ di - i"H The Quaker Dairj is 

owned and conducted bj r. R Perhin and J S 
Daniels These gentlemen have had a largo ox- 

oxtonding ovoi a pe I of near!) o third 

of a century, in catering bo the bastes of the publii . 
,,, thin lino of business, Uthough this dining- 

liouso has only I a in operation ;i abort time, it. 

i, ,.. alri ady, I mi widolj and favorablj known; 

.,,,,1 ue ttu-i that the doj is nol remob when its 
reputation will becomi as world-wide at thai ol the 
famous Delmonico in Ne« 5 ork City, 

The walls of thi Quakei Dairy establishmenl ore 
Binbolli ihed with ongravinge, illustrative of rural 


it i,„ „ i remarked, bj those who bai 

. toaroful atie „ii, nt. ti. at Ihore Is no | 

ti mini in lal world which requires cstablli b 

dtivt ability, ai ' IU """' ""'" ""' 

OOOdUCtOf an insurance ,.,,,,|.„n> In the ' II 

I [t B I,,,. . I i 1 " A bj oni li 

Interests, ti undi md »lri d |th, ire oloi 

Importance asslmllnr considorotlons li 
to our banking institutions, [tmsysafolj bo said thai 
theownorsol proportj In Ban ffrancl andoll ol the 

I m i ImporUncc Inthe Pacini 
ritorlei bavi within their reach the neat,- ol 

th. risk of on . rail] eqnol In 
enjoyed bj the Inhabitant* ol I uropt and thi i 

tied | Hi.f the I'lllt.d 'I '" 

that call for .-..iiHidorution ore absolute soourlty, and the 
k | D i ng prompt and fair scttlt 
urrlng, against whli b 

taken. Win ii 1" t" 

a ■ i" i utrli i. bj I m nti n 
munity, ti ndet I 

companies they represent, thej Bl d 

il trust .nti"! '" ! 

an extended patronage. Without Inn riding to Batt r.or 
ovt „ oompllment, in the slight! 

then re ka Justlj apply to the longestabllal 

known, and highly estoi mod linn ol 

Mann. IU advati.-e. dumn; a pert,,,! of BOmi I'. 

twelvo years, from a siiiall beginning to a mOI I 

tout business. In point ol capital, assets, and r, liability, 

in tie insurance world, Is a fact that speaks foi 

i q, . omblnod capital and assets repp 

tirin. ant to the - an is sum ol I I 

ill ol which Is safely pledged 08 a Bat 

disasters to which we, In common with all i 

. An Institution having sm b s vast 
amount ol money at its command, with winch t,. 







Eicuralon Ticket. Io Yokohama anil Re- 
tarn ut Reduced Rate*. 

Oablu plans on exhibition and passage tickets foi 
ale at C. P. R- R Co. '•. General Olllcea, Room | 
74, Corner Fourth ami Towiiwnd Streets. 


Freight Agent, at the PaOlflC Mail Steamship Com 
pony's Wharf, or at No. 909 Market street. Onion 



(ien'l Passenger Agent, 





Fire and Marine Insurance 

Capital, paid in full, - $200,000.00 
Assets, Dec. 31, 1881, $377,457.82 

Losses Paid Since Company was Or- 
ganized nearly, 9800,000. 

.nni\ ii. nisi President 

CHAN. A. I.ATON se,r«lury 


No. 405 California Street, S. I'. 

and farm -■• nery, i ittle, eb . in pla i ol 

and indecent daubs, I Ft n -• en in dining r s 

and other public pi u i This is oertainlj a fi ature 
ti, ,i adds not a little to the general ottrai tivi m u 

of the plooo, and »ill i tribute, in no small ,!,■- 

.,, | . ,..,.,.,,.1 ,i, iwin i" ople ol I »te and i ulturc 
I'll,,, ,- no bar, whore liquors, of an) kind, are 
,,l,l. connected with this housi Then 
ti,,,,. thai i worthj ol spo ial mention, w a n f< i 
,.. tie milk used al the Quaker Daii y, l\ 

■ si ue ol "in word con •' milk, wltl I 

adulteration, The bill ol fore disclose thi I v I 

thai i~ can lx hod at vei > low i 

thai i ■•" i dish i ■ nol onl) i 

I,,, |..,i. .1 but al i ti" verj bs t quolitj whii i. 

, .ii, |... ii.u bo i ore l I' i ti '" 

., t ,, plate -I the vorj nicest kind ol pan ikes, 
with genuine mapli lyrupand fresh ranch butter, 
foi i wonl | ■ ■ nl Bvei vthing known in the oulin- 
,, M di |, .1, ■ni. tlial i hi i" hod, is found al this 
|, t ,,,, , 

\i, , i- and Danieli di orvi i n till foi 

..,„,„, i il,,.. lurgi and ov« rywnj do ii ibli 

,i .• , i t. ..i" 1 wc mo i "- 1 " 

roco md all risitors I i oltj who 

thi habil "i "boarding n I ' 

.1,. in, ,1., Doirj ■ Mi »■■ "■"■ 

caption , tin " ''"'" 

, ,,, tfoklo tlu polat. ol Mil 

,. ... i ,| i, bj ,,. . i. . K...... 


„::,;;■ - 1 

■ :•:;■;;;::;::?,:;:;',:': 

i r;,;;;::::;::,,, .,;■ •« * 

I aurlngtui an) ' 

transact bualnc68. offers advantages ol I -' "' l - 

uoraeter.and li a i tluable adjunct to I 
morolal, morcantlli . and Industrial InUn its ol the 

idltlon to ii„i. On Insuranoi I 

Ueasrs Huti Wnson 1 Bi re agonU 

end i i i. ii. i. marine Insurance company,, u b ol which 

ppi n 

in, i>, ,,, . t ii the pr pi and 

like i In whli h 

Btlll ...i. i, in,, to un, i thi li obi '■ ' "" 

skin a otogrltyol u.. it a. 

most onvlabli roputatl 01 1 01 ''■'• 

,i, allng ti" i""i- ol Huti I 

al r,i„ Insursnci a ■■ di Ii i i 'be 

Peoidi & aal i b< Li rai llltli ar pra 
Ited, end wi ■ mgretulati the Drm upon th 
. i i ■ ■■ 






Union Pacific Railway 





| Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 



Galveston, Harrisburg and San 
Antonio Railroad, 



Leave San Francisco Dally. 

Making prompt connection with the several Kallwj 
Lines in the Eastern StatcB. for all the Cite - 



I»T:E3"\7*7" YORK 

Ait it tho sevoral Steamer Lines to 

ESxxsla-rLci, France, 


, vi.ii oicm v i.i iiouti ax* n vm.i 

Bteti ne nt "i " i ■ Ipteol lumb 

.,. hell 

I u di I, 180,1 


1 1 1 
Bprn li, " ii- '•'• total, 

. der, 3,901,000; herdw I, 108,08* i Iota! nam- 

I I. . t foi II" s, „i 

ibal ■ i i" "■■' ■"" lilp li i. il, pllos, t i foi il. 

n dw i i Is, ■ II . •• oetl lloi rift, 1,080,. 

087) l.r n linn, lien, 000,900| wool alel 

Lab ot ■! u pen, [Unoel fi ■ < 

[linoel i I , 

A. Thau „, BOOTi tSJ | 

bubsorlbofor tho IUmuuuoiuiov OaUVOUIU, 

Silver Palace Sleeping Coaches, 

Second «•■ Wone "■ <»..■ w i 

vr ,. run dally between BAN 1 S -' >"j! 


fore roi i oo 

ill .cooii pertaining to i 

!, ■ ar, t.. »»« 

„.,, ran 
leu '» 

100 poi r BagMire i» ■> "■>' , *' ,s "' :"., k ltr 

i.e.. pounds of DaeTsaire i» •« ii»i« 



AT 111 i 


■Pool -f Uarkol B t, ».... I l*anol 

When ■ 

routos eud tl 

i a 

itondeal thai. Pass .^ I 

I han nUNQIBOO, I u 



For Cooking, Parlors, Offices, Halls, Bed-Rooms, Churches, Stores, Etc. 





Over 500 Different Sizes. Styles and Patterns to Select from. 



T I TsTW- A -R.-FT 


110, 112, 114, 116 and 118 Battery St 



> ri SMrMING 



'pilK PACIFIC WATER .1 \< Ki:r 
BSBS embrace many features thai are 
entirely new and or great practical utility, 
tvhlehare core red b>- letter! patent. 

No other furnaces can compare with these 
Tor durability and in capacity for Uninter- 
rupted work. 


Giving reanlte never before obtained aa re- 
ft: -to itlnnom rnnnlnir, economy offoel, 

irradi and quality of bullion produced. We 
prepared t<> demonstrate by fuel* the 


Manufacturers of an i Dealers in 



Lodge Supplies, Flags, 
Banners, Etc. 

I I.. In 



Beqalrlng no brick or itone work, -»<.|.r 

' tot the crucible, thui saving great e«- 

peaseand loss of time In construction. 


Of any capacity . and »\ith all • t»«- Improve- 
that asperfen •• i>»» lUffgeated aa vol- 
uble in thin uu«. ,.r machinery. 


Whan aaafrad, to aia 

perlntend « truetl< 

'"■"■ i itlmatei n-l 

H-ll.i toi " ■,...!„, 



mlnei and t« ««. 

i ....... i. . u <>r 

i application. 


Puclflo Iron Work*, San Francisco. 




There is no county in the State of Califor- 
nin, considering its area, that contains the ex- 
cellent advantages thai doeBthifl little peninsu- 
lar county of San Mateo. Whrn we Bay 
advantages, we menu to embrace therein its 
splendid climate, its fertile soil, and above all 
its many charming spots for suburban homes. 
For the reason that San Mateo county adjoins 
San Francisco, and for many years the two 
were one, the idea has gone abroad thai Oil 
account of our nearness to the greal metropo- 
lis, that we cannot be prosperous; that we are 
nothing Inii a little »inBignifioant -id- -show to 
San Francisco. There are but comparatively 
few outside of this county that understand and 
appreciate the great ami exten-ivc n -,.,ui.,s 
that are constantly nurtured and propagated 
in our midst. During the last few years u has 
become understood that no finer soil oon be 
found in the State for vine-growing than lies 



Paid Up Oaoital $3,000,000 

Reserve CTJ. B. Bonds) 3,500 000 

Agency ut Now York 0» Wull Street 

Agency at Virginia, Nevada. 


Bnyi and Sella B»haH0o and Tulo ( fraphloTTanBf..irB 

This Ba&h bJU ipeolal Pncllltles for Deal- 
ing In Ilulllon. 


The following, taken from the Hussion river 
hat average farm-lands will pro- 
duce in i \ livn-ncre apple orchard. 
twenty years old, at John N. Bailhache's ranoh, 
southeast of town, yielded (his year $1,000 
worth of shipping fruit, ordinary varieties. 
Mr. Bailhoohe has an elegant home place. 
The residence is, no doubt, the 6ueat in north- 
ern Sonoma, built on the hank of Russian 
river, near the base of Mount Sotoyome, ut tin- 
site of the first houses contracted In the 
valley by the founder of the Sotoyome grout 
i u 1844. The adobe walls of the orignal build- 
ing are still part of the new residence built by 
Mr. Bailhacbe a few years ago. The ranch 
consists of about 500 acres, of which five, as 
we have stated above, are occupied by a 
tweuty-year-old apple orchard; five more by a 
three-yeai old orchard of peaches and plums, 
which will yi-ld when five years old, at present 
prices, *300 an acre, and from which he this 
year reaped a large corn crop from between 
tue rows; fifteen are in alfalfa, one of the best- 
paying crops in the valley; sixty-five are in 
foreign vines, two years old next spring, and 
which will yield, when five years old, at pres- 
ent prices, fully $160 per acre, oud more os they 
grow older; and from which he has reaped 

targe oropH i.f 'ii .md beans from between the 

rows, There is some hay land uud 1U0 acres of 
pasture, on which roam 300 head of graded 
sheep, besides sundry head of horses and cows. 
Ili' --heep never require feeding and pay 
about two dollars net per head per annum. 
Nearly all the work of this place last year was 
done by Mr. Bailhache and three of his sons. 

• '•! ..i boweal Mai leal Bataa. 

SAN FKANUIS CO, California, 



on the eastern slopes of the mountain 
that borders this valley on the west. S. L. 
Jones of Son Francisco, has been fai 
enough to understand the practicability ol • ul- 
tivoting a vineyard in that looalily, and has 
spared no expense in establishing oni ol the 
finest vineyards, of its si/.c, in the State. His 
efforts in this direction have been rev 
by unbounded success. Why should not this 
venture be succeeded by many others of the 
same nature. There Is do Boaroity of land 
equally as fertile, and as conveniently Bituated 
as that owned by Mr. Jones. 

There is no question bul thai in the aoav 
fatun the cultivation ol the vine in Oalifornia 
^1] lead all othi i industries , and [l will not be 
i,,,, | , ,,. the wines and brandli •• manufactured 
in California will be flrBt In the markets ol the 
world. Sau Mate county, though small, is 
destinued to receive her Bhare ol the wealth 
that is sure to be derived from this source.— 
.Sua Mateo Times mul Oastlte, 


From (he Los Angeles Times of recent date 
we take the following: 

The orange tree one would naturally infer to 
be very tender and requiring very careful treat- 
ment and handling. The fact is, however, that 
it is one of the most hardy of trees, and will 
often live through the most trying ordeals and 
survive the most careless hondling, to which 
almost any other tree would succumb. Dr. A. 
F. White's fine orchard, on Main street, affords 
two striking instances of its surviviug hurd 
nt; of the careless treatment yon will 

nve to go further to learn, for you can find no 
of it there. One of his trees, some 
two years ago, was dtripped of its bark, jusj 
under the surface of the ground, for several 
around the entire circumference of the 
iving not a shred remaining TL 
lid not be seen from the surfaoe, and il 
was not discovered until the tree showed signs 
uf disease. Investigating for a cause, the 
wound was discovered. It was bound up and 
the top pruned back so os not to strain its en- 
ergies, and now that tree has o good crop of 
• •ranges, almost as fiue as can be found in the 
orchard. Another case of hardihood in the 
same orchard is where a mischievous boy, some 
four or five years ago, perhaps more, as it was 
long before the doctor came into possession of 
the property, completely girled a limb of au 
orange tree with a new kuife he was testing. 
The limb still lives, and is now full of oranges, 

and has bun v.-r> Year sine- it wasgudled, 

though the wound has not healed, and a space 
of two inches of that limb is apparently dead 
as it ever can be; and not only that, but it is 
cracked almost entirely through at the same 
place, caused by the weight of the fruit it has 



Refrige: ._, «« ui-viucu 


Hum Drandod slid Qusrnnti i i 

trnv ..,,., i, is invito th<> atti at I the Oil 

i ■ i v >i\ i ft] D Main. ..i tba tbovi brand uni - 

qualod in i an on 1 1. 1^ > 

miii tho boat brands Is an] markol i blnln 

ti ni i and i oonomy 


Provision Packers, and Dealers In Meat 
Products of all Descriptions, 

l'J.l California Street. 




CAL.IFOK.MA Ull.YNDll .-.. 

Bom« Ploln Trill In unci Com]iuil , 

The 8an ObI" Ii \n lot cciinty, hat bo- 

oomo noted for Hi' in" quality of grape bn 

rrem grapea grovra upon >-"ii poonllarlj adapted 

perfect production, wkiob Imparts a peculiar 

and dollgntfal flavor, roniarkcd bj all who taste ii < > ■ i 

tbc aoiiiii'rii slope "i tin Blcrri Uadre mountains, 

win re i- loi ati d the Bants tnlts vineyard, tbi n ■ 

to be nothlDg in< iking for thi growth of grspi 
make unequal! d n Ine and brand] 

I'll. md i ir mm Baldwin brandy, dlatllli d on tin 

Santa Anita, btvlng Ini n asod i" an extent that brings 
it into competition with otbor productions, oertaln 
partios, fearing comparison, having endeavored t" 
onats n prejudice agatnal ii" Baldwin brandy, tingling 
It ont and prbllablng manaftotnred tablet purporting 
to bo a oorroot analysla— bon correct can be judged by 
what follows: 

Mr. Baldwin, In * Ii i ting » oompeti nl ehcmlal i" as- 
oortaln the facta regarding bla brandy, decided npon 

• I'I'Inu potil iiiul rvputation would 

doubl ii- i" in- disinterestedness; tberefcre, 
ih. bi le ited Professor Oscar Oldberg, "f st. i s, Mis- 
souri, who Is engaged In revising the United States Die- 

Letthi oorreipondonci speak for itself . 

Sis Fbancisco. Cal. Juoo 1. 1IW2. 

I'll- if Osoan ' mitt, 61 Louis, Mo.— 

Dear 8Ii i have shipped to your address by i i\ 
samples of grape brand] produi i d al Santa Anita vine- 
yard, snn Ginim. i valley, California, "i vintages as 
follows— via . "78, '77. '78, 79, '80, and would thank yon 

■ oareful and Impartial ant 
and send mi tbi result with a view to determine tbc 
eiacl quality of the brandy 

i also inclose a tabic purporting to be an anal] sis ol 
elghl samples of brandy byJ J Bleasdale, which I 
wonld thank you to go over uarufully and write uie 
your opinion ol the table and subji ct matti r 

Wrj truly yours, E J B w.i.» in 








3 C S S t= 

Z - ~- z 

-> CO - r z 3 a • 

i 8 '- - ■ i g 
1 I §> * ;r 

- B J U • ■ i 

f a? ? 1 83 

i : - in 

- = * : ~s 

— S £ ; -■ 

if f g -r 

OH r 

3 g « » e> 8 


- »■: "B 
= ~ *«> 

■ ° : 5 ■ -^ = 




































» o i 
G» S § x 

< < ° ° Z. 

op L 



- ~- ~ 



3 g S £ = 



-a -a go op cd 

S S S i 

p «« p 

tJ CO o 

c ? 

S 9 

■£_ g 


c o 

- — 

li p C 

g 5 


s s I 


, ,. | S | 

- s - 

i ii i 


*2S poo 

c^g g £ K 



^ IP 






. 1 1 

I I I 

1 1 a 






m o 


- 7 

1 I s 

r ' i 



C -82 

' i. 



p p p p P 

S 8 B 

O f> f> 



N. B.—The blue matters and lioavj tJoohols tron on- 

tnini'il in i ■ lUNtuiiri' l>> I'lHTBtliiK upon 60 0. C "i 
the brandy twlOC over: firstly, 00 the Bamplo, iiiul 
scoondly, nit, r .i portion bad boon flllerod through 
chtrcotl tn romovi coloi Both were thi n 

distilled icparati Ij In an apparatus .-i" dally arrangi d 

so ii- t linn the 1 1 itlel oils and In avj alcohols In 

bottom "t ii reoelvei graduated In 100 dlvlt h, In 

i the top ol the b matti r was Bbarpl] 

deflnod, hii much so that tbnnur* spirit floated abovi It, 

Mini t..i days afterwards showed nolinatlon to sink 

or obNurb It. It is not to be undoral 1 thai tl 

given Indicate the ptruntaga qf /»•■■' oil intht abovi 
tampli . iini Hi' y ludli Mi- in some extent thi 
rolatlvo lmpurltli-s of tin difloront samples, NukI>" 
Brandy showing a little more ib»n a truce— John J, 

The reply was aH follows: 

Sx, Louis, Mo , July 17, 1889 

My Df.aii Sin: Your lottor In reoelved, and tlio luclo- 
sure Is herewith returned 

The great analyst (I see he is a "D D. analyst") Is a 
nlus, No ohomltt can will examine his table 

without a pretty broad smile ( ihemltl would ever 

mill,, suoh ii Btat mi nt it bo were quite eobi t and oare- 
ful of his reputation, not to mention minor pecullari- 
Uesi. Who would determine "residues In the state of 
npl who would gel ol drj residue! I] 

froml.438 thick syrup, In oni esse, and 1.0091 [nn- 
doubti dly com 1 1 to the rourth decimalllj pi r m ol drj 

residue from 9.83 per oenl In anotl isol Who would 

Bnd such nioo sbados of dlfTeronoe In the character ol 

,- our 'D D ii - est, ' who In om 
•iiiiini sugar " in anothi t • asi i at >m< I frull 
fruit syrup, flavoring, bitter substance," eti Who 
would find fluvoriiiK a part of the residue? Who 'Mr 

ii-. h I lii ti ruin "In my alrolnd" inn I "I iim I ,11" iih kvii- 

i run, ti,e hBine cask, and received In n turn the follow- 

lii I Ml. Iii HAM Si III i l . Boll I Ii i -' IHCO, I 

Cal, 7th Doi ' mi" i. 1889 I 

. iiinit-iiii ni ii .niiii|iii nl i.i and • 
said to represent — -btri bj Mr. of 

1. Wry acid to teal papi n, 
•j coloi Indlttinol yi Now. 

3 Strength— 08.B80 by bnlMiieo-80. 18 British proof— 

I . . lit. 
6. Nature "f dry r. sldue and coloring matter— burnt 
Hiinar (caramel) with tannin, ur something like it, from 

c Iltlon ni the cask, probably. 

0, impurities shown by .h-i illation— very much blue 
nihil, i . at bad at an] I i ver examined. 

i lug matter (prcolpltab .1 b] i bloi Idi 
linn i ntarly blade. 

(Sgd.) JOHN J. BLEASDALE. D. D. P. O. 8. 
anal] -i . 


1 1 I lii ri limit Bt„8an Pranolsco, i 

nt nt results "i an anal] tit ol Bi and 

by Mil i" c - 1. 

Bj whom tii" spirll was distilled not known 

Age "i S|ui it not stated not known 

B] gravltj ..i in .i. ■ ] 

sir. ih'Hi ..| I'.nli-li i .i .... f . |" i ..nt 

Alcohol, p. i- .mi b] v.. i, I,,,. 

AJoohol, per ccnl 19-31 

a. Idi coinputi dasacel 0180 

it. mill, fully di led, per oenl u, Id i 

Nature ni iin i. -i in burnt siiKur and bitter frull 

Heavy uii iiimi- inn! blui matter ifusol oil) (?).. those 
msidi r,.t.i> ii. i 
Blgni 'i- D.D, 

N. li.— Tins is a genuine wine brandy— not made out 
Of uouiBi-n or lece. SUued. J. J. B. 

CALIFORNIA Ui:i)\vuui)\ 

onyi h termsf wimi chemltl nsesthi term "blue 

niatter?" What Is "blue matterf" H mutt l" " now 
think' in guintltttlvi analyslt to ostlmate "hoavy 
all ohol" i IJ ■■■■ b To And "98 pi 

of fusel oil" in brandy is charming To be 
would be next to Impossible rorme toswallovi 
small "toddy" made with brandy i ontalnlng i ?i u i i" i 

cent of fUBOl "II , 'ml lie i" I- iii, tolling What u Califor- 
nia "D. D.analyat" might do. As an afterthought, loat 

pOOpll ihOUld resdhlB i-tul nl literally and fall to 

thai unit. ii. "I' Ii ' 

puis in an "M. B." dlstinctl] stating thaf'ltianol i" 

be undersl I thai thi Ogurci given Indicate" whal i" 

Bays in the tabli thattho] do Indicate, but thai tbo] nt. i,. -, in. ..i.i.i 1 1.. r . luhv" iiu|iurlt i 

i inn ii'iiini .in 1 1 1 1 analyst bi "to somi extent" ro- 

mancing. But enough of ralllorj Seriously, nothing 

Ih domonstrati d bj this tablo, escopl tbal It I prob 

"iii in face and doos not deserll boi of tho vin- 
tages of Baldwin's Puro Grapo Brandies In any partlc- 
uinr i linn ii.. i ni. Ing ii." Baldwin 

l.rmiiln I v. rj tin. nn.1 |ui. 

A oareful analysis of the samplot rooolvcd nave the 
following results Aloholla ttren th 13.8 per oonl b] 

oi 'i i. i nt by rolumi 

Betlduo (ohli fly tannin 1,0,11 poi ■ ■ nl 

Total free BCld I I »,) 08 1" I I I nl 

impli . ...iiimi ii wot pali •• i low bad ■ ipi i Ifli 
gravity of O.OOJl, and WOS fn ■ in. iii no |. null. '. 
•i lie ethers pn onl w re thosi I lial are alwaj 
in pure old Brandy, and oonetlluto what Is known as 
the brandy bouo.uot, Indicating first olass quality and 

purlt] lie BaVO lollont, mi. I is evidently the 

tin., natural flai I tbe bouqm I di n topi .i in the 

. rapi i iplrll bj ago, being grado.d In thosampli i 
in pi oportlon t.i tinii i 

Ohi-iii in ,, |'||. \), t 

01 i. 

In order lurtli.i to ttl ipsbillt! »D D" 

analynt, Mr. Baldwin hi nl to In i BOmplOl 

B*K PnAXOTti o Osl . I 
018 M. i. hunt Huh Ducouibb i. 1889. 1 

Haiuiy T. OABBOLb, Esq.— Bear Sir: The 

ti ::i. bj ii" meant tbi . Is a gen- 

i It from wine, and, In that res] 
spirit mods from lees, hulls, stalks, etc The fault i» 

due |.. h mill, i . ni. Ii OB n. nun i mi ill n( tin distills* 

ti,.n. Tin- .l.-n k in nt 1. 1 which I showed you, and whloh 

olor, is nothing but a littli frull 

hi mii i" softon ih" spirit, and porfoctly hann- 

i. i ii. acid i- a. Bclont, 

:. nil. 
(Sluimil) JOUN J. liLBASOALB. 

iimii Carroll, boing duly aworn, dopooea and aoyt 

thi ih in ih- employ of B 3 Baldwin, nt Ih 

"in hi. I, Ban i ram I California, I 

om oatk i»" samplet ol brandy, and in dlffbronl 

v. r. .1 thi in in i i Bleasdali , for 

analytlt, and that as tbi tosultof suohan ant 
ii. raoolvod He fori going statements and otb i dab tl 

' i 7th and nboi 10 th, 1889, all 

. isli 

'.. .i) iiaiiiu CannoiiT. 

I- .i and Bworo to bi ton mi this 1 1 
I my, 1883. 


Public Oltj i Count] -I Ban I ram 

ii i'"» '" roi i in. wit irai I I Ui Bald 

1. 1 ui in i 

D till I Ij On Hi" mm I" I 

iii bas not misrepresented otboi brani noi croatod 

1 fal in ■ ■ I 1. 1 i. .. iing i In m, but Uot always 

allowed bis to stand up ts own mi rlt, kn •■■■ 

-ii" hi »iii ii ii," and Unit audi rsorvod dotrai Hon ol 

'"in i" tltors' .: i" . vontuoll] i on thosi wh prsi 

u. ' n. i". in in. .;i f Sonera! Kagleo, shown b] tbo 

forog g, i'l.ui ih" Baldwin brand] ih pure all »m 

mdi i thai iii..| ictlnllovoi c I) bi ai tin 

od 1 1" fool thai ii a pubu 

i""" Ii i" ni. am wiflln - 

Ui Baldwin to plea II rairli i bom ill] on trial 

with any ir It | naldi rs II 

. in quality, 

President. Vice-President. 


' ''.ills and weighs Baggage at 
Hotels, Residences] and Oince of 
iii« Company; Transfers Trunks, 
Merchandise and Parcels from 
one part of Hi. City to another; 
Transfer Wagons deliver Baggage 
from all In-coming and to all Out. 
going Trains and Boats. 


Carriage and Coach Tickets 
sold od all Trains and Boats, by 
the Messengers of the Transfer 
Company as Agents of the United 
Carriage Company. 


Office, I 10 Sutter Street, 

iii'i'iiM li LICH HOUSE, 


^•on. SALE. 

Large Dwelling House and Out 

\Mi 40 ACBES OF 


Within a mile and n half of the town pf 
Orange, i ©4,000, or 84,446 

n it h wnti t Block. 

Land; also adjacent tracU, at from $35 to 
865 per acre, in traota of 10 acres or 
3G0 acres, or intermediate pizea. 

n lafgo body, ior oaah, 

trad*, and U Offered fur sale In lots to suit, al 
abls rates, to give » o.nlos n tarn on lb 
p»rt ol iii. land, !'ii.. .i ni from 9US to i" r 


an.i, on . 

.. ■ Igated 
H i>.i wlthoul ii. 
uiu, i, ■ ni be bad al 111.19 
coasful Vlneyardlala Irrtgati onlj tawtotcr. 

(>n<- hall Casta ; Balance, Oa« 
and Two fears; Interest] s i u ' r 
cent, per annum. 

.mi ii,, i.„„i is m iii. Raneho s„..«i«i:'' «'• 
Hnnta »■■■■. whli li i , 


\.... ttlvvn -I the iwrl I ul« 

urn tbo ii siting Boltl ol Oritiiirv, » B ™ 

\..... .....i In < ••» I Or«iiH« raisu" 

v i tO 

80 & s7 Tomplc BlocKj 




J, Pattsjuok. N. W. Si 



Druggists and Manufac 
turing Uhemists, 



san Fraucisco, . California. Commercial School 



-■^ KlUST-(i,\ss RESTAUR INT. 

Tht> ii.. mi-.. .in. -i i ..--i In the World. 

WM. F. HARRISON, Manager. 

1 7 and 19 Fremont street, 




planing Knives, Currier Knives, Saw 

Mandrels, and Saws of Every 

Description Mlade to Order. 




524 Sacramento Street, San Fronoiaoo. 

into bare. and returns made in from tweDty-four 
to forty-eight hours. 

Bullion exu be forwarded to this office from any port 
of the Interior by express, and tetania made in the 
ume manner. 

Careful Analyses, made of ores, metals, soils. Water*. 
IndusUial products, ete. Mines examined and reported 
puon. Consuliati ina on chemical and metallurgical 
.|u. htlona. 




Organized 1864. 

JANUARY 1882. 


— FOR— 

Business Course. Only $70. 


Day and Evening Sessions. 


No. 406 California Street, San Fran- 

H 1 



■ n-.fl i.i i >• 


a it, ■(.-. 

-..,... ...i 

IK 11 11 I.N. 

i 1 Dial 



, |,., . 1 .... .. 

II. :, III,, ill 

I.... Illl.lll. 

I .Hill.-* All 


r. fAilSSWOBTH. 


M. T. BREWER & CO., 

No*. 30 and 32 J Street, 


I Bala dealers in Foreign and Domestic (ir-n 
and Dri-.l Fruits, ProdUOB, Honey. Nuts, Oar.len 

ind Flower Seeds. Please give us a trial. 30 and 32 
J «trf>»t. mirrninMln ftol. 

Capital, paid up, Gold, - - - $300.000 00 

PremiumB, since organization, $3,841,412 07 
1,03868, 8ince organizution, . . $1,756,278 00 
Assets, Jan. 1, 1882, - - - $684,332 83 
Surplus for Policy Holders, . . 674,577 83 

Income, 1881, 330,940 90 

Reinsurance Eeserve, - - - 171,412 75 
Net Surplus Over Everything. - 203,165 08 


.1. F. UOUGHTO r will.!. i 

J. L.N. SHEPAHD Vice Pi.-Hld.-m. 

CIIAS. R. STOR1 Berretnry 

R. II HAOlIil G«>nerul Agent 

n aa«aia«,,oi. life ia Bwei ping by. go and dare be- 

IfkV I f,,r, you .In-, -"in. lliiug mighty and siib 

IlkU I Itmeli »ve i>< bind t i". i Ume 

n vreeh In your own town. M outfli frei 
Everything new. Capiti.i not required. Wo will fnr- 
uish you . v. rytblng nn- making fortui 
dies make u much ■► men, and boya and Rtrli maVi 
urcui pay Reader, II you waul business "i win. i, you 
can make great pay all tbc time, write for partii ulare to 
II II iixktt ft Co.. Portland. Maine. 

Special Inducments Offered to Per- 
sons of Neglected Education. 

.1, ,s 4'ourH.- 

1, nn. Conrae. 
i.m, ,1 « ourae. 
mnnabtu • onrae, 

em Lnnn; 

iliil lira n< 

( i.iir».- . 


For Further Information call at the 
College Office, 

No. 320 POST ST., 

Or Address Hi- Proprietors, 


Jk/VBi si buaim it now bi f'>re Ibe public. Capital 
t* ■•■ not needed Wo will atari you Men, women, 
boys and girla want" i i w rywhi r. to «"rk for us. Now 

Ib ii,. time, Xou can work In apar or % 

wboli tlmetothi buatueaa No other buaineaa will pay 

s ml', ii- wi m No can rail to make enorinooa 

nai bj ' "gaging ••' onoa Coatly ou m and t, rm« rrci 
Mom j in"' 1 ' faat, • aailj and bonorably. ' 
Co . tagnata, m 







. Co 



... Mil 

r, To 


,,.,1 \,.l 

is, Da 

I OIIm. P. 


ind < i 

-..i.i 1 

. ., B 


1 Ale. II 


1 1, 

, Etc. 


Palace Drus Store, 

036 Market Street, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 




Church and Slriimbout i:t 1. 1. Mum I GONGS 

BRASS CASTINGS of nil kinds, 
\\ \ lilt ». VTKs. I. \N GATES, 


Honkrr'n Putvn' 



and iuohi 
le. Also 


For MINING and 

I FARMING purposes. 

Root's Blast Hlowers, 

Tor Ventilating MIii.'b and for Smelting Worka. 


Fur Mining Purposes. 


— iMi-i iiitku or 





The California Lloyds 






FIRE AND ivim.....~ 

Pald-TJp Capital, - - $750,000 


\os. l'G and lis California St. 

Agencies Li all the Prinoipal Okies of the 
United States. 


President. I VIoe-PreaWaart. 

JAMES D. BAIII ■> Socrotary 

0. P. FARNFIELD O.uiral Agent 






Pati in braed Aug. 19, 1870, Re-Iiraed Aug. in, ism. 
For the Prevention and Removal of 



■ hiH, i 

Feed watiT Inl 


I I IT Kr.llOVlng 

B tones 

Automat. I 
Water !;• 

■•» Eihaunt St'Sin 


^ t »* ' Outlet to Pump. 

Budiuicnl Drow-ofl 

Bent* Hi.- water to boiling point Frnea it from all chemical Iraparltlei. Savei from 
:io to.'.o pt-rrcnt of water by oond«nsutlon Prevent* the formation of loale. and wtvi 
fully 25 |mt cent, in fuel. 

Further purtlcnlur* vrlth full descriptive clreulur and price i. .. enn be obtained 
at the office of Hi. 



Descriptive Catalogue Sent on Application. 
Manufactory, Columbia Foundry, 188 and 185 Beale Street. 


J. D. CDLP. 


J. D. CTJLP & CO., 


And Importers of 

i^E-A-i^ t o :q .a. o o o . 

No, 16 Front Street, 

The "GIRLS" 
are a Four and 
Tbree-quar t er 
Inch Cigar. 
Made from Pure 






Send for a 
Sample Or- 
der, and 
Give our 

" GIRLS " 

a Trial. 


AiiinniiM < lived i>.v 

J. I>. CUIiP Sl CO., 

No. 16 Front Street, - • - SAN FRANCISCO. 



CAPITAL, - - - $5,000,000 


133 California Street, San Francisco, CaL 

< ; i : < > . o. r> o ii iv i iv , 


\v >i . «-. i : v r < » v . 

Asst. Manager. 

Six Different Style.* The Bail Style furl m>\< In ..*.-. BoejF Rid lag-, SI npl- ami Ttl 
N.-ni. With Pol*«, sliuft* or ( i.n..|>> T..|>. Miinufm tur. .1 b> ll.r 


m mi itiuuii NAFA COUNTY, < \t.iFou\i\. 

Price from too to 9 1; r,o. HENRY HO RTOP. Patentee. 


The Leading Merchant Tailor 



OF ALL GRAM d iM' - 

The Verr Cheapest and Very Best 

i ii. . elebrated 

Btuiik and KAHUVAOXO&Yl 

NO. 701 M A It K E T s T RE] i . 

Awarded the Flmt Premium 

MKC'IIANKH- I' A lit IN 1880 

At Portiami, Oregon. 


French, German and English Cloths 

SampleB with Belf-meaBurement Bent Froo. 


Maltese Cross Hose, ' 

For Garden Purposes and Fire Department!. 


(.niia Perchaand Rubber ManfgCft £ 

JOBN « I' » * I <»U. Ma..,. k -.l. 
» .... I l.«t an. I Mark.. I SU.i San Fviinch'* 




I08& I 10 California St- 










F.S.Chadbauime & Co.l 



This Hotel was Completed and Opened in May. 1878, and is Conducted on 
the American Plan. Over $3,500,000 having been expended by Mr. BALDWIN 
in its Construction and Furnishing, THE BALDWIN Is the most Elegantly Ap- 
pointed Hotel In the World. Situated on Market Street, at the Intersection of 
Powell and Eddy Streets, and fronting four principal streets in the business 
center. It is convenient of access to and from all quarters of the City. Eight lines 
of Street Cars pass Its doors. Hotel Coaches and Carriages in waiting at all 
Steamers and Railway Depots. Tourists' Headquarters. Special Accommoda- 
tions for Families and Large Parties. 

Prices the Same as at other First-Class Hotels, 

S2.SO to SS.OO per Day. 

II. II. PEARSON, Proprietor^ 

Formerly proprietor of tbo Cosmopolitaji, San Francisco 

IIRUSH II \ lllll.Mil IO.II 

Chief Clerk. 

M. A. FHK\< II. 

Cu.hii i. 





^Hiolesale and Retail Dealers ±xx 



Chamber, Parlor, Library and Dining 



Book and Library Case Wardrobes, Ladies' Writing Desks, Turkish 

Easy and Lounging Chairs, Etc.— Hotels and Private 

Residences Furnished.— Designs Furnished 

and Estimates Given. 

735 Market Street, - - San Francisco. 

WILL REMOVE TO 741, 743, 745 MARKET ST., 


President, - - WENDELL EASTON, 

Vice-Pres. and Gen. Manager, - GEO. W. FR1NK, 

Secretary, ----- F. 1J. WILDE. 



San Francisco, California. 

Sub Agencies at Each County Seat of the State, 



General Agents for Sale of Lands 

and Southern Pacific Railroads. 


Large Tracts Subdivided and Sold at Auction or Private Sale. 

Colonist* ami [mnUffronti Located Careful appraisements made (brBanlu Courts, Ad- 
ministrators, Trustees, otc— Legal (forms compiled wltb i mi Records of lalet 

In .ii. li county on lll« ul the Benera] Olllco— AUBBM BUI n •■ • liar^o 
of i'...|.. hi, i>ne' Tumi, limurunco, etc, OtCi 





Location Area - Immense Min- 
eral Resource* — Volcanic 
Mountains Forests or 
Timber- Climate. 

Rivers Fur -Seal, Salmon, Halibut, 
Herring, and Cod Fisheries. 

Inhabitant!* of Our North-western 
Country , Etc.. Etc. 

[By Uit Traviltng Agent •>/ Tm Rbsoubois I 
It has been our mission, ho far. to give true and 
faithful desoriptlOUB of Califoruia only, but as wo 
are publishing a" extra largo edition of our An- 
DUSl, «re Will step out of our ordinary 0OUM0 unci 
give our readers a glimpse of the extrcmo north- 
western portion of North America, viz., Alaska, 
which, until the last few years, has attracted 
bm little attention from the public at largo, 
and. indeed, the average oltisen of the United 
States has given but little thought to this now Ter- 
ritory acquired by our government from the 
Russians, during the close of the year 1867. 
in consideration of tho cash payment of 

This purchase has proved b good invest- 
ment for the United States Government. 
It bas received from the Alaska Commercial 
Company, alone, since August. 1870. as 
taxes. $3,819,143.24, or nearly one-half the 
cost of the purchase of the entire Territory. 
The franchise has eight years yet to run. 
This company, by the time its lease expires, 
will have paid, in taxes, more than the on. - 
inal cost of the purchase by th« Govern- 
ment. We think it would be well for our 
Government to make a few more like in- 

Instead of examining closely into the 
natural resources of this vast territory, 
embraciug some 500,000 square miles of 
land, we have been inclined to judge too 
harshly of it. without giving an impartial 
examination of its great wealth. 

Alaska, instead of being a barren waste, 
as has been so often told us by political 
speakers, who condemn our government 
for the reckless expenditure of such a sum 
in her purchase, is, on the other baud, 
one of our most importaut acquisitions of 
new territory. By this acquisition, we ex- 
tend onr possessions to the far-off region 
of the northwest, and the Esquimaux, in 
biB native home, adds to the population of 
our country. Now, that fifteen years have 
quietly passed since this purchase was made, 
and to-dav everything is at peace and har- 
mony with our new relations, lot us turn 
over a page for a moment, and see what the 
future prospects are for the pioneer who 
seeks to open up new fieldl for tlio thrift 
and energy Of the American in this compar- 
atively new world. Here, we have an 

Immense Northerly Ponseaslon 
Of more than 220,000,000 acres of land, u 
territory equal in size to Colorado. Nevada. 
New Mexico, Arizona aud California com- 
bined. When we come to contemplate the 
magnitude of such a vast northerly posses- 
sion, it is but natural that our eyes should 
be turned to investigating its resources and 
futnre prospects, from a commercial point 
of view. Alaska extends over 1.400 miles 
along the coast. It includes a large por- 
tion of the Aleutian islands, a range of 
islands skirting the peninsula and the main 
land southward to latitude 50 degs. 40 miu., 
and it is more than 1,000 miles north from 
Ban Francisco, by sea. 

Surfuce of the Country. 
The eastern portion of the mainland is a sterile 
plain, rising along the Arctic coastinto a table-land. 
Thy Alaskan rung'- of mountains extends through 
the peninsula, aud the OomI Bange forms a por- 
tion of lbs esatern boundsry ol lie territory. The 
wafers of the Pacific wash its southern Shores, 
the Arete ocean bounds it on the north, while 
Behrlng's straits separates it from Asia on thi west. 
Alaska has many volcanoes, fen of which aro known 
to be active. Mount St El nut. the tallest peak on 
the American continent, is about 18,000 feet above 

thO 8' a 

Alaska has a much warmer climate than other 
. in tin: same latitude on the i astei □ 
onr continent. The olimste is not unlike that of 
Miohlgao or Maine In winter, and probably ool 
as oold u-s Minnesota oi Montana . I • ■ ni rally speak- 
ing the snow falls from two to three feet on tho 

, i op in (hi rivers ami buys 

i„ n„ lattffl p irl "i Ipiil. i i May to Ootober 

itbi i jj mrm and pleasant, uasl 

first frost was seen on BoptOtnbot L6th. Tho mlld- 

: the ollmate, In this high latltudi . Is attrlb- 

„i. ,| 10 IDS warm OOSSJI QURflOt Mowing north 

along ■ isst of Asia, through Bearing's 

raitSi to the orotic i 

That Alaska has uulimltud resources now awult- 

iug development, there can bo no doubt, and it de- 
pends upon the man of plnok andAmorioan push 
and enemy to develop this country. The onorgetlo 
California miner has already opened his ayi i to the 

mining Interests, whioh bave everj Indloal I 

being Buooessfully carried on in this new field ol 
bidden treasure, Ijldt from the vasl mini pal r< 
BO nrci i of | iltl lilvi r, Iron.oopper, lead, andolnnl- 
bar, (whlob have slreadj lx en disc >vi red, ai d in 
known to oxisl in large qnantitles), Alaska presents 
other fields of equal, If nol greatei imporlanoi . foi 
devi lopmont. Thi mosl Important of these Is the 
trade in rur-seal. Tho animals aro found only In 
Behring Boa, on the Prlbelofl group, o 
,,f the two small islauda ol Bt. George and Bl Paul 
which are leased by the United Stab G vernment 
to tho 

Alaska Oommorolal Company, 
Whoso headquarti rs are at No. 310 Sansomi Francisco. The leaso is under certain con- 
ditions, whioh limit the taking of tho fur 
100,000 a year, and is a source of considerable 
revenue to our Govornmont. Uuder this reatri?- 
Hon, the young females, under a certain 
not allowed to be taken. Tho Beal is increasing 

months, in all of the creeks, rivers, and Inlets. 

q 8D are so plentiful, at times, lbs! the 

isaroely afford sufflolonl passage tor tin m 

U p ni the spawning '•• iM the 

. is m iin natlvi , wh itoh them In 

large quantities, with a Booop net, Irom the Bhorc, 
,, r | lS ,i„. ;,„i of B board with nails driven in the 
end, with whioh they rsko thi m out. Thi 

an spill and dried In tl , by tin nal 

winter Bobsiste i. There are ihrei different 

,i the Balmon In the waters ol Alaska. The 
average fish will woigb rrora 10 to 50 pounds. The 

.n,,n y oalled the Imperial salmon, grow 

in immense proportions, it has been anthorita- 
I ited thai thoj have been oaughl weighing 
as much as 200 pounds. 

Oodflsh, In largo quantities, aro found In all 
parts of th-' Territory along the sen ooast, bul more 

eBpeoIallj along tbi asl ol the U i lit i peninsula, 

whi n they noaj ritb hook and line in 20 

to50 fathoms of water. This Bab Is so abundant 
th at it hi an easj mattoi to ostoh si veral 

„„ I r. Halibut are also found along th( 

thi LlaBka peninsula, but they are n imerous 

in dm deeper waters around the Bhummigan 

,.i ,,,,i . to the we itward of Kodiak. 

were bronghl to this oily by tho disoovi n 

ii| being ' I -lory 

suits as to lead to tho organization ol u 
dttlnn, which sailed from Ban Frauciseo Issl 

in pauull ol this In BBure. The i cpedltlon ««, | 

io far us the finding of Ilia 
oerned, bul the vi bsi l was wn oki d, with | . , 
In itcd in tin n 
pari ol Al iska, about SO mill * from thi 
i) ilawln bay, on the north Bide ol North Mmui 
The ore body oropa oul in a depression In i rangi 
oi mountains, tho highest of which In 2 000 r. , t 
above the level of the sea, and In called, by n„ 
Esqnlmaus, " I Imilak " 

.in this loealllj which i argentiferous ga, 
lena, bas bi en i n well-known 

Thomas Pi Ico, and the result srai 
silver and 88 per oent. lead. Ore from the same Io. 
oality, whiob was assayed by thi Belbv Hrnelting 
Works, gavi (148.61 diver, and 80 per cent, lad, 
This wouid yield over MOO per ton. The co«t f 
is not ' (pensive, on account of the high 
■ ige of lead, which makes the reduction qmu 


Then li n , cedar, 

ither timber, which are bound 
to become valuable in limi . 


ipltal ol tin Territory, is situated on 
the weal ooast of Baranoff island 
the largest and moat westward oftbeAlaiki 
archipelago. The population of Sitka n 
one time, din . in rule, was op- 

wards of 4,000. From sixtoeighl sbipswai 
always in tho harbor, and shipping was car- 
ried on quite • atenslvely. The present pop- 
ulation consists of about 300 Russians, It* 
than SO Americans, and about 1,000 In- 
ians. There is no telegraphic corumnnic*. 
Uon with ii" outside world, the signal tu- 
tion In-re merelyserv. - (hearer- 

mperature and rainfall. There «re 

' | lions in Alaska. The report 

I to Washington from Sitka. 
. ations made here fron 
July, 1881 to July. 1892, show the min- 
im ti mpi rature to havi b< ■ 
z ro, minimum temperature I degs. abort 
rainfall, 88 inch emptrt- 

inre for the i ntire year n I 


rapidly In numbers, year by year, ami is not ex- 
terminated, as bos been the oaae on tho Boutb 

American coast, where any and all persons have 

i,,.,,,, permitted to take seals without restriction. 
Alaska is to-day furnishing three-fourths of tho 
fur-Heal of the whole world. 

o importance is the valuable fur of the sea- 
i,,,i, |b found ohlefly In tho southern 

porl i the >• rrltory, along the shorn of the 

Alaska peninsula, I Oook's Inlet to tho west- 
ward, as far as the small island of Attou, 001 

i , ..( Tin a ranks among the most valuable 
t ii i in the mat ki I 

in, the land wt Qnd, In great abundai the 

,,,,,, mink, wolverine, sable, muskrat, sod also 

the i relndi oi . oik, boar, wolf, oto„ all of 

ff hlob aro trappi d and thi li skins, hides, and polta 
are sold by the Datives to tho numerous trading 

vessels visiting this Boo yearly, In pursuit of 

(l ,,i, : no means least, oomo tho 

Immense [fisheries "f Alaska, 
wi,„ i, ..n simply Inoxhausllblo. Bvory stream 

llM ,i brook. In Iti Boason, may bo fo I literally 

.,!,.,, ff ith the iiniiy trlbo, prlnolpallj lalmon, 

wbloh ai" the llnosl ipoolos In the known world, 

, njuoh inporloi to those found In tbi irati r« 

,,, tbi I lolumblsi Boli oi Baoramonto rivi is. Tboy 

aro found tn largo quantities, during tho Hiimuior 

The herring of Alaska aro equal to any, if not 

superior to the Dutoh herring or Potom i 

i . and aro found to the wi itward of Unimak 

Pass of the Alaska peninsula and around the oonsl 

ol the islands o| Ounslaska, Akatan and the lesser 

i the \inirianovrs group. 

Tho Alaska maoken i. found prlnolpallj around 

the island of Akatan to the west of nunahtska, in 

great abundance, is a most delloloUl Qsh, ami is 

Hupenor to any Eastern maokorel wo bave In the 

miu l i i This llsh eoiiiui m.N, in the San I'ranoisoo 

markets, among those who are not Ignorant of 
tboir superior flavor, a fanoj prioo ovet tho oom- 

Baati i aokon I Phis oomprlsos the fishing 

,,,i. rests ol Masks whioh will b oponi d to im- 
inense traffic in tho ooui io ol Umo, 

Whaling ami Ivorj Interests. 

In the imo. rthoi a portion ol Llaeka, around 

ami adjaoent lo Dehrlng's straits, oxtonslvo Ivory 
and whaling interests an o in li d on boll 
ii is ami lie- whaling Qoots whioh li 

f/ranolsi vory spring, .""i barter with tho na- 

1 1 v..,. This iiianeii oi Industry Is too woll known 

to D00d a ilesei l|itloi,. 

sjilvei Mines. 

Bopoi !•• oamo to Ban Prauolsoo, ■ B ii | 
ni whsl was to i i " mountain "t illvi 

oovoiod in norllu i ii Llaakl BpOOimUnS Ol this ore 


\l ss. 
The merchants of this city are not all o( 
them as sharp in business matters as tbrj 
might be. Agood many bold mi to ibe oU 
'49 idea of business, when num. 
m ,,. hi ni. . This i- the i ra ol cu mug clear, 
and the man who does not cntproflta clou 
Will And himself left behind, while ha 
I ! competitors are taking away tn* 
on all sides. A very apt illustration of Ux 
the two modes of doing bBsV 
ness was afforded us the other day. One of 
the oldest hnnsea in tin 
departm. nt. In winch thi 

us, !•, I. n ■ la. \ oen m in inn f uit 

charge of the department, and, reili»o| 

! the COl- 

- ,wn of profil*. " U I n»." f» ld •*• 

•• mahe onr margin of profit at t< n (*r«ot. 

i has prt rioosly bei n fifu en." Tw 

priooipal ighl that woul 

Pacific Coast, although it i 

the Eist. Tl 

ao peraisti ol that he was allowi 

th an tuiimaUf 

b wonld bw d 

thold, the redo* 

Kon *\ ry *100 bill ol 

traoted onstomers, snd thi 

class, those who had inouev. or " l,ose "' 

•odsstheirmo ■• !dld '* 

1 belOJ 

where one arUole I I »old ondor the 

ilxwera sold under the now.anduo»i 
whole -ii" were mado, where pr »l mslj l, " l . mi „ 
mtedon. Ami sou is m 

ol th. da; Inordei lo extend aud to keep oot 

\, - ni algbl per oent. is sometimes mjn 

ii quail io ol I ly. ' ""',,„ 

,, with *100 turn it over oueem »r*>° 

year, so that u makos, at twontj 
twenty dollars. But/nothi i l 

and turns out hlaoapltal ■ M0 "' 

twelve tlmi - 

,,„„,,,„ man tour tlmoaas muon. 

, ,,/,,/ Oommorce. ^^^^^ 

„. UDOUDT COAE. \m> " , * , ,°'!' 1 |4l 
n,, Euroko - 

i inviting " 
,i ,,,,.1 ooal oil ' 
Qolds and ooal reservoirs an 
teuohod Wo mnka tho anqunli 
Hint Unlifnrni ill 

OOnl "il Hold than I'ounU l»" ' „,. 

„,,.i f i the oporotoi who ' ,K '- ll " 1,1 ' 

i, i , ii,. in wiii bo a in ii ho i 


Eilltor ami Proprietor. 


Entered at the P. 0. San Francisco. 


Six Months, $1.25-Postage Paid. 



K*.T\IIL,ISII!CI>. 1X70. 
oin... i .,, Hnnmoiu: hi.. Balloek Ilnllili. K . 

publlbhoj : , ,-, porbi, : .-. mil utlol la froi t 


Ofthi abovo, San Franolsco Imported >. 103 gallons 

valued al I07.118.oii which n dutj was pa ( |] pot 

gallon; or m.i'j.:. The valui ol pli tried olives lm- 
Bto Ban Pranolaoo fot tha yeai »„s -i 

Groat Brlthlu Imports annually almost ',,1)00,000 gal- 


Neatly nil ,,f hub , « iireotlj or Indireotlj 

irorn ports, „, tii. Mediterranean i ■. 

land, the rivers and streams of which flow Into that 

The Home «>r tin. Olive. 

Whilothi olive 1b l, mud wild in a certain olimatlc 
■' I ""■ Himalaya mountains, and la supposed to 

an i other products, yield an annual n venue, .nam, 

hasprovi.i.,1 Southern Europe with a partial 

aatlon for tha loss o( tho native ron I " and adds: 

••Some Idea ol tho Importaoi the ollvi 

naj i"' ror I n thai Bli II) aloi 

whiob oni -third, si Ii ant, la abeoluti Ij b 

i""' 1, '' '"""' - 1 ";' 1, porl ol Mar* I Hi - .-, tbnu 3, I,. 

000 pounds w. 1-1,1 ol olive oil pex ri 
twi otj years." 

Tin. Olive /........ 

Humboldt, in his w,,ti, on tbi 
Mon of Plan!*, says thai the olive [OUa Europta) requires 
a climate nl a mean tomperstun 

00 Pahrenhelt, and thi mi an ol the cold- 

rmomi (• t rail >i ig degree 

Failure of Bxperlmunla u, Olive Caltnre in 
the Atlantic si.,, 


Carollnai ,. „,, i m. ,,,, 

Thi up an far the cnldosl months are 

100s Italoldh, :i; doga BMOO; Atlanta, I 
00.100, and Uemphls, in 
i,ii thi »e plaoi a, thi tbi rmometi < rails to with 

nf the olive 
States hav» roan II 



Borne of the Olive ii^< Cultivation 

in Boutliern Europe Tlie Olive 

Zone w hut Portions «»r 

California is Embraced 

Within it. 

The Kind of Soil in Which the Olive Will 
Quantity of Mois- 



paid -I 
n In thi 

"" thi re 

Hi i of i- 

,„, 1. 1 M omca 1 1 ii" 1 * ■ Bpa a, Mgi 

i ol intrlea winch havi i 

iii. Hi 'in, rranoao, 

Ollre ProdaoU of Italy, ki.ii> and Prance, 
[o ,:„>•» thai ttaly has 1,385,000 ai rea plant- d to 

ii,, ,,i,v, . i lm "> ■ annually 30,600,000 gallon 

Simmons gives the i | 

1 Jli Illy 11 apoalng thi Kingdom ol Ka 

i hi 111,368,980, Nioman 

pain foi 1873 aa rained al |10,< 
130,000, in 1874, In conaequonco of the Oarlial 
,, n ,,n ,., • 1,710,000, 

,.,., a i, in a amall 

i ii live "ii wbloh it oonsun yi I an- 

rtstoths value ol 13,001 ,000 

Holster to Italy, 

says "thai In thi olive, walnut, iti lorkoeV, 

orange, lemon, Ogand othi i troos, wl ,by i frail 

est month ii"t to I" bolow II dogs, 6-100 I l>i 
llii earth's surfaoi with thi Isothermal of 68 doga are 
uomparatlvel) vorj limited irhore thi mean ol Uu 
month is but 10 dogs, below tho moan foi tho 
whole real tn this exi optional t llin iti II 

i w, .lit r ■ to thosi H ho oultl. 

vutci it. While tho mi an roi thi ■ i Ii il month must not 
i„ i„ lov, ii doga I 100, yi t II will llva and bi 
I i old than thi oi ■ 

■ r Harsh, n i", baa given t >h attonl t" 

the bablts and raqulremonta of thla treo, aays thai 
trbi N tho thormomotor falls i" u dogs, Pabrsnhi It, or 

18 doga bolow frosting, i remaina al I hie polntfor 

k nj , msldi rsbli pi rlod, thi shoots an killi & »«a the 

t', ollmato, we nave tho o Iltlona i 

lul oultl vatlon ofthal tri o whli h tho Italians 

call "n ml hi iii" aurfai o ol tho i arth " 'J I 

ituro f or tho yoar musl ta ,,7 dogs. 
17 Thi a ' '■ "H" raluri for I Idi il th 

in, i,. I l„ is wuriii »n II ,li, mil 0.11)0, anil at '••• Umi DBUSi 

Ulohsuz, in III rrna, In 

Florida, ... 

ilonj of 
■ iii i lien i"i ' bal pm poso Thi 

lm, nl I 

uu, .i. 

An Brroneoua Opinion Exploded. 

v Dornay, who baa written >i treatise on tbia 

., nl wnl, . i upon II" ■ ■ 1 1 v . slate that 


thla opinion i"<s boon handod down I goi Hon t" 

i'. in ration and la ontortaim d bw d m thi pn ■ 

in, ii ,-, I. i iiijoot cannot bo 

Lightly regarded Pho I n < liowi ■■• r, thai thi 

tsplo produi i throughout Bpaln, avi n In those 

parts will ' «l i>» '" bo QUltO 

beyond lb lui u I tho » i ■ ■■ i to sot tho 

mult i nl t. ii •■ iti i iii mm attiolo on 'I"- tree, 

in Ulohaus'a "Sylvs," aaya ' tl thrlvi ■ In thi oonli i 
ol Spall U potamla, al a dlstanoe "i one bun 



■• i'ii.-. . plonotlon hi iih 
i in-. I., in i la In tbo faot, as shown by Bumh UK, 

l) tropica] . Iimal. win..- 

nloti mpi i at uri I bul kmaU as bi Iwoon tho 

K.. ID fOI Hi' V U Hi'l Hi. in. to Li IIk i'. .1.1' ll in. mill. 

' -IIIKIIllv I Hi ll' ill I ll HI 

i'ii in. in i glvi n i ah i ii. i. . bay int: buta imall varia- 
tion ol i. hi i" i i . , winds pi hi - ovor 1 1 to Ibo ad- 

i. i his tin climate, making II 

-iiiHiii' i iiu.i wi In wlntar, than land bo Ibo Inte- 
rior ii. -i -nil). . i to H" .i" • i Influem e ■>( tbi h winds 
Variation! <-r the Ueani »f Bammer and 
wini. r Temperature! In California. 
On this ooast tho variation between 1 1" mean ol tbc 
wiui' i i.ii.i summer temperature Ban Dli go, bul I I 

100; Hoi ■>■. '' ■;. . - E I 100: Ban i-'runolsco. 7 

00-100; Humboldt, 11 dogs. 
16-100. Whlio In tbo interior the variations bo tweon thi 

means fur the su -. t Dos Angeles, 10 

inn, Vi,.,iia, IS .1. gs 80-100| Btoi kton 
19.100; Vailejo, it di gs I0-100i Bai rami Qlo, 9 
inn; mi. i i-iii. ... .i . ,i. gs 10-100. Itmoybo unnecessary 
locoil attention i" the facl thai Ihoai an thi differ- 
i ,i in-.- bi tweon winter and summi r, do! 
i,. twoen be yi or and I In mi an ror tbe 

ooldi -i month. 

Points in < allfornla IVhere the Olive Can 
it.- Successfully Calllvateil. 
For the purpose ol ascertaining where, w thin this 
State, thi olivocan be successfully cultivated, 1 have 
gathered from tbo tables of temperature ol tbi Smith- 
sonian Institute and fr-ni ii.. 1 in. 1 Engineer's Deport- 
ment ..f the railroad companies, a ii-i "i all the plow s 
whose temperatures fall within these limits which 
Humboldt -t-.t. a bavi '» on found i" be 1 Bsential, Tbo 
r.-nn ms winch 1 ins list represents, could, without doubt, 

i' attention been given indifferent 

parts ol tin Stati 1 ding thi 1 arlo- 

n .ns in t. mperaturo, 

it will be remembered thai the requisites ol 
ful and profitable cultivation aro. that for thi 

1- warm as 67 dogs, 17.100. The mean for the 
coldest month-must b< is warm aa 41 degs, 6-100, and 
at no time musttho temperature fall below 11 degrees 
I cannot Qnd In any authority how high a temperature 
it will bear, but salt is successfully grown In Algeria 
and Eg-pt, it could hardly bi u.j nr. .1 by the highest 
Inn s that occur at the places mentioned In the 
follow tug list: 





Llvi 1 n 

Fori ' 
Bumni r .... 

Bordi I. 

filler .. 

U 1 

.11 ... . 


- - — 

3 - 

T L 

Lowi st t.-iK|" rature 

n Hi 

Bhown by thermom- 

1 ' 

.1. 1 in any year. 

• r? 


~ -1 

I..- 10 

63 SO 

26— December, 1864 

1.7 i.M 


I., r. 187U 

\ . 


24— January, Is77 


-.7 96 


boi 1871 

-.1 lfl 


1 1-7 4 


69 07 


11- January, 1877 


i.i 19 

«9 52 28-- 1 


58 77 

47 49 19— January 1- 1 


ii :: 

47 4l|29- 1 


42.06J22- Dec 

41 . 

■ B -".1 

16.71 27— Oeet ml., r. 1870 

:.'.' lOlaO— January, 1870 

00 '7 


6(1 "... 



r..l Ifl 

18.14 I-'h—i 1.1. in.. - 


. 1-7: 


111.41. 20- 1'. ' '11:1 


61 99 


60 im 


60 71 

I6.b8|27— January 




48.70 27— December, 1876 


03 I.- 




ii , 

60 99 

Dei ■ mi" r, 1st.; 

IU 11 

_'i- January, I87i. 

ol 1 showing tbi lowi ll point t" which the 

im roury has fallen, it abould bi n marked thai II gives 
the lowi -' temperature at 7 a.m. Therefore it is safe to 
com 1 'i.i' thai .( thi tbi rm tor bad bi en si 11 

: - i-B less at 

1 on the days when thi piw all) il 

4o, for Illustration, this record showathe mercury at 
Haeramento to have fallen to 28 degrees In December, 
1849. y. t Di Logan t-.t- ■ 1 that twice bi twenty-five 
ught It'reinalncd ut this 
point but for sborl pi 1 lod 

\ Table Showing ttean Temperatures In 
Olive Producing Beglons, 

ipai log ' i" t. mpi ratureaol the 

111 w-iili those or reglooit 

im'. ..1 theollvi Is among thi artii Ii - 

Of the Or»t agricultural uml . ..nim. 1 . iui impm 1 . ... - I 

mplli .1 from B ,,*., <„,,,_, tbi mi in 

"I tbc in. an --miii- 1 U mpi raturos, as also the 

1 il month ol ti Ilovr* 

Ingprom In Italy, Spain, Portugal, Franco, 

Egypt and Pali 

.i tViii. 

bundn .1 v. a. ■ 11 land - 01 gli 1 1 an 1 abusi ropayi 

in gli ' 1 by .-Hi - in the 

s.Hii ii ol Franoi by 1 ultivol Ion and pi 
ir, 11 .-iui bo 

brani bi - or 1-. I rom layors, 1 oki 1 . from the 

little knots "i ■ ices tbal foi m on thi I ir 

i'ii. ms ifoeolf, and fi im the 

I in I In 11 ml \\ In n Hi. Inlli r im ii". .111. pulp 

ihoald i" 11 movi d rrora tbo 1 

soaked for twenty.) Liours In strong lyo, to soften 

ii.. m Tin > should bi planted In a sheltered place, 
ondtbogroun oooasloually watorod Planted In this 
31 ite in February, I n aid maki thi Ii 

appearand In July Thi tree can bo grafted or buddod 
In every im 1 ii- 1 ii" -i "Hi ii- apple or poor, 

Culture <>r the Olli e • ■ 1 • 
it oomi 

in im. limit ,,1 tnii frnttagi 1 1 thlrtj 

from ton to flf toon pouuda of oil, v. i,. ,, planted for on 

orchard, thi tn ei an plai 1 d Di < 

oaoh 1. Hi. 1 i'i uulng Increasi ■■ tbi produol . an 

ii.. ti. , to 1 ■- Id ann tal - . as, llki .thoj.vino, it bears 

fruil hi the wood ol thi prei 1 ding yoar. Cultivation 

ni the grounds Is uol 1 ss ntlal, bni II Ii 1 b thi pro- 
duol if tor tbe thousands of years that tbo oliv uos 

TI10 Wiirm Belt of 1 ....l-IIIIU. 

I Another foot worth] "f ootioi which has boon sus- 
pocted, bul for the prool >.i whli b tbc data has not be* 

fore ii. .11 attainable, i» thul thi 1 In tho Sierra, 

1 wn 1- the foot-hills Is u warm foi tbc year, and as 

worm for the coldest month ob tbo Baoramonto vallej 
in th. same latitudes, This warm b< II 1 1 rtalnl; 
to an ■ li ration "f 2,600 foet. Colfax, with an elevation 
of 9491 feet, has a mean for tbo year ol 60 dogs 6-100, 

and a moan fur th Ideal utli "i 15 dogs 19 100, 

whllofor the --"ii" periods, Baoramonto bs 
yoarOOdegs. 18-100, aad for tbo ooldi 1 montb lOdogi 
11.100, Port Tojon, on tbo Tehaohapo mountains, eleva- 
tion 0,240 feet, r 1 i.iii sli di 
tinin Tiilar. , in th, nni.r ol the valley 3,000 feci 

below; whilo tho temperature for the winter 1 ithsls 

nearly tbi .Fori Di |on baving I'-i dogs, 6-100, and 

iui. 1. 12 dogs. 7-100. Thisione of warm tompcraturi 
oxplalns tbo suoocas in the growth ol orangi sand other 
semi-tropical fruits, whew v. r planted below - 
tlonof 2.(Hiii feel in the foot-hills ol tbo sierra. 

Th. r. ii.iv. been omitted from the llst'of atatlouo In 
California, Ban Franolsi u. Mat,.,,. 

Pi tolumo, Vlsalla and Tularo, for the reason thai In tin 
mean annual temperature, or In thi mi 
in. miii. tin j fall bolow 67 dogs or 41 dogs, 
Without Joubt the oiivo could be grown In then 

places, but Its cultivation could bardl] 1 ndoproflt- Im ■ 1 ifow rariotloa bavi b 


What kind of Soii_ th,- Olive Requires. 
Tins tree will grow In ilmosl any 

' "in, ii moistun Mo bal it pro- 

fera a light, warm ground, bul does not thrive In rich 
alluvial land, and grows well on hilly and rooky eui 
faces," Bcrnaj Bays "that It thnv. smul Ismostproli- 
Qolndrj oalcareous schlsloni, saudy and rocky situa- 
tions. The land mnstbi naturally or artificially well 
dralni 'i lure. It n 

thi mechanii 1 ol sandy, gravelly 

I soUa.and In in 1 dom from Btagnonl moist 
Berts thai II only grows woll and yh Ids large 
Crops "in a warm and comparatively dry 1 
Dr. Robins, i. Bays i "ii delights In u stony iaoll, and 
' in iv. s even on tho sides and tops of rooky bills, when 
there Is scarcely an\ earth; bence tbe expression In the 
Bible, "Oil OUt of the llinty rick." Hlllbouso, in bis 
m this trei m Ulchaux's Jylea, -ays: "Tho 
olive 11. '1 lommodati a Itself to almost any rarlctj ol 
soil, but It shuns a .redundancy of moisture, and pre- 
fers loose calcareous. fertile lands, min^l. ,1 with Stones, 
lUCh a-th. 1. rrltorj ol Utlcs ami South ol 
The quality "i Its fruit Isesaontlally affected by thot of 
the soil. It succeeds in (,'ood loom capable of bearing 
wheat, but in fat lands it yii 1,1s ol] Of an baft rmr flavor, 
aid becomes laden With a barren exuberance of leaves 
and branches. Tbo temperature of the climate is a 

ni. ration of more Importance than thi D 
the soil." Downing, in wTltlngof this tree In Southern 
Europo. says: "A few ollvo trees will servo for thi sup- 
port of an entire family who would starve on what 
ild otherwise bo raised on tho same surface of soil. 
and dry crevices of rocks and almost otherwise barren 
soilB in tbe deserts when planted with thlstri 
flourishing and valuable places of hobltuti.m " 


Expressing tin. on. 

nol "il for market, u 

., ripe, bat i, . 

ration of any moisture, 11 |« then emu . 

powi 1 Thi l „ 1— 

' I. '""I Hi' mill In m,| 

I "''"I" with 





ndrla .... 

tables u bow that so 

'.11 Hi,-,,,,,,,, 

'"' "" ooldi - 1 month, the 1 Urn 

ll Al 1 


Algiers and Ban Diego, 

and i- 1 " 

. ..I m.,,, ii,,. 
,,-,,. than 11.,- - 
once ol ; .nth. 

h " ,l ' 1 ' 1 "'" be grown on oni dry plains and 

1 Eastern bemi 

01 i"""' ' ' nltlvation are as far north as thi Boutb 

lMl "" 1 oln , :n 1 ■,, 1 ui„ ,, 

' , "- •'< l "" 11 Ban Diego to Uonton | an 1 

Intoriorol Ihi Btati , within tbolimlU 

' "" '' '"i" ' "' " l " 1 " 1 ' thore la on annual fall of rain 

Mum. li ni I., product barb -. 01 ■,.,!,.„, . 

sandy plums, n ,-. otod, this tn 1 will thrlvi 

" l " 1 '" " ''"' "" «U ( aorthi rn Limit 

is ut Redding, foi al 1 orl Beading, but twi Ivi mllos 

■ ' '•■""' "" '• ! itlon, t] i' mi 

™ '' I '' " '" 'i dogs in D r. 1868, 

1,1. b would be ratal 

11., on.. 1. in. 11. I., tho Baoramonto, 
Joaqaln and Tularo Dasln. 

If wolmegloi two linos itartlngfr Beddln 

n • lovatlon "i 69 1, oni WO sl side ol tbo 

■ I "" """ 1 "" "" • ill 

gradually 1 u udi ml > 

"'" , "' I " rl r ' ' ""• I" thi Ti bai bapo m tains al an 

olvei ' I, ' ' 1. we n .1 bavo thi probablo 

thi B i.i.. vnii, j ,,,,,1 „,|| M , ,. h i ,, nll , 

bolow whi. ii 11 llv ni. 1 1„ full) ' ultlvati d, 

I initj of tho Olive. 

•i'ii ih ti.. 11 . planted, is plant 1 prn tloally 

1 m I"- "im boarlng, 1 1 the 

1. , .1 1 .1 tbo tui-rolls, aro kuowu tu be older than four 

abundoni a ol fruil and superiority in g.uolltj 


1 ralsod 1 the 11 ..1-, thi ) 1 

budded orgrafti 

.ii,". as thoobancosi , „ tin.n 

1 1 bo 1 1 

■ oultlvatod, 11 inn-. 

Viiiiiuhi,. Varlotlos «t Olive Troos 

''' "" BToni ii llsl in ii.. N-w rn, ,„ 1 1 bavi bi 

ild probably b 1 

'■"' il ti "i.i. . .I iui 1 tbi 

kmygdalln, [0 
'" I " 1 II imi abuudant oil With 1 

variety in the di n Duhami 1 

A.'lllK.I , 

ll.llll. Id 

■ obUmt/a,) ii.. I- 1 roriotj foi pli 1. 

'•' ' " ■ U ll" ■ 

• ''' ' '' 1 il ■ 1 I- 1 n 1 

'''" bavi b 

, 1. 

Olivioi ' 

"blo.puroand al i„„i ,.,1, ,,,,,,,,,, „„„. bu| 

with I in 1 ii, 1 ol,,.,,.. n 

"" IWi '"'' 6« u. 1 

yields fruil 1,,, pruaurviimiutii 1 


, " 111 " 1 " "" United States tbJtto vaan .1 

-mm.! , 
• llttli inferior oil Tho virgin oil Is dipped from^! 

mill ami 

analitlosofoll Tin 

' iPDllaa 

T I ' 

' ll,MI "> ' Tl " ' 

....1 ami third time, onea. , a M ,„, y|l | a j" 

" f boilin 1 inl 1, bag. it | g ^ 

Bg, lulfl," 

thevlrg 11 when Bi 

""" bj ' i" "'othi air itBhcy 

tore. Tte 

IS SbOUl th... k-gllon,,. 

"ll I" '- ..V. s. 

Pickled Olives. 


Jusl befori the rrull bs 

flncst are aole, 1 nofsodi 

1 -: in thi. 
solution obout ten bourn or until the pulp 1 in 1,. rcadl 

•"hi wat. r, which i" dally changed I 

wi,. 1, tboy cease to b bitter they an 

'" ' '' OUamiM. 


vuin.ii'i. for .ni 

Ii.ii.mIii, ii..., „r ih, oiii,- into Callfornis, 
Introduction ol tbi Ulsali .iiioruU. 

took it 1 1 -peakiol 

I j u 17* 

- it li. rn Oallfi - llntuV 


.■ Ii .1 from Bai . by On 

Sited oul an expi ditlon byro 



: ..ikroot 
- wbiti 
led vu* 


ill the "th. r 

ind from ■■ - , U gnoai 

'ni.' 1 11, ,,, i'. . , Mtrtm 


mi, With 111' 

The Ml. si,. i, Olive. 

tbi botany of fls 



llVO, and to OS .irl(ty» 


-I ih, horticultural grounds st i* 1 


1 tin- same Ho* 
the fact Ibat the S' I I- prjdOO 

kind "i fruit as tb 

,1 ^l«t<< 

the wild ollvi 

.ml ih.s.'iiiii of] 1 robohO 

lit or hud mW 

. ibittai 

1 1 *l* 

1 nln. 

\ Useful and ProOtabli 

1 00a < a 

.> ami thrive with so imall on 

..ufall.'f •*»"• 
I intlug "i il ■ - I 

in, k,I 1,, 1- :l, - ' 

than 1,000 ■ i trui ml i h " 

il Inuoni . nun: ' iIk''* 

- othor band the ollvi 


ground 01 

pii." the plonl 1 by uV 

hooked lootb ol the di ills " b- 

opom 'i by 11,. 

DI 111 it \ 111,0. 
11 Potaiami ,,., n,.,, „ ( iho inc« ,w 

• ii iho I'nix I,,, ,, \ ,,.,.. ,,. M \ S 1 
nombor, statod Uial bo waj uon maktu . BOp 00 "* 
of bultor a day fi..i„ 1 00 



Suburbof San Francisco Fine Climate 
-Resources, Etc. ■>- Villages and 9a Resorts, 

[Bj Hi. Trr.. Iih Igl 1,1 ol IH 

This Bn< little oonntj oooupii i mosl of the 
pi uinsula whli the ooean from Ban 

Proooleco Bay, and joins "thi oity and oountj 

of Ban Frnnoisc i the north. It pa 

tj -I Boil, olimate, produotionB, and 

■ i il idt ml igea enjoyi d by few looali- 

ties Immediately pas! [a the bay, and Santa 

ronty, wbii h is aokqowledgi d to bi the 

garden ol the Pucitio Coast ; on the south lies 

Banta Orus, the Saratoga of ilifornio it 

Alii that i Bon Matt o oecupii a an 

! ■ Q the ooi an and the 

Qabilan Bierra Moreno mountains, which rnn 

the whole leugth of the county, is a number of 

-in . 1 1 i ill' ys, in .11 containing 75,000 acres of 

tillable land, 17, [ which are perfi otlj 

i n I. ( In the eastern side, bi tween the mount- 
nios and the bay, is the largest extent or level 
laud, amounting t" 10,000 acres, the ceniral 
pari of whioh the Southern Pacific Railroad 
through. The county is five miles wide 
nt tin northern end, where it joins Ran Fran- 
but it rapidly widens toward the south, 
being eighteen miles wide in the middle. The 
county is 42 miles long in a straight 
line, and in all contains 292,500 acres. One of 
it- principal advantages 
is its excellent water sup- 
bile there are no 
large rivers, theie are 
numerous small spring 
Btri tins. As is well 
known, Ban Frauds' o 
draws her water from 
San M .ten's territory, 
and the excellent facilitii b 
of water, of which the 
Bpi in" Valli 3 Water Co. 
bos availed itself, exist 
along the entire length of 
th> luouutain ru n g i 
springs, of es, 
water, abound every- 


'"-"-• "•"- '"''" «cnw. producing 173,000 

■ lug 2,500 bush- 

producing 8,000 bushels 
»- produoing 1.200 bushels pota 
I i 'duoing B.800 tone 

1 • '• "'. producing 230 tons; oi , 

"'"" ' Producing 5,000 bushels; hoy 17 ', 

'"'""• i lacing 25,500 tons; 3ai i 

produoing 1,380,000 pounds; hops, 10 
j'"" 1 " Pounda. The dairy produotion wat 
148,000 pounds of butter, and 275,000 pounds 
"' 0Ue6RP - *>**&** the large amount of milk 
" oW '" 8ttD ' ■ la; tb< produotion 

"' '"""> "mounted to 2,000 pounds, and 1,000 
gollonsof wine wen modi Dhere art in th 

•■'"'»«v. 3,866 head of i, ,, i,;i , mi: , 

, '" 1 '-' w, 1,692 head ol oattle, aud 2,329 

hogs. The fruil orop of 1882, valued at $8,500, 
own on 50 lemon-trees, 170 orange 00 
olive, 11.000 apple. 3.070 pear, 261 fig, 2,820 
plum, 2,750 peooh, 330 guinco-trees, and 112 
aores of bearing vineyards. By giving , di 

tailed '" nut of all the different productions, 

we enable our readers to form some idea of the 
capabilities of this little county. Besides the 

above industries, w I is liberally supplied, as 

force and much capital have been de- 
voted to the cutting and shipping of fuel to 
thin city. The Italian vegetable gardens, pro- 
dncing oiibbage, lettuoe, and other root crops, 
cut no small figure in San Mateo county. 

I; " h ' ' 'ty- •" from $150 to s500 per acre, 

acooi im- to improvement. In this vininity is 
J. C. Flood's oountry residence, and ihe late 
Milton s. Latham's beautiful couutry borne. 

Men In Park, 

} beautiful oountry place, .. f< ,. ,,,,1,. 

'""" 1: " ,w I Olty, is snrroa ded by tin. 

'""'>' bomes, buoL as those ■ I i . ■ . , . i rj iy ] ( 

Bx-Moyor Bathborne, l th, late ] 

11 Sl|liv \ - ' distanci is tin "Palo Alto" 

" , " 1 ' " f Ex-Governor Blouf. .i, »i„,, ,i,.- 
'"" 81 horses in the State are bn .1 Hilton ,v 
Tuns' carriage and wagon factory is ,,„„',. 
a feature in Redwood City. Chumbeilain & 
■ large stun- of g. neral 

'" B ol dryg Is, groo. ties, furniture, 

"'■' i u "" 1,1 oompan ravorablj with rimilai es- 
tablishments in large oities Menlo Park baa 
11 lil "- hotel, kept by Mr. James Vonot 
town oontains about 800 inhabitants. A few 
miles north-west. ,,n the Baroe railroad, brings 
us to the beautiful villagi of 
The land, as in the vioinity of Menlo Park, 
is owned in large traots by u few wealthy , ,t,' 
sens, who have beautifully improved places 
Mayfield oontains about 900 people. The ho- 
ly's, kept by A s. Bi ity, ind the 
Occidental, ki pf by .Mrs c Deck. r. 'i 
one large general Btore, thai of J. i; isenblum, 
wl„, hae been engaged in the mercantile busi- 

'"' " -« y, in 1880, ^te^ZS^^JFE^ 

The climate is quite as 
diversified us the soil. 
It is generally admitted 
that no finer climut'- can 
I"- found tb in that be- 
tween th.- bay and the 
mountains, in this 
Bounty. There is a num- 
ber of small towns scat- 
tered throughout. 

Redwood City. 

The county seat, is the 

largest town, aud con- 

1,400 inhabitants. 

It is situated on the 

B v B B 

of navigation on the 

buy, only 28 miles south 

from San Francisco. 

It is the center of considerable trade in lumber, 
. and dairy productions. The 
town is situated on both sides of Redwood 
I ground The land is dotted 
■ith beautiful, wide-spn adin \ do] 
i" this vicinity is dark, and a large portion of 
it is of a black, adobe nature. It is principally 
owned by 8oiu.- of Ban Francisco's wealthiest 

: valued at from $300 
P er aon ! more foi fine r< sidi ncea 

than for (arming The n dw I busi 

the oountyoenters here. Among the num is 

saw-mills are those ol Han on & Co., at La- 

nonda, . u, ,, ,i ,ji v oa- 

ol 16,000 feet; A. & J. N Bat li ra' 

r< ek, with a daily oapaoity 

of 16,000 let : 

ol 10,000 feet; 

■M tin [, ro, .'. i. i'ii are 

at n. fun,, ihlng aboul 15,000 fi 1 1 

''"''>' 'is a small mill, n< ai Pi -• 

oni timi . had In 

inner, whiob 

.nil i. mains 

000 fi i i .,i itam redwood 

withlnt] | lumber 

1 «coording to the Aases 

• 1 1. ami there 

u tured at the 

il mill in the county. The ag- 

i pro lm i 'i 613 000 bn b 


was ouly 8,074. Redwood City, really a 
suburb of San Francisco, is a delightful place 
of residence, on account of its fine climate, 
beautiful flower-gardens, and close proximity 
to the metropolis. The 

ii., i li 
Are the Grand, kept by Wm. Fuull, who bus 
accommodations for 150 guests; the Redwood 
City house, a new, cosy building, which was 
built less than one year ago, and is kepi by O. 
Hynding; the Tromont, on Mam street, which 
i kepi by Charles Ayors, who has accommoda- 
tions for 40 guests; and the Farmers' Home, 
kepi by James Horn, who gives good acoorn- 
ujod ,ii,,ns t.i the economical traveler, at rea- 
sonable rates. 

Redwood City has two breweries. The Eu- 
reka, located in the business oenter of the 
IS . oapaoity of 1,000 barrulH annually. 
ami is owned by J. Hodler. Tho Pioneer, es- 
tablishi ,l i ighteen yeai ago, at the Boutb end 

,,. is own,,] by M. Kreiss, who can turn 

,,ut r,,iinii barrels annually. Between this 
place ami the business oi otcr of the town are 

Hi, Bedvi 1 City mills of L. Nelson, who 

miinufuctures from 30 to U5 barrels of flour 
dully. The city BUpportS tWO I" lal 

Sovt ipapor«l 
Tho Sun Mat. 10 Journal, i sued every Thurs- 
,i„ Vi and published by B 0. Leahy, and the 
i by the Ban Mateo 

Publishing I pany Mil bai I Walsh, a di oli i 

i ,i, land within five miles of 

an extennive business. Hen- are also the lum- 
ber yards of Win. Pages. A few miles nearer 
San Francisco brings us to the village of 

San Blateo, 
Which contains about GOO inhabitants, Lund 
iu this vioinity is a fine, dark loam, and is val- 
ued at from $100 to $700, uud up to §1,000 per 
acre. There are several fine brick blocks and 
hotels. The Walker House, kept by 

Eugene Walker, is the principal one. 

The drug, book, and stationery store of 
Charles M. Morse is worthy of special note. 
Here we board Andrew Tafia' stage, and go 
over a beautiful, pioturesque mountain road, 
in full view of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany's aititi, ill lakes, aud amid some of tho 
finest scenery in the vicinity of Sun Francisco, 
B distanoo of thirteen miles, to 
Located on Hulf-moon bay. Tho town is situ- 
ated near th an beach, and lias a popula- 
tion of 600. Hero are located the agricultural 
works of It I Knapp, who is manufacturing 
Knapp's patent aide-hill plow that is s,, «, n 
known throughout the mountainous portions of 
ii., late. They are extensively sold by tho 
wholesale dealers of Ban Franoisoo, and are 
oonsidi i, ,1 th. li.-st i.i. lr lull plow in the mar- 
ket. James Boulah's oarrioge, wagon, and 
i blaoksmitb nhope are upre, The town 
la watered by the San Benito Water Works. 

Schuyler's Hotel, 
K. three-story building, is kept by James I 

Schuyler, who bus accommodn is fur LOO 

is well furnished, and here 

" ,,v ' I 'I- Bnesl ■ 

»Uery— very artistically 
ranged bj the landlady. The beach, ,„ 
affords beautiful ap. 
all couceivable colors. 

f """" ll " ,,l > '"'i rrom ihe above 

,8P - is "" Ocean Vie* Hotel, kepi by J. S. 

w " 1, >■ ffith -"" '' accommodalions, atreason- 
''''' ' " ' ' ' ■ p| by 

Levy Brothers aud Jacob Rosenblum, and 
there are several m,, .11, ,,,,,, , ( 

the Half-moou baj drug and Mali , v 

bnrt, manufactures aboul i 

anuuolly Th institute the principol busi- 

IUH08, Two and one-hall ,„,i, 

tins pluoi is 

t I Perl, 

Wl "" lh " p ' call legularly for 

- The prinoipal i 
anoe is by Blage, from Half-moon Bay to San 
i distauce of 'Jl miles by A. Tuft & 
Gairetson's line Tl i mpany run a 

line from Ban Mateo to 

P.'srinl.-i ... 

Adistam f 32 miles \a Bpanishtow^i— fore, 

s:i ■>"■ Th( road runs within full view f the 
■ land along 

'" '-" ll1 8 1 fanning laud, and is sown 

■ borley, I, iy, and potatoes. The best- 
improved land is valued 
• t lrom $100 to $150 
re, the rolling hills 
at. from $20 to $40, 
and I he inor.- rough 
pasutre lands at $5 to 
110 Stages run from 
Pescadero to Santa 
Cm / , 38 miles, i in 
Davenport, Seaside, aud 
Pigeou Point, Nesr Pes- 
scadero are fine red- 
wood forests and I 
tiful camping -ground-. 
One and one-balf miles 
west brings us to one 
of the fin,-st, pebblj 
sea-beaches, where u 1 1 
kinds of opal, a g ate, 

onyx, cat Di li ,o, and 
bloodstones are found, 
also an endless vai ii ty of 
One of iIih | ,,i- 
!'■ -• 
c idi ro i- th" 

Swanfon Uol, i 
Ami cottogi -. ai knowl- 
edged to be one of the 
tin, st Bummer resorts on 
the const. It is opi c 

all the Vear, and i- kept 

by 0. W. Swauton; it 

has a fine fruit orchard 
aud dairy connected 
with it. Immediately 
the street from 
the hole! is the large 
general store ol J Qarretson, one of the pro- 
prietors of the singe lines leading out in dif- 

lireotions from the place Pi 
has an excellent, cool, summer olimate, with 
extensive redwood forests on one &ide, and a 
fine, pebbly ocean beach on the other. 

Sixteen miles south of Redwood City, iu the 
midst ol th< n-dwood timber belt, is a summer 
resort. The hotel is kept by J. H. Sears, who 
Hpares no puios to make his guests reel at 
home. The streams here are full of brook 
trout oud other fish, and the woods, near by, 
are filled with small game. These advantages, 
together with its nearness to San Franoisoo, 
make it popular for those who take a -umuier 
raoation from an aotive business life, 

We would lil.. to extend our description of 
this beautiful little county, but our space does 
ii,, i pi i mil it 


'i'ii' i: ii , '■' i etti Bays: The scarcity of oattle in 

in, I 1 1 io subsequent rise in the price "i 

irousi il the oattle de ill i ■• i" aoth Ity and 

all the oattle are being fed thai hay oan bo found 

for. There are m feeding at present in Honey 

lake valley, saya tii" Qreenville Bulletin, than baa 
evei been known befbre, There ia an unusually 
op "i baj raised there khl • year, and ii i" 
now nil Bold, going readily '>t the Oral tor $5.50 
and Boon Increa tin | to (6 pi i ton. Over 4,000 bi id 
of beof outtlo urn being rationed In tii<- Tulo dis- 
trict alono. 




in ao lance with oni promise, we bore 

give iIp statiatioa <>f Borne d1 the most noted 
artesian wells [a the world. As the question 
o( artesian watt i Is bom and always will be ol 
Interest to the peopli ol this aeotion, wi thiol* 
tin Be figures will be n ".) with attention by .ill 

At St. Louis, Louisville and Charleston are 
some "i the moBl imp >i tanl wi lis in thi 
i mi. 'i Btati . \i Louisville the wi II Is "f 

t ii i • i-Mi. ii i , i- 8,086 fi at dei p, and flows ai 

the rate ol 380,000 gallons pei day, the water 
rising with n force equivalent i" ten-borBe 

powi T. 

\i i harleston, s. O., is an artesian well 
[,250 i. el deep, whiob diaoh irgea about 1,200 
gallons per hour at ten feel above the Burface. 

In Iroquois county, III, .t t a distant I 86 

miles from Obioago, are some 200 wells within 
ii radius pf aboul 20 miles. Their average 
depth ia 70 feet, and their flow variea from 20 
hi Ijo m, ill,, us per ruiuute. 
At the Continental Eotel, iu Philadelphia, 
1 1200 feet deep, yielding 50,000 gallons 
per daj 

At a number ol points in the Llano Estaoada, 
in New Mexico, wells have been sunk liy the 
Government and water always obtained. 

At the Point ..( Rooks, on the Union Pucific 
B iilro id in Hi" midst of a 
great alkali desert, an urte- 
M.m well furnishes au 
abundant supply of pure 
water for the use of the 

Crossing the oceau, we 
find numerous well 
of them having «u astou- 
sbiug flow. At Bourne, 
Euglaud. is a well 92 feet 
deep, with a disoh 
557,000 gallons of water 
i' t day. 

A well ut Aire, in thi 
province of Artois | whence 
one nrtesian l, n hieli 
was bored over a century 
ago, has flowed steadily 
ever sinoe it the rate ol 
16,000 gallons au hour. 

At Lillers. France, is t 
well which has flowed stead- 
ily since the year 1126, u 
period of over seven and a 
half centuries. 

I'h. Crenelle well, iu the 
Paris basin, has a di pth of 
1,797 feet, and the flow is 
600,000 evi ry 24 hours. 

At Patsy, ia a well 1,023 

feet in depth, from which 

• on , amount of 

5,1 ,000 gallons per day is 

■ " i 
In the desert ol Bahai i, 
a French engineer com- 
menced, in 1858, ; 

art' -Ian watl ' II' -""ii 

obtained a well with a How 
of 1,000 gallons per min- 
ute. Sinoe then many 
more wells have been Bunfa 

successfully, ami a large ■ > t- ml of Li-ietofon- 

an tin ly di * rl country Las been successfully 
[nit under cultivation, 

We think that the- most casual inquirer into 
this question can but he couviuc. 
b against bis prejudice or mi. • 
thi possibility of obtaining artesian water is 
practio ill] aulimited, and with proper appll 
no eeeker aft' r watei in thai form aeod 
go unrewarded, at least in onr lection.— flon 
Bernardino Indi z 


At a recent meeting of the San Francisco 
Microsoopical Society, Dr. Sorknesspri 
ii bottle ..I "i, ,i snow, 1 which he gather) 'I last 
June on the Woaatch Mountain-.. The red 
mow was found on the north Bide of a spur 
which rose about 10,000 feel above the aea- 

IcVel. When fresh, tin' slum has 1 1. ■ n | . J .. 1 1 - 

auce of being dn oohi 1 with blood, as though 
some large animal had been killed. The •' red 
-i ..v. is caused bj the presence ol a om 
plant, called Protococcus nivalis, whioh repro- 
duces itself by subdivsion; thai is, the cell 
divides itself into several new cells. This is 
.lone with great rapidity, and a few cells 
lod ' 'I in the snow, under favorable conditions, 
soon will give it the appearrnce ol "red snow 

It was i email.. .d that the phenomenon of red 

snow had been observed from the earliest 
times, as Aristotle has a passage which is 
thought to refer to it. The subject wbb, how- 
ever, lost Bight of, until brought up by the in- 
vestigation of Saiissiire, who found it on the 
Alps, in L760. lb- made ohemioal tests, whioh 
ahowi d him that the red color was due to the 
presence of vegetable matter, whioh lie sup- 
posed might be the polon of some plant. In 
1819, an Arctic expedition, under Cap! tin 
Boss, brought some specimens from the dill's 


The groat number of immigrant families uow 
constantly coming into tin- must have 
homes, and the greater part of them are pre- 
pared to buy small farms, or to lake up suoh 
small Governmenl tracts, as Hon means will 
allow them, individually, to work Tins I-, as 
ii Bhould I" , we di i d imall homes, ami many 
of tin m. The full . capability of 

our California soil will never be demonstial ad 

nun! nil mil valleys ami hillsides, mountain 

hollows and chappiual ridges are dotted thick 

with cottages, each the shelter and roof-tree of 
a separate family, aaofa with the center of its 
own small dominion of cultivated ai 
family here can thrive and grow rich on a farm 
not half as large as would i Isew here be required 
ly furnish them the i life. 

Ev.iv facility should be given the new bone 
and siuew now being joined to our population, 
to assist in adding to the steady and bw 
gress which our State ought to make during 
the next 25 years. If some, or all, of our bril- 
liant political speakers won. I heir en- 
ergies for a couple of years on the proper 
distribution and development of the thousands 
of acres ..f land yfll lying nselesB and unculti- 
vated in our Slate, it would add lino. I,, thi 
pSOpl (1* in. I ii" lit than a hui.dnd eelitlU- 

• iiimm: fish merchant, san fkam in< <>. 


Oni Ol tin- best ways to spr.-ml tin ffl 

rtainlj to 
o that consun . |udg< 

by Bight and taste of H,, |j , . ,■, ||, ,,, ■, |',,, this 

-ih Batisfaotion ttt< 
thi foil b is described by tl I 
i' ' w Ibead 

shipped |", ordei "I Mi Wm. l'lnllmiii. 

■I icl "i nnl walnul and almonds 
n ii on thi ie • to bi 

dl tributi d to din I portl i the East, as 

samples ol California oul 1 1 itlng n 

mat i • ' ami bnilding up a trade In thi 

c|e H . .I II ll i, Inn , "f V. • 1 

to thi 'ii ii iimii i ii 

Files, and i taking Q liVOlj ml. i. .1 in inlio.lm 
a i iliforiils products to tim East. 

around Baffin's Baj and I hej wi n azamim d 
by i minenl botanists, some ol whom mistook 

Urn mitili" of lie- plant, and there was a long 

discussion as to its propei olaBsifloation, iomi 
holding it to be a fungus, some a liohen bnl it 
was Anally Bel at rest, as one of the unoioi llulai 
algo [t ia ol Inti resl also, thai some ..t tin 

eai Ij r •■' ii prononnoi d the ooloi due to 

anlmaloules, bul this s I Dr, 

ii irknei Bald thai during biaviajl to England, 

he saw the i fr i gin a I bolt I" ..I ,,, | in,, u brOHght 

I'lom Hi. \ ."ii" ii.. in 80 yi M a bi fore, and 

in which the prolocooous could still bo seen 
■.Mil. the micro ■ ntlflc i»<* rlcan 

sham, PA RUB. 

Tim San JOB! IfbTOI ' , a\ s " that thi 
nuii.l" r of sales of small farms which are bl ing 

continuously mad' bj out real i itati a 

most satisfactory proof Unit the Simla I'laia 

valley ia entering upon an oro ol substantial 

pro i" i ii s in' i" ii" an! « n The parties 

who buj ii" Be "1111111 traol i arc foi thi 

pari thrifty men, with some capital, f the 

a States, who Know thai small farms 
thorough!) and Intelligently worked are far 
more profltabli than large traots oonduoted in 

slip-shod, ball hearted manm i lies uinlei 

Miami wind limy an id. mil, Mini most ol lliem 

will realize thoii antioipatioi 

ies of the stump .loipiiiie. we are yearly 
tri ited with. Thi i toellenci and oap ibility of 

.mi i nli l lalifOl in i BOil will inv.i I"' fully 
demonstrated until thi -.■ -mall In. in. IS take the 

pla f the extensive sheep walks and grizzly 

haunts now own. .1 l.\ fl S SelQsh and 

capitalist. s w ben evei j hill ilopi in I lut- 
ein hollow, isolated vollej , barren plain, and 
ehopparal ridge from Bhaata to Ban I Hi 
thus utilized, and aol till thi a, wi ihall have 
achieved the full realization ol the dream ol 
ii" in i n int. . I'loier who -.ail. .1 by onr 
goldi ii ->■•■>• lb laid transoi Ibiog from his 
quaint diarj "II Is a fair and plea tanl land, 
u in rein lloth muoh I b >i Is goodlj foi the 

dwelling of Christians." Suntu / 


The Haggin, Carr, and Tevis property is di- 
vided into a number of separate ranch •- 
with its resident superintendent. Th. 
vuo I: 111 el i, so called, is the center and focus of 
iintln.i u y for tin- w hole, Here is the residence 
and office of the general manager, and here is 
n sembleda force of book-keepers, engineers, 
ami meohanios, who keep the accounts, map, 
plan, supervise, construct, and repair, and 
^iv' to thi wind, the clock-work regularitv of 
a great oommeroial enterprise. The numerous 
buildings constitute a considerable settlement. 
There is a "store" of general merchandise and 
supplies. A dormitory and a dining-hall have 
been ereoted f"> the laboring bands. A tower- 
like B -it' i tank, surmounted by a wiudaiill, 
and accommodating a milk-room below, rises 
at one side. There are shops for the mechan- 
ics, capacious barns, and long sheds filled with 
an interminable array of agricultural imple- 
ments. It is worth while to take a walk past 
this collection of reapers, threshers, sulky 
plows, and rakes, aud study out their uses. 
The immense "header and separator" rises 
from the rest, like someawe-inspiring leviathan 
of the deep. A whole department is devoted 
to the "mad scrapers," •'buck scrapers, " and 
rl -. used in the construction 
and dredging out of the 
irrigating ditches, The 
sod is, fortunately, free 
from stones, and the work 
is, for the most purl, .juite 
1 Ine ■ oormona plow 
to be drawn by GO yoke of 
oxen, and to cut at once a 
furrow five feet wide and 
four deep. Like the fauions 
steumship Great Eastern, it 

lias deft ate. I its If 

bulk, ami is not w* \o use 
More than $600,000 have 
been expended on n 

. .n the item of feuo- 

iug alone. Au average of 

inn laborers are employed, 
and in the barvi 
700. The rati 
■quoted at from two and 
one-half to thru- dollar* 
per day to mechanii >. at 'I 
one dollar per day to cnoi- 
mon hands. 

low, as compart d with iu- 
formatiou from othM 
sources, and that which np- 
iii the chroni 
farm labor, iu th. 
i.i . en 
No great portion of this 
in appears to be no* 
iu the market at the dispos- 
al of settlersof small 
means, though the iuten- 
tion is avowed ol offering 
some of it iu this « 
all Bhall bavi bi i u thor- 
ough)] reclaimi Nuiaa 
mis tracts, howi 
ocoupii d "ii i 
ahli terms I as they are called. 

I im 120 I" 800 acres 

th. m , ! Italians. Tbey u* 

asuallj unmarried, work in com] 

six t.. mi, ,1, pei son-, and weai 
baldi shirt. The rent) i is pi 
landlords wit a h m i . in irti si in well, • 
,[,. amount at thi 

■ml ill" Us" Ol sol .'OH .. ll. 

mill, ol the ews, but mnal give thi ir ii 


Tim Inyo fadopendonl soya Dr B B 

I ll "i [I informs us that a ; ;,iit I. man al I 

oultlvati d 2,878 pounds ol potatoes I i 19 

p .nods ..I soed ona pii oe ol ■■ ad two by Ave 

a ' (ti ni Thi ■ i" at He rata ol ovi i 
toen tons p.i aora i he i ai tol j Is oallod 

the "white star," and lias but i e. I ul 1 y been 

Introdnoi d In thi i vallej . Bomi ol i 
obaugei have boon " blowing" about n void ..( 
' Ighti "i is oi potatoe i oil a ainglo ai I 

ground iii one ,,f lb „„t OOUUtii I tnyO 

m on., ton I" II' I 

state His |< as. i an ll 

:■ nl, on. -third of bis f] 

profits "i" fn 
ii,. p< rsons, and, do doubt, thi 
tnnitiesan open to others who maj wisl 

• \ oit\i \>S i.m.n \ (ELD. 

California la thi 

.so , i, ,i iii this oounti j i'ii" j ii Id 

' I" - iO.000,000 I" i annul" 

authorities claim thai the gold pn 
state, from 1851 to 1857, 

,000 I- i annum, aud thai - 

,000 Sim 

of the. Slate has probahh 1 |1 ' 

Some claim 1100,000,000 mo., . bill ll"' WR 

ii ■.,, i to bo ii" n.' ii il to*" 



Topography-Soll-Cllmate - Dairy Pro- 
ductions, Etc. 

Towns, and Tholr Industries. Described. 

[By O. D. H., Traveling AgOnt, No 3 1 

Marin oounty takes its num.. from an [ndian 
, in. i ol Bome celebi ity daring the veai 9 0! the 
Bpanisli ooenpation, Tins [ndian had bfa 
hi id-quarters on one of the small islands In 
San Francisco buy, east of San Rafael, wbji in 
at present, is known us Marin Island, in homn 
of tbe ohief. 

Mann Is situated ou the corth side of the 
Golden Gate, and therefore constitutes the pe- 
ninsula that lies between the north arm of the 
San Francisco and San Pablo bays, on tiie 1 ael 
and the Pacific ocean, on the west; on the 
north it 1- hum, d-d by Sonoma. It is 
larly-shaped. and is one of the smallest conn- 
tics in California. Notwithstanding it has an 
area of 357,096 acres of land, only 881,4 
of this is upland; the remainder, mainly Bwamp 
and ov.'rtb.w tide lands, bordering on H„. | mys 
and estuaries, will, it is thought, be levied, and I 
become valuable, at no distant day. 
Anciii-il Land. 
Tbe number of acres of land ou the assess- I 
ment roll is 319,802, leaving 37,20-1 acres whiob 
are not assessed, near'y all of which consists of 
barren and rocky bluffs along the coast. The 
property of this county amounts to 
-Lowing a gain, since tbe lust as- 
sessment, of |34,165, which is a more satisfac- 
tory showing than some of the 
larger counties can boast. 

The surface of the country is 
■mostly broken and hilly, with but 
a small portion of level, or valley 
land. There are high, sharp, 
rugged hills, with narrow val- 
leys, bordering on the numerous 
creeks which find their way to 
the ocean and the bay. The 
highest elevation in the county 
is Mount Tamalpais, 2,608 feet 
above the level of the sea; it is 
abont six or seven miles from 
San Rafael. From its summit, 
which is easy of access, one may 
see, on a clear day. the broad ex- 
panse of the ocean, and gain a 
superb view of the Golden Gate, 
the entire surface of the bay, and 
San Francisco, including tbe nu- 
merous towns and villages that 
bordei on this, the finest harbor 
in the world. 

There is but little farming 
done in this county; the soil is 
of a black, loamy nature, and is 
suitable for the production of vege- 
tables. The rolling lands are 
mostly black adobe on top, mixed 
with gravel, and a stifl clay sub- 
Boil, and an adapted to the production of the 
natural grasses. Nearly all of the land is held 
under Spanish land grunts, consisting ol -'I 
different grants, containing over 800, 0U0 acres. 
U the present lime there are several land- 
owners in the county who rent their lands in 
BUitable tracta for dairying purposes. They 
the farms fenced into tracts of from 500 
to 1,000 a, res, each witb dairy houses and 
barns, and a sufficient number of dairy cows to 
di ti,. feed. These farms are rented to 
tenants a the rate of §20 to S25 per cow per 
annum, upon which the renter makes a good 
profit, as is evidenced by t Li.-ir prosperity. 
-Mann has the privilege of enjoying the 
inda of summer which blow from 
Bd pour upon the hills and valleys 
] " ll " Western and southern portion.. 

'" ' 1 fog, whfoh ki ep the grass 

long after it baa withered and gone in 
the interioi portions ol the Btate; il thus gives 
Marin count] an advantage over all th.- rest of 
the Stiii. , as regards dairying 

■■ butti r i« Boughl foi by di ulei 

use of it. small.,, quality 
Thlala attributed lo thi 1 ran t< mpi raturi . d 

grasses, and cool, pun- wat. r. Last 

• itered on thi as lessment 

'"II 2:i,767 milch cows, and 32,217 stock Cuttll . 

Lead of bOgS, which ipOaks well 

for aa email a county as Maun 

Hlr.1 s.lil.i.. 

in- 1, by whites, at 
B I u i, by Don Ban] 
Mo Arguello, who was captain and oommandei 
Pn sidle .,i Ban Frai 


'':'"•' 'California, under the unfortunate 

Emperor [turbide. The firel family I ,,,. 

u.-i ■•> m.j^ .... um, Wfl8 thai ol Rafael Garcia. 

phi lael census gives Marin county a popu- 

'"""" "' ",. peopi, ,„„, , ,. hi . 

';•'"" ■; vl """" «ly engaged in fisheries along 

He shores ol the I, ■ 

N» ii Rafliel. 
Ban Rafael is one of tbe most picturesque 
" l "" 1 '"' towns adjacent to San Francisco. It 

[' r "" l "' ,i b * lw ° »»yB: either by i ms ol 

Bauoilito, where one enters il„ , „- 

for a rub- of some ten miles, among romantii 

nnd inspiring scenery, to Sau Rafael; 01 bj 

e«T) to San Quentin, and a ri'de of three miles 

j in the cars, when tbe county seal of Mann 

Ban Rafael, iareaohed. It stands about three 

miles back lion, the water, and commands a 

"' 'I'"' end ol San Francisco bay 

surrounded on all sides but one by hills, which 
are barriers to break the force of the sharp 
•'lasts thai rush aoross the Ban Pronoisoo pe- 
ninsulo, and thus leaves San Rafael between 
the bills, free from hard winds, and ooinpli ti ly 

- 1 " 1 '- TUa in tnte foi the flue, balmy, 

Hl " 1 """ 1 olimat Ban Rafael. Notwithstand- 
ing the amount of ram, in the win.,- ^8, 

there are weeks of warm, spring-like weathi t 
Sm Rafael is different from other small vil- 
lages in the vioinity of Ban Francisoo. It con- 
tains a population of 2,300 people. The build- 
ups both publio and private, have a fresh, 
dean appearance, amidst the most exquisite 
bi i ni ry, w hub strikes tbe vision with wonder 

«*0 have on hand and are dealers in all kinds 

of interior deoorations, w ow-shades, ... 

fhoj have been established only one yeai and 

«re .lung th.-ii shur-of the husin 

Wm. Sale, who has been established here 

' ' ' "as the oldest ostoblishmenl in his 

hne in the county. He sells furniture, uphol- 
' ,,M ' "" |l "'- "•'•■• Bscheoplj as on. can pur 
them in Ban Prancisoo. 
The grocery business is well represented 
Haskell & Co., formerly of Haskell's t. 
undsrtheGrand Hotel, San I 
w do the greater share ol the business. He 
has been established hi ie since 1879 

The banking business is oarried on bj \[ \i 
,; ""'"" "".I A. P. Hotahng. who represent a 
cash capital ofovei 8200,000 Dhej have been 
established since 1871. 

San Rafael has some flue hotels, among 
which is the Tamalpais, o large, three-story 
mansion, with five cottages connected. It is 
situated in the western pan ol thetown.and is 
a first-class home for the pleasure-Becker or 

traveling man, as it has aocommodal - foi 

125 people. In ., staid. . ,, ,,, u , 

kept riding ponies and Bvi phaeton oarrioges, 
for the ubi -.1 guesl Thi proprii tor, Mr. W. 
,; Graham, is the most popular hotel man in 
' lalifornia. 

The New England Home is kepi bj in 0' 
N Miller and Blanche Burroughs, M D rhls 
is a large, commodious. two-Btory building, 
witb six cottages counected, eaofa bearing the 
name of n NewEngland State. It is ., , 


that such romantic and beautiful sceuery is so 
near busy San Francisco, and comparativ. ly BO 
little known. 

The streets of tbe town and all the approaches 
are in keeping with the place The town ia 
lighted with gas I suppii..! with water from 

an artificial lake, midway up Mount Tamal- 
pais, which gives San Rafael pun, moun- 
tain water, clear as crystal, which is a great 
i" ni lit to the inhabitants. 

Land located in the suburbs of the town is 

valued very highly, Belling from $501 to $3,000 

1 1 , m\ ing to lie- eli ration and loi ation. 

Mr. W. J, Miller is the leading real estate 

d< all i who can eluciduti the beautii sol olimate 

and boi i" i.'. His long exj n. . . n 

titles him to thi confidence ol thoBewho ore 
desirous of buying, selling, oi leasing a home- 
stead in the brautiful town ol Ban Rafn I 
Buslnofi Men, 
There are quite a oumbei ol reliable con- 
tractors and builders here, s. ll ffjlen 
to take the lead be is agenl foi theAlthouac 
windmills, represents five of the besl Ensuram - 
companies m existence, and ha- bi ■ 

ll h. .1 '\i\ .ii years. 

On a itreot, opposite the depot, we find 
Hanson ,v Lund, dealers in every description 
ol building in 'I. rial. Thej have bi en estab- 
|j bed less than a year. 

laauc Bhaver, who has a planing mill ami 
lumbor yard on Shaver Btroet, furnishes all 
kind • of mill-work, polnl , oils, and hardware 
for several ol thi palatial rcsIdonoeB in course 
of construction 

Near tho railroad depot an n Knittol &Oo., 

home in which to Bpeud the winter or suuiuiei. 

The Central Hotel is oentrnllj looati 
has accommodations for 200 guests; J. O. Su- 
sanbeth is the popular proprietoi 

The German Hotel, one blook from the rail- 
road depot, is superintended by Thos II 
Nichols, and is a convenient place i'..iti >. 

Tbe Delmonico, a cosy little hotel, neai the 
railroad depot, is I,, ,,( l,y |i W l: irnard. a 

genial landlord, who is qniti pleasant to his 

Among the plaoesol recreation and amuse- 
ment, We will mention the S,n R . 1 .1,-1 park, 

kept by George Olausenins, and SSopf's wine 
gardens, near ll Btreel station, a pleasanl resort, with a fin. Mi,, mo. I of four 

sores, where choice wine i-, mooufuotured, 

San Rafael also has a well-arranged opera 
bouse, besides several halls for publii eutei 

tallim. ni 


i he pn ■ ■■ ia represented bj two weeklii - 

The \iu mtj Journal, i stablished since 

1801, is Issued every Thins, lay bj 8, P. bar- 

Tie- Mann county /'.., ■.;,. ,-, ,., .,,, | „ v ,.,-y 

Saturday by James ll Wilkins; these consti- 
tute the press of thi OOUntj . 

We now lake the N..11 1, Paolflc OOOBl Rail 

1 i" Duncan's mills, The road is 

a continuation of the same beautiful and ro- 
mantic Boenory mentioni ,1 from Bauoelito to 

San Rafuel We wind mound curve,. . 
grades, pass through tunnels, etc. The lu-i 

place w will mention is 

Where the guutloiuan from whom the station 

' P*pei mill, located on the 
""■'"" l{ ""' "beautiful stream of water and 

"-■""'"••"' to««t« ol ■,, 1 land pin. 

f h tai»« popular place for cifcj people to c p 

dunngaummer The next placi 


A statu.,, thai takeaitaname from the town of 

.V 1 '"" 1 - "' ' ""''" miles l.a.-k from tbe road. 

11 " general Btore, h,,i. 

sitaatedal th. head of Tomales bay, ad 

to a fine dairy section. In a few miles the 

road lakes the shore of Tomaleg I 

lows il until we reach Tomales creek, where we 

loavi theba 3 »ud take a northerl tree up a 

eauyoo, until we arm, „i 


The second town i„ aize in the county K [„ „ 
Pretty villag. ol aboul 200inhabil 

sl """-' 11 1" dairy and agricultural 

''' "" ""* " h noted for its potato, 

'""" """ ■'•■- tw.. churches, a good school 
building, publio and odd Fellows' hallt 

stores, the Bank of Tomales, for the 
accommodation of the large dairy interests. 
"i"' ■""'"■■ ■"•"l-ital of $90,000, and., mrplus 

"' W I0 '' • ■ » general banking busi- 

uess; iia officers are Warren Dutton 1 
dent; T. J, Able, cashier. 
Dr. G. W. Duttou, who has been her, 23 
spa the only drug store, and also 

Markel is kept by Charles T. 
Thompson, who does a good business in his 
hue, supplying nearly every station on the 
railroad, from Ban Rafael to Duncan's M 

be reports business to he double 
that of 1881 He has been estab 
lished ten years. 

Peter Di li use ia proprietor of 
the stove and tin store, and his 

lirother, Joe, owns the S ,„,., 

brewery depot; both have but 
reci ntly opened business. 

Guldayer ,V .Murphy are inven- 
tors and manufacturers of their 
"l,iit platform spring 
break can " The Bhafta are cou- 
neoled with the axle by n coil 
Bpritg, which relieveB the body 
from all motion of the horsi ll 
is I- cidedly far ahead of all other 
carts wi 

There are two hotels, of which 
the Plank House ia the best. It 
is lept by Mr. F A Plank, 
tleman who makes his gut sta 00m- 
fortable, and sets one of thi 
talis it has been our good for- 
tune to enjoy. He has accom- 

aafoi 25 guests, w 
proceed up the road a few miles, 
when we come to 

Valley Ford, 

When 11 11,11, y ,v Cook have a 

ine flouring mill, which is kept 

busy converting wheat growu in 

tin- vioinity into Hour, etc. Wo are now in So 

,' noma county, and the next place of import- 

j ance is 

1 On the summit of the hills, from which large 

amounts of « I, railroad ties, etc., are 

shipped. Up the road we proce. d, wit 
along beautiful streams, through forests of 
" dwood, and we are soon on the banks of Rus- 
siau river, along which we ride for several 

' - "" ll1 we cross il on a msgnifiaenl 

. and are nt 

11......... , Mill*, 

The terminus of the railroad. Here we fiud 
one of the oldest saw-null tirms in California, 
name!] the Duncans, from whom the '.own 
di rivi - it- none a, , Brfj o , igso, the Dun- 
oans, in company with Governor Btonemon, 

1 " 1 ti 'i a -,a« nun, „i t three miles 1 1 

" est ■ b tat ion now 1-. It was the first 

mill ereoted In Oulifornl 1 D mo in' Mills is 
j nami d, as then mill gives to the 
place quite a business appi 
7,000,000 feel of lumbei annually, all oi whiob 
is shipped to San PronoiBoo and informed! di 
I"""' 1. Thej have a c dlroad, for loggin 
poses, win, 1. reaohes ap into their vast red 
wood and pint forests [( is b!i mill a long, 
"" ,| ' ' quipped witb an 1 igbt-ton I0001 Ive 

and a BUffloionl nnmhei ,,1 trucks to transport 
the millions ol feel Ol lOgS tO then null, 

n " i li ive 8,500 a ires ol Qui n d« 1 md 

pine timbei land, whli b will produce 100,000, 

"" I of lumbor. r 1 1 . > have a large Btore in 

town, near the mill, which does oredil to thi 
Thi pasl rear, 8 Bohloss, with Mi Bohu 


1 ■' bruary, 

man, na manager, has opcocii a general store; 
they do a good business. 

The Russian Blvei Botel, ki pi bj Q 
Groode, f b a well-kepi bouse, and baa •> llverj 
stable oonneoted with It; this is afavoril re- 
sort for tourist' and bunti i 

The leading blaokamitb la T. Moore, who 
understands hia business in ill its bi mokes. 

John Orr, who lius been located here for 87 
years, keeps Orr'a saloon, and is a ploasaut 
and agreeable gentleman There are i few 

other places of business, bat, oWiug i<> our 
short stay, we fail to reinomher them, We 
now take the train for San I'Vuneiseo, i • ■ 1 1 1 > ^ 
well pleased with our trip over the North 
Pacific Railroad. 


Last week wo spoke of the fact that laud in the 
vicinity of Anaheim was far cheaper than similar 
land iu other parts of the county. From the num- 
ber of sales lately made, there is no doubt that we 
will soon be deprived of this argument in writing 
paragraphs to induce immigration. Laud is steadily 
increasing in value — we kuow of more thau a dozen 
tracts which were rated at $50 an acre three months 
ago, and which cannot now be bought for $75 an 
acre. It is evident, therefore, that it would be wise 
for new-comers to this county to buy some of this 
Anaheim land while tho price is yet reasonable and 
within the reach of people of moderate means. 

There is probably no land under the sun which 
can be put to more varied uses. TliiB iB the home 
of the vine. No better wine was ever made in Cal- 
ifornia than that which has just been made by 30 
or 10 wine-makers of Anaheim. Nor can better 
raisins be found auywhere thau those made in this 
vicinity. This industry is yearly assuming greater 
proportions here. It has been heretofore insig- 
nificant for the reason that the wine grape was 
made a specialty, but since it has been demon- 
strated that there is a profit in raisin-making, more 
attention has been paid to that iudustry. Orange 
trees grow luxuriantly, and in North An&bi im, 
are orchards in no respect inferior to any in the 
county. Apples, peaches, pears, aud nearly all 
northern fruits are grown with results which 
rather surprise people who come here with the idea 
that only semi-tropical fruits excel. We have the 
word of an old gentleman, just arrived from Illi- 
nois, that the apples grown iu Anaheim are larger 
and have a finer ftavor than thorn grown in that 
8tate. Apricots, a Iruit which ih . 1 < «iii„ d i<> ln-emm 

the most valuable product ol this i nly, grows 

here to an almost phenomenal Blee, and the trees 
are very productive. We have [be testimony of the 
Superintendent of the LosAuc,' li H cannery ibat the 
best apricots reo lved at that establishment last 
season came from Anaheim; and this tribute is all 
the more valuable because ol the large area of 
country from which the cannery was supplied. 

There are in this viciuiiy large tracts of poor, 
sandy soil, which unthinking people would nnheai 
tatingly pronounce worthless. Uut we beg to re- 
mind our readers that en or twelve yi am ago seven 
men out of ten who came - oonntj 

pronounced as only fit for sheep pasture the very 
laud which is to-day worth from ¥15 to S300 per 
acre. These saudy, almost arid, tracts "ill yet be 
valuable groves. It is just the kind of boil on 
which are 'he finest olive orchards ol Europe; nay, 
it is Of on more fertile than tho soil along the Med- 
iterranean, whence conies the most famous olives. 

Too little attention has been given to this tree, but 
when once the puopli understand the immense 
profits of olive culture, and appreciate the fact that 
the tree grows aud flonrlsbi a on a soil almost too 
poor to raise anything else, wo may expect to see 
the olive as largely planted as the grape and the 
orange.— Anaheim G 

A !.!<■ \|, lltllll, IT|(|\ v. Ill in. 

in Bernardino Times, referring to a scheme 
which, if carried oati will result In nntold wealth 

to that valley, says: 

A short time uk" the Index had a short editorial 
commenting upon tbe feasibility ol building a sys- 
tem of reservoirs In the n ntain canyon 

oi Han Bernardino) and theroby supplying water to 
irrigate the vast tnicis oi land, In comparison with 

winch the cultivated ares Is am igatelle, We 

wen not then awari tbatthi realization ol such a 
project was likely to be i OR oted In thi m si future, 
aodareverj muofa pleased uo« to state tbatsuoh 
is the case, ami (bat the sobemo Is now uo li t icf 
si bj ■ man who has Individually u sp- 
lit] u, accomplish the work. \v,. refi i toG 
dlanford, The feasrbllily and advantagi to be de- 
iri wun iirst pregi nu d to the 
railroad msgnati bj Ooloni I C ii. Lsrrobee • I 
this city, and u s result ol bis lnt< r?l< n Hi 
Olemi uts, thi i in Mr. man- 
al In roto I iki ■ rii w of the 
gronnd and make s n port " this r< porl is favor 

able, an engines! p/ill bi - ol Into tl Id to make 

s " obnli al iutti . it Is, beyond tho 
doubt, i* practical sobemo, and w< an therefor 
Ifi BI in ford ■■■in In i 

tnd sbllltj thai 
have attended bis otl iter] 


This is the chief of all the mining comities of the 
State of California. It bOB B middle sitnttlon m 
the State, but is generally ranked as » norihern 

county. The einef Industry is a ng, although 

farming is oarried on with profit In the western 
portion of Nevada county. No equal ares In the 

world Inn produced more gold than bOB V Y*ttdfl 

county, and no region I wn has tbc promise of an 

Equal mining permsnonoy. The gold is round in 
both quartz ledges and gravel beds, Nevada and 

Grass valley town hips are tho principal porl - 

iu which quarto mining ih oarried on; Eureka and 
Washington townships, further cost and blgberof 
altitude than the first two named, have »lso many 
valuable quartz ledges. The mines In Grass Valley 
and Nevada townships have boon systematically 
worked and developed for many years, those of 
Washington and Eureka have received imt little of 
tbe proper kind of attention! It will not be many 
years before deep and paying mines will be di vol- 
oped in tho Washington and Eureka townships. 
.Meadow Lake has also many quartz ledges, whiob, 
in former times, attracted so much attention that a 
built, m almost s day, near tl e »ery sum- 
mit of tho Sierra Nevada. The Meadow Lake 
mines are idle now, and time alone will tell if tho 
ll dges there have gold sufficient to Cause mines to 
be made. 1; oii^'li and Heady township has many 
gold-bearing quartz ledges in its eastern portion, 
while in tho western part are valuable deposits of 

Tho great gold gravel region of the oounty is in 
the townships of Bridgeport, Bloom field, Eureka, 
Little York, and Washington. These are of im- 
mense extent, and of incalculable riobneSB. These 
beds are w or In d h\ the hjdrttulio process, ,or the 
most part, and enormous values of gold are annu- 
ally washed out ol them. There are some gravel 
mini - in Nevada, Gra.'s Valley, aud Rough and 
Ready townships, but they are not extent 
ceptiug at Mooney Flat in Hough and Ready, 
when is the extension of the famous gravel leads 
of Timbuctoo, Smartsville, and Sucker Flat. 

The most famous of the present active quartz 
mines are the Idaho, New York Hill, and Empire. 
These are dividend pa>eis at the time of tin- writ- 
ing. One of them, the [dab >. paid on the first 
Monday in December, 1882, its 162d dividend. The 
mine has produced over $G, 000, 000, and has kept in 
constant employment, and at three-dollai 
wages, s large number of men. Tho Empire is the 

oldest of all the its not! worklugln this State, 

and it, as well as the Idaho, gives promise ol indef- 
inite oontiuuance. The \llison Ranoh, North Star, 
and some others that were celebrated as gold pro- 
ducers in times psst, will Boon be worked again. 
Cheap water-power, for machinery, will cause those 
mines to resume, aud the wator-poivcr is ooming 
within a few months after the issue of this publica- 
tion.— Grata VaUey Tidings. 


In giving testimony before the Congression- 
al Shipping Committee, In regard to the coat 
of iron Bhips, John Roach Btated that be bad 
jubI taken a contract fop building a first-class 
iron ship at 965 pet ri [ister ton. Tin-. Bhip, 
we learn, is to be buill foi Wm li Btarbuok 
for the Pacific trade ETei dimensions will be 
1,8011 tons register, 8,000 tons dead weight 
oapaoilyj length, 214 feet; depth of hold, 23 
i" '. breadth ol beam, u feet; and draft, 21 
feet. She is to l»< ready by about April. We 
understand that tho now wooden Bhips Wm. 
H Btarbuok, Eenry Millard, Astoria aud 
Mouul Washii ,i, Btarbuok and his 

co-own. i ■ tboul |55 pel ton readj foi ■■■ ... an I 
this is about as Ion a figure as ti,, i„ , lj 
builders are willing to take contracts. If it 

costs bul ; more (,, build Bl 

iron ship tiem a flrst-olass wooden one, the 
iron Bhip is decidedly the oheapei vessel, for 

'he avi ragi life of a w len ship is prettj wi n 

known, whi reus the life oi an I ship has 

01 '■' i ,' I bei ed i he oosl ol a 

1 ■ British iron Balling ship is aboul ( 12 
per ton. or but a trifle less that Mr. Boaoh bas 

ntraoted to build one.—N, )\ Shipping 


There will bo large additions to the area of alfalfa 

' "" '•' " Btri rybodj ongaged In agricultural 

'rations tooxi rl ulmsi ii to that end to 

the utmost, i hi re are aboul 100 Bootlona ol first- 

ind In tins vloinity, and we hope tho 

day is not far distant whon it will I"- Boedod and 

* '•"'" l '- feeding fii took. This would furnish 

ol employmi ol tost least 12,000 mi nand 

mi ol alone would make ol Baki rsfli Id 

and Bumnoi largi i prosperous towns. | 

nobuslnesB m profitable than stock-raising In 

plaoes adapted to the buslnoss, as this ih In s re- 
markable di gn ii alreadj Is 
and wm in oessarUj oontinuc to bo pursued bero, 
"in bolld up a more prosperous, ii nol a i popu 
loui ii community, o i dlvi i ilfli d farming. 

CALIFORNIA mm it in iuiv \ 

The seventeenth annual meeting Ol the Iowa 

Horticultural Boolety will convene In tbi oity ball 

to-day, and continue until Pi Idsy i vening. Mr. E. 
H. Calkins, of Burlington, one "i the most promi- 
di oi fruit-growers In this state, i„ [rj tbe city. He 

has just returned Iron, ■ two month's tour of tho 
of California, where In has I n in search o| a col- 

leotion ol the fruits ol that - 

These fruits, whn-h are on exhibition at thi Oity 
Hall, and whioh remain up to and dui 

this week, with one ' iceptl were grown south of 

tho Sierra Madro Rang! , ami oami from I 
geles, Santa Ana, Orange, and San Gabriel, In Los 
Angelee county, from ' lutai lo and Riverside in San 

Bernardino count] , I from San I Hi go, Tho fruit 

consists of oranges jn eonsidi lahh , 

limi - Japanese persimmons, appli s, and raisins. 

The exception referred to, Ib a box ol 
grown near tho foothills of tbe Bli rra Nevada range 
in tbe great Ban Joaquin t illi v 270 miles north of 
Loa Angoles, and about - 11 miles • ast from Fresno, 
in a section popularly considered until foi 

culture, on account "I lunatic conditions being 
unfavorable. With commendable seal, W M Wil- 
liams, Esq., the popiihu nursery-man at Fresno 
City, wishing to see bis leotion of Oalifornis repre- 
sented with its fruiis al tbla meeting, took upon 
himself the trouble and expense ol proonring a box 
of oranges, grown twent) miles from bis home, 
which he presented as a part of tins exhibition. tin public spirit manifested 
by Mr. Williams should have this recognition at our 

We learn from Mr. Calkins that the oranges 
brought on by him were nol eoted for 

exhibition, and are no hotter in any pal tloular than 
are offered for sale daily In »nj quantltj up to car- 
load lots. Indeed some of the most prominent 
growers felt very reluctant about 
fruits out for such purpose before being fully ma- 
ture. We therefore bespeak foi thesi fruits which 
have come to us from the fartbei side ol the conti- 
nent, that their immaturecondition il 
them to be misjudged. 

Neither the lemons nor limes will sutler when 
compared with those grown in the most favored 
climes of Europe. They aro the eqn 
grown in Southern Spam m 
deruess of toxiun 

Mr. Calkins thinks be has samples ol 
taken at random from the packing-houses of the 
growers that will not be put to the blusb vile ii 
placed by the sido of tin in, imported 

Into tin- Hrv lii this matter Cahforuians ex- 
press a willingni ss tu have their produotiona | 
from the basis of the finest Malagas in the land.— 
Dubuq ■ tee, 

PLANTING ti:\ intis ion \ BOMB 

An experienced horticulturist writes to Ih 
OaKfornian as follows: 

Just for homo use, i two should be 

planted to a miscellaneous assortment of U'St vari- 
eties of fruit trees and small fruits; I » ■ 
50 apple trees, two-thirds winter vm |i 
of varieties ripening iii -iii o< salon; 50 peach, com- 
mencing with the earliest, and ending with the 
latest; 10 each of oi otai Ini , prune apricot, and fig; 
five English walnut, fivi i Italia □ obestnul I 
ded orangn, five budded lemon, two lime; one- 
fourth acre to blackberry, raspberry ourrants, and 
strawberries; rooted grapes foi tin table, carefully 
selecting tho best varieties; izen sec- 

onds for profit, I would plant tbe remaining eight 
acres as follows; Two and one-half sores I 
and large Early apricot; two and one-fourth sores 

to Bartlett and Wml.i Nillis p, ar, |>i I ueipall J 

Uartlott; one acre oi boat canning varieties oi 
paach; one acre to Fronoh and Bungarl in prunes, 
about equally dividi d and an sore to besl budded 
varieties ot orange and lemon, two-tbirda orange. 

Without entering into the argui lative merits 

of the above, I believe those who plant al t as 

iims Indloati d, will bave uo can 

A Pltiisi-i iiiii s COUNT 1 

We oan no! Bee anything bul n pros] is 

future for the Industrious and intelligi ut 

farmers of tbls im\, and aspeoialh foi those 

who are possessed ol irrlg id d lands I b 
steady and reliable markel foi oi n ale oi all 
kinds, for ooi u and beans; foi grapi b and all 
kinds n( fruits, froBh, drii d and oanui d; tho 

inoreasing price ol bi i f, pork and i ton; thi 

high price ,,i bops, aud lha open markel ol thi 

world foi wini g and oui brandy, [nviti thi 

zealous i fforte ol thi tilli rs ol the aoil to |oiu 
In reaping the goldou borvi ■ i w Itb I 
capabihiy ,,, ii,,. production ol thi ae artioli -, 

Fresno oounty must i inue to im i 

population and wealth aud proapi ritj Bul 
our fame rs ihould divorslfj tl 

EVI in (miner on n |g ,|, ,| i,.,, | , ,,, 

couple in more ao i alfalfa, and with its 

product koop a ii n bi ad ■ I 

hogs, in this partioulai tbej have i vi rj 

: I lor, 

OPPOSITE i nion 8Q1 W(i . 

Commercial School 



Business Course. Only $70, 


Day and Evening Sessions. 

Ho, . nii. , i Teachers. 
Thorough I ,, .1 ,..,,,.. ,, 
Reasonable Rates. 
Superior I -'ii. ilillea. 
Good Dlnolpllne. 
i \> eii. in \ pnrtmentf, 
ii... ii 1. 1 ., i Location. 
Ladles Idmltti -i 

Special Inducments Offered to Per. 
suns of Neglected Education. 

Rnslneas Coarse 

\. ,.,i, ,,,,. . 

« omblned « onnw. 

Penmanship < 

.Mi.ii.-rn Innsugii 

I'll gTa i oi 

Hpi . mi Brani ties. 

For Further Information call at the 
College Office. 

OTo. 320 r»OST ST., 

• ii Iddreu Hie Proprletoi - 


F*<^H SALE. 

Large Dwelling House and Out 



Within a mile and a half of tbe town of 
Orange. Price, $4,000, „, g 1,446 

with \\ it' r -took. 


Line] ; also ndjacout tniels, ut from s:5.» to 

st;."> per acre, In traots of 10 acres or 
3GO acres, or intermediate pizes. 

Tin- tan 
a lorn" b UTelve 



i .,. b< irrigated 

nil. I tVllllOUl He I 

iDlX Ii I I 'I H1.13 

oessful Vine] ardlats In Is it, oulj to trlnti i 


One half Casli ; Balance, Ope 
and Two Veara; Interest] 8 i»«" r 
cent, pet annum, 

am thi u I.,. Bantlniro ' le 

Bantu \ mi. n bl< li ml, iid rroiu I ho u 

s. .1,1,1 

» liver, 

aire, Kanta 

An, i. nnil I in, I ,,,,,,,_. 

\l,l>l> I,, 

86 & 82 Temple Blocfej 






Prom the San Bernardino Times we tola the 

In the early days of California, when people 
came her- t" timi theii (ortanea in the minis 
and return home to enj 15 the fruits of their 
labors, land woe very oheap. Fow cared t" 
engage in farming or fruit raising, The pro- 
1 making money in that way was, 1 1 
those days, too 6low. Now and then Bome 
hardy pioneer, lured by the mildness of the 
climate, oast anchor, and demonstrated that 
the valleys and plains which, in summer, pre- 
sented so dry and barren an appearand . v. . 1 . 
most fertile and astonishingly productive. 
The profits from farming were good and cer- 
tain. Land begau to look up aud has steadily, 
with few interruptions during dull times, been 
firm and on the upward lendi ooy. V7e might 
say, truthfully, that the day lor cheap lands in 
California, at least in localities that are at all 
desirable, has passed. Iu huutiug up new 
homes, a great mauy people make the mistake 

of selecting localities that are far advai 1, in 

regard to both improvements and population. 
If a business locality is sought after, the mis- 
take is made in selecting a town that has nl- 
ready grown too large. Business is generally 
overdone, aud property already advanced far 
beyond its real value. The cream has been 
skimmed and you are left to take the milk at 
fabulous prices. Yon are compelled to fight 
the cut-throat battle of competition. Or if 
farming or fruit raising is the occupation in 
question, the laud has already reached a price 
that reqnires a small fortune to purchase and 
improve. Mauy are averse to pioneering it. 
But it is just where the mistake is made. 
Where a new place is selected and all the work 
of building up aud improving is beyond the 
purchaser, there is every advantage in his 
favor. The enhancement in value of properly, 
the increase of business and the many chances 
and means of making money outside of busi- 
ness, all tend to induce a man to choose a new 
place; and especially if that place is snr- 
rouDded by a country well watered, with thou- 
sands of acres of the best of soil, where every 
feature of the country is inviting, where every 
prospect is most promising. Just such a place 
is to be found in our own beautiful valley. 


Ex-Governor Leland Stanford's breediug 
faun, for horses, al Palo Alto, is one of the 

si compli 1 itablishments of the kind in 

the world. <»f the 1,700 acres in the place 100 
t&ri " up ied by the Btubles, barnB, and small 
paddocks, Thi buildings, al the fool ■•( a 
gentle rise of ground, make a Binnll city by 
tin in lelvi s. [nhabite I by a population of nearly 

BOO, who return hither fj their business on 

the pastures and race-tracks, and have 200 
persons employed iu their domestic 
The spacious barns are uniformly floored and 
oeiled np with redwood a handsome material, 
which resembles cedar in effect, Tiny are 
Btrewn with the Freshest straw, and kepi as 
Di it as the moat unexceptional drawing-rooms. 

Scions from the slock here raised, which 
represent the best thoroughbred and trotting 
strains in the couutry, are likely to be a most 
important influence iu improving the breed of 
horses throughout the Pacific Coast. It was 
here lhat curious experiments wen coiiducli d. 
at the expense of Governor Stanford, for arriv- 

ing- trot to 2:25 , Lust year Bonita, a two- 
year-old Ally from Palo Alto, out the record 
down to 8:23%; ami later, at the same trotting 
exhibition, Wildflower, auothei two-yoai old, 
from the same farm, made the mile in 2:21; 
and Hiuda Rose, a yearling filly, on tl 
day, added to the fuuie of the farm, l\ outting 
down the yearling record to 2:38% It lb as- 
serted that there are colts on the farm which 
cau do even better.— ///./", \td$a ln» 


The export of apples is slowly bul constantly 
increasing, both to the Territories aud to fi in Igrj 
ports. We now see by a Los An^ 
that nine carloads have already gone to Ari- 
zona, aud more are to follow. We cannot but 
look upon apple-growing as one of the most 
promising lint a of fruit-production, aud who- 
avi 1 has laud and location suitable foi the pro- 
duction of good-keeping winter apples should 
not be led away by the fever for other fruits, 
which are just now the favorites. Plant but 1 
few varieties which are known to 


The following, from the Chico Enterprise, will 
apply equally well for many other interior towns 
111 the State: 

8ome weeks ago we took occasion to urge npou 
our readers the necessity of encouraging parties 
from abroad in starting manufacturing industries 
among us. We showed the advantages that follow 
such communities in the increase of skilled labor, 
the money put in circulation and kept among the 
merchants and dealers in productions both raw and 
manufactured, the demands for houses being fol- 
lowed bv the increased activitv in buildinR and 
klcdred trades, and the general utility of even- 
legitimate local industry. It can not be disputed 
lhat Chico is admirably placed for a number of 
such inatitntions, having a splendid supply of 
water-power, that needs but a moderate outlay of 
capital to be equal to any demand. The agricul- 
tural resources of the uurrounding country have 
been proven superior to many portions of the State, 
and until some other means of employing both 
labor and capital are found, the growth of our town 
will be, in a great measure, rotatded. Agriculture 
alone never can make a flourishing community, 
but combined with legitimate manufacturing indus- 
tries, is almost certain to Bucceed. We hope our 
citizens will be altvo to their interests, and strive 
to get some enterprising men with capital to come 
here and start in business. 


The subjoined article, taken from the Guardian, 
a Florida paper, will be of interest to those ol our 
orchardisU whose orange trees are infested by the 
scale bug: 

We 11 ud that the troublesome scale insect that 
baa prove,, so destructive to orange trees has an 

Id a .. rv all, witless bug, of an ugly 

,,,,,, color, Blmilar to that of the scale imiect, cov- 
.,„, ,„„„„, prickles all over, and when 

mgh ■ ■mfying-glass resemblea a 

eoekleburi when it Is dried up from old age. They 
., k at tbobasoof the tree, and move 
along slowly like ducks or geese, until I 
off every particle of the bc»1o, and then the troo is 
p*rf«f -1 1 ootb.e ifHbsdbooo 

Before w., found oat the " mission" of th< 
bog«we went about destroying thi n 
feeling that we wore getting rid ol 
until wi ■■■ n shown a couple of trees In Oapt. 
d syard that had been thoronghlj oloaned by 
ti„ .,,,, son bugs." for wo do not know, battel 
name for them. 


iug at a better understanding of the speed of 
horses, by photographing them iu rapid mo- 
tion. The photographer, Muybridge, of San 
Franoisoo, succeeded, by an ingenious arrange- 
ment ot . Leotrieal wires, communicating, at the 
touch of the animals, with cimerae already 
prepared, in securing twelve distinot views of 
,i„ ,1,11, ,, ol Btagea ol a Bingle Btride. The atti 

ue of the most unexpected and curious 
sort, some of then, highly comic 

il pains are taki a in the raising and 
training ol the young oolts. From the time of 
foaling they are b indlt d gently and constantly, 

n m ade ns fumilinr with the touch of 
, ,,i, n,.,i of human hands, 

natural oonsequenoe, they are perfect!} 

. „(|, , and 1 n n affeotiouate, and never 

need br« iking Th. 1 Dfeot of Huh Bystem ol 

training has hi 1 n appan nt In the perform- 

,1 „,me ol the oolts which hav. been 

|illMl , ; tin ' lime Thi flrsl aota- 

ibitl 1 "i"" 1 ''.'• " l '" 1 " A "" '"" u '"" 

m ,.i thi B i] i" irli 1 LsBooialion iraok at 

10 I860, win,, the two y, 

, ,,n I,, dOrooki 1 lowered the rei 1 101 one 

in the region and sell well in the market Ki 1 |> 
a constant lookout to kei p the noxious insects 
in check, and, our word (or it, a 
appli orchard will be as cotufo, taM" a propi rtj 
ns one cau desire. But don't plant in the 
wrong place.and don't neglect the (reel 1 itb( 1 
course will lead to disappointment, -Rural 


The Los Angeles Express Bays While the 

phylloxera may trouble vineyards in pertfl ol 
the State where irrigation Is not 

geles county is safe from the pest. Irri 

ia praol 1 1. i« " B «™ P'oventl 

should any of the vim -destioyi rs be intro- 
,,,„„.,,. 00 id water will "gfll away" with them 

With the failure of the vineyard I 

v, 1,1 neem as if our success as a grope 

w v was assured With a Boll thai 

w ,n andei ordlnarj cultivation, produoe aina 

tons of MisBion grapes to the aore, we 1 

Fear c petition, There is no soil ... the 

world e,,,,,,! to OUTS, and no el. mate that is 


There an- bul few persons who realize Low 
much can in made by ' H«h furmii 
acres of ground, an arti lian well and a few 
good fish, and one has, iu a simri timi , a busi- 
ness that he can rely on, While traveling in 
Contra CoBto county, we made the acquaint- 

anee of Mr I [I n, who lo, 

years bus devoted bis time and attention to 

ash Mr, Dlokenson his a small farm 
of aboul twenty in res, near the town of Con- 
cord. About four years Bg op his 
mind to experiment a little with the raising of 
nub. Th> first step was to smi, an arl 
well, at no very great expense, and then dig 
out and urruuge floodgates to two or three 
pounds. The next was to stock these | 
The fish that he selected was the Europe an 0) 
German carp. Ashe could not obtain any of 
this BpecteB iu this country at the timi . that 
W< re lit for breeding purpose, he seut to Ger- 
many, and after much trouble and expi nsi 
succeeded in introducing to the woti ra ol his 
ponds about eight ti>h thai averaged abonl rive 
inches in length. This was four yours ago. 
Mi. Dickenson has iucreased the size and 
number of his ponds; he now has Qvi 
that average 80 feel square, and these five 
pounds contain about G, 000 carp, tbnt run from 
three-fourths of a pound to fifteen pounds in 
weight. He has also stock' d the tbrei ponds 
at Kimball's Island, near Antioch; these Bmall 
bodies of water contain aboul 3,000 fish Mi 
Dickenson says that the cost of kei pin 
lish is very small; what a dog would eat will 
feed a large uumbei of fish, Tin- breeding 
ponds ought to I" shallow -not mor< 
twelve to fourteen inches deep — with sloping 

.uid mud bottoms. Carp 
bottom in order to do well persons 

suppose thattbese fish are not fit to eat as they 
taste of the mud, but this objection is easily 
overcome by pulling the fish into a 6mall pond 
or tank with a gravel bottom and ruuniug 
water a few days before putting on the table. 
By this means the muddy or earthy flavor en- 
tirely disappears, and a vory One flavored t.-h 
is bad, the best size for table asi 1- about two 
and one-half pounds; those weighing about 
twelve or fifteen pounds, though good eating, 
are rather coursd of grain. — S. F. Breed 



Beyond any sort of doubt there is a large sil- 
ver-bearing belt a few miles to the north "I as, 
Crnde tests by various persons, at different lo- 
calities, clearly establish this fact. But whether 
It exists in paying qualities or not remains to 
be seen, and the near future promises t,, prac- 
tically demonstrate this point. Hon. Thomas 
Wren, of Eureka, Nevada, a well kuovi 
talist, together with W. M Keefer and D. H. 
Watson, have been engaged in developing a 
property ou the North Side abonl two mileB 
south ol Garden Valli y (old Johntown), which 
has uow a most promising appearance, They 
nre opening two separate lodes, tin General 
Mead and I rem ral Grant. ' In thi Gi ai ral 
Mead a shofl b is bi en sunk to the depth of 34 
feet, at which point an analysis of the ore 
shows $1 in gold aud $7 in silver, and ten to 
fifteen per ci ill copper A tunnel has been 
Btarted to tap tins ledge al a depth of 100 f< et 
The General Giant is an immense ledge, gold- 

upon whioh a shaft buB beeu BO 
feet, wh ihowfl a vein 
U i,l,.. Of course this is not high-grade ore, 
but it is claimed thai it prospeota all the n ij 
through We are «, 11 pli asi d al the brighten- 
spects of Keefer aud Watson, and hope 
ins] ,,1 .>• both realise amph fortunes as a 
solace in their di dining years - B Dorado Re- 
publican. - 

The Oroville Ifercurv soya 1" out notice, 
ly ( ,,| the land Bales in Hamilton town- 
ship, we omitted to mention 24 

,1,1 bj the Bonk ol Chico to B 
I 1,,, J35 per ncn , a tl." 1 "I il,. 

\ .,11, v land, containing al ' 27, torea, »ia 

miles north ol I 1*76,000; n traol ol 

. 8 nold i>n the Oopil ■ : " lk "' 

Sacramento to John Fisher, foi W poraorejo 

1 ol 840 aores ol B| ring \ dli j Ian 

, 1 . 11 Ool o " ' " ' "' 

100 aores by Benrj Footjen .1 i"'- ■' 

U ial ol 34 res bj th. Bpring Vnllej Own- 

1 Ninderman, foi - '■ pei 
U»e total ol r. .enl sales |1 
instead oi 140,000, a» reported laal weak. 







So. .1 in Snniome St.. li,. II.-. I. Bullilinif. 


Terms 8'2 per Annum. 



w ii-'n yon have read thi* paper preserve II 
,. ...I i. .1,1 ii to your neighbors, or Send it to 

• oinelYi. .,,1 III the KiihK'iii. VV.Hlcnior South. 

,.m states, Canada, Bntrland and Conti- 
nental Europe, who will value the informa- 

ilon >i -. uikI mlffhl be llk<-ly toeome 

..I .....i Intelligent, Inuuitrloni farmer* to 

...ii. In < ■> i i 


First Page. — i'Iiv OultUM In California. 

Sei ..mi Pnjje. —Olive Culture In California, Contin- 

Third Page. - Si.n Miituo County. 

Fourth Pnge. — Some x ■- 1 . - 1 ,. i • Walls RedSnow.- 
Bomea f"r tin Immigrants.— Large Oalll 

Fifth Pnire. — Muni. 

Slxtta Pag*.— i ... i- i r Si ttli n -A Qrand Irrigation 
s. ii.-iii.:.— Nevada County. California —Cost ,'t Build- 
ing American 8hlp8.— California Fruits u, Iowa 
Planting tenAoresfor a Home. ' Prospei ma County. 

Seventh Pn L 'i». 9iiimI.1i \.Ivi. . Vi I Mmm 

facturt-s.—A Friend to the OruD*.'.? Tr. . —A California 
II"-" Farm.— Apple Shipments. — Fish Farming.— 

Eighth Pnge.- One of California's Chief Recom- 
mendations — California's Product and Trade in IBM 
- Eflgblv Qratlfj Ing.— The Pen 8ti j i 

Ninth Page..— Tlic Mission of the '*9ers.— -Water 
Supply —Trees. Grains. Flowi r-, and Fruits. 

Tenth Page.— Our Walnut Crop —Tin Kuisin indus- 
try.-- Eclipses for 1883.— The place for a Home.— 
Farmers' Outlook.— Cheap Mountain I 

Eleventh Pace.— General Manager A. N Towne and 
the Railroad ( 

T»»i-ifth Page. Oencral Manager A N Towni and 

tin- Railroad ComrniKtdoners, Cntinii, .1 
Thirteenth Pan*. i., Iininicrinils 

I Rapidly-Growing Town. — A Mammoth Oak. - 
W i Drawing No Phylloxera.— Apricots torProtit 

Sixteenth Page. —Santa Clara Win,. Belt.— Fruit m 
California.— A Tribute to Farmers.— Ralsm Making 

We reproduce tbe article on olive culture, by 
the late B. B.; and for two reasons: 
First, because it is one of the most instructive 
papers on that subject that can be found. 
Second, because we have hud so many re- 
quests from subscribers for a copy of tbe paper 
in which it was published, with which we could 
not comply, the edition, long since, having been 


H. P. Btakwood, Esq , leaves, in a few days, 
for the City of New York, where hi will fill Hie 
position of General Agent of Ihe California 
Fast Freight Line. Mr. BlBDWOOd leaves, in 
this city, a large circle of warm friends, whose 
good wishes he takes with him to his new 

P. G. Beam, Esq , after an absence of four 
yetirs, has returned to the city, and has taken 
charge, as General kgent, of the business of 
the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad 
Company: Mr Beam is. a gentleman who is 
w.-ii known in Siu Francisco, and bus a host 
,,( old friends, who give him n hearty wel- 
come bad to old business associations, 



The firm o( .1 Geo 0, v g A Oo . in 

Petalamo, doet a gi di ral real ei tati b 
They have facilities for furnishing to immi- 
bls -in ,11 ii.,. 1 j ,,( |ond, suitable 
f,.r all km, in ,,( frmt . vines, eto. They will 
sell Boob Lands at ohi ip .. ■ thi » can be pni 
chased from the owners themselves, Title in 
nil oases perfect, and terms made easy. On 
application they will furnish printed lists with 
descriptions They have lh< finest 91 
and grain landfl to be found In tbe Bl 


w. Ii am from oni 1 tcbangi a and coi n 
■pondents thai some ol the soutbi rn countii a 

idlj idling ap wild , legani 1,. 1 

■ peopli whosi .1. Hi .,t.. 1,, altb cannot 
Miimii tbe rigors and ohangoable obaraotoi ol 
"'• ollmnte ol bod 1 thi Atlantic Btatos, 

"•I ibi 1 llmoti "i California foi pn ft 1 

■ it),, 1 1 I,, 11. h, ,,1 Pranoi 



It has been said by many that our olimate 
is more valuable than our soil, as highly iih Ihe 

I"' 1 ' r is i'ii.-. il And tins Btati 1 1 1- probablj 

in"- Ab an illustration If the States of Iowa 
and Miuueso'a had California's olimate, their 
landB, thai range from five dollars to sixty 
dollars per acre, ami which urn acknowledged 
to be as rich and productive as can be fouud 
ou this coutinent, and perhaps in the world, 
would become many times us valuable us they 
are now. A distinguished traveler recently 
said, in the course of a lecture, that our climate 
is an iusurance against tornadoes, grasshop- 
pers, mad dogs, lightning, sunstrokes, and 

sw, ..|,ii,._- ,), ul, niirs. Anil he infill have 
added, very appropriately, that it is also 
an ineuranoe upon live stock, and against 
the hardships and expense of an inclement 
wiuter. In fuel, climate is one of the main 
Bouroea from winch our prosperity flows, ami 
is to continue to flow. Oar climate makes 
cheap homes, for buildings can be constructed 
that will answer every purpose, for a muoh 
smaller sum of money than in colder climates 
There is uo doubt but our vast area of tin 
tory, with its v.-r\ desirable climate ami pro- 
■ In, -live soil, will attract emi| ration, win, I, bafl 
not yet begun to flow. The wealthy will come 
for ihe indulgence of climate and physical 
comfort, and invalids for their health. One of 
thi '-harms of our climate is. that it is bo hap 

P'l.V >' '"! I, I" twi . 11 (he . xtremes of heal 

uud cold, as to stimulate, without overpower- 
ing, the human frame. Thin, are in our 
State, more days in the year on which a man 
can work with comfort, outdoors, than in al- 
most any other country. 

If there be any residents of California who 
"• disconti nt, 1 with their lot, or who sigh for 
B r-tnrn East, to their former homes, let them 
revisit their pluci a of birth or early residence, 
if they would become disenchanted of their 
recollections. Let them Bpend in New x*orli a 
drizzling month m burning summer, 

a period in cold ami blustering autumn, or 
.1 dure tin rigors of a dr< adful winti r, and we 
think they will return to California, thinking 
it God's best country. Everybody should go 
East, upon a visit, for it is a sure cure for 
grombling and croaking ag tinsl I lalifornia, 

We, who have resided for years in California, 
can hardly realize the extreme cold. Ibi 
depth of snow, the terrible storms. OUtting off 
communication for days, and sometimes for 
more than a week. With everything | 
in green, and flowers blooming around us here, 
we do not realize how- terrible the wint 
east of the Rocky Mountains — not even when 
we read the particulars in the public press 
Winh- .verylhiug is buried in huge snowdrifts 
at the East, in the same lalitude with Califor- 
nia, here farmers are plowing and putting in 
grain, and early-sown crops are growing lux- 
uriantly. ■• Why,"in the longuageof another, 
" W|H people choose to live in a 1 limati 
it requires six mouths' labor during Bpring 
and rammi r, to keep them tbeothersix months 
of Bterile winter, when a great empire ol God's 
country lies within six or seven days' rid 
great empire flowing with milk, "ami honey, 
and wine, fragrant with orange groves." With 
tbe same amount of labor expended upon the 
Bterile farms of New England, a familj could 
in earthly Paradise of a farm in Califor- 
nia; and, above all, escape the terrible winters 
of the Atlantic seaboard. 

It is gratifying to lean, that California is be- 
coming both winter ami ,, ,,,, „ 
large class ol people, who are onjj desirous of 
stopping a (,-« monthB. Suob Bojournei 1 be. 

come attached to the State, and many .,( thi 01 
nettle ban permanently. This class oi people 
are rerj valuable, for tbe mason that thi | ire 
well lupplied with means, whiob enablea them 

I localities that Mil, I (I,,,,,, 1 ,_ llf( „ r 

looking through tbe State. Several ol the 

large hotels of Han Franolsoo and Lha Into 

"'">' "' "'""' 1 pie froi 1. as 

guests, who ,.,„ spending the wintei ben 

Al "' " '" " H " f ilenlation to make that two- 

ll "" 1 - "' """' «'ii, after roturning to thoir 
bomes, oonolude to settla ap thoir affairs, and 
oome back, and make pormoni at bomi b In thi 

State win, -i. thej haw loam, ,i ,,, | 0V( „, \\ 

during their brlol Bojourn In II 1 bis b 

Ihe 0OBC 111 the past, ami we gee i axon why 

i' mporarv Bojourners will not oontlnue to pur- 
ui the -nine course To oui mind, there are 

'ii'" l< nl ri as B/hj ii,, v should return bora 

As a gonorol mi.., the oloss thai oomos to Call 

fornia, ou a tour of observation, is com] I 

of men possessed of great for, si|/hi ai 
city. They readily observe ihiii. there is more 
prosperity and more rapid development ol the 
resources of our State, in proportion to the 
number of inhabitants, than can be found • 1st 
where Consequently, il is verj uaturul foi 

such men who have travel,, I in many lauds, to 

arrive at die conclusion that ibere is do othei 
community whiob n ill oompan h itb ihi 1 
Stat., In point of climate, richness of soil, and 
natural advantages for great busiui • entei 
priseH. Iii oui judgment, there is no other 
Stale that hoi, Is .nit so many im liic in, nt to 
immigrants with Borne means, Btrong hearts, 
ami n tiling bands 

IN iss:. 

Tim following, taken from the Commercial 
Herald's annual trade review, Bhows •■ remark- 
abli exhibit, and attests the growtb an 
perity of California: 

California produotion ol wheal in L882, 32,- 

000,000 busbies; wheal ami floui exports in 
1882,21,035,900 centals; wheat and flour 1 t- 
ports for 20 years, 168,131,980 centals; doraes- 
■rts by sea .or last twelve years— wheat, 
wool, wine, quicksilver, etc.; $317,180,805; bar 
ley crop of California in 1882, 9,000, mil) bush- 
els. BUgar imports foi 1882, 106 145,600 pounds; 
California beet sugar product 111 1882, 1,000,- 
000 pounds; imports of foreign sugars for last 
thirteen years, 904,001,706 pounds; coffee im- 
ports for 1882, 21,710,912 pounds; rice imports 
for 1882, 54,397,844 pounds; tea imports for 
1882, 34,170,616 pounds; gold and silver yield 

1" I---' ■ 1 product of I 

cific Coast since 1848, $2,016,61 
product of the States and Territories west ol 
the Missouri river since 1 
combineii gold and Bilverprodact oi tbi 
Slope sine |s|.s, $j gold and -li- 

ver exports in 26 yeni 

in s,ui Franciaoo Mint in 1882, ".87,91 

"f Mint from 1854 to Dl 01 im 
1882, $709,128,750; merchandise! port values 
by sea in 1882 - - combined 

of merohandise and treasure (exclusive of mer- 
chandise by railroad in 135,732; 
fe.l, ral revenue at the port of San Fran. 
'• '" ' ' ' pts at tin- port 
in 1882, 264,098,814 feet; domi 
eeived in 23 yi are, 1,769,799 ton-, wool olip in 
1882, 10,000,000 pounds; product ol n 
1862, 10,000 000 gallons; tonnage ru n 

of the Central l'a, c 

7 - i:; Freight movement ol the 

Southern Pacific Ii nli., id S '.n-|,,n | 

in 1882, 571,836,229 pounds; quii 1. ... 

duct in California in 1882, 50,820 Qusbs; valm- 

of manufactures in Ban Francisco in 1882, 

$100,00(1,111111 sale ,,( real estatl iii San Fr,,u- 

cisco iu 1882, 116,11 ise in immi- 

gration In 1882, a I .-"- 1 -"ul- banking capital 
of the State, 1176,000,000. 

nil. Mi, \ GRATIFYING. 

We are gratified, beyond measure, to learn, 

through the press of the Stale, ami other 
sources, that there is a general disposition to 
receive the newly hum, i n grants favora- 
bly, by aiding tin in in obtaining fan g lands, 

mploymi nt. V7e also ■,..<■ mth 

Siitisfactlon, that, while a !icai!\ imilalion i- 

belng extended i" immigrants, thej 

plainly I" umlei slaml that thrift ami imlnstr\ 

,lle the olllj , Itlclellt ;'Uai . 

Active si, pg hav, bl eii taken by lea. In 

■ ". in several I dities, to supply immi 

with all needed information, on then arrival 
Counts associations have been formed fm ihis 
purpose. Ii is a matter of general 0On 
lion (hat a large percentage of the new 

are ,,| the ino-t .l.-irab!,- olOSB, ami . 
Hesse, I of means (0 puidiase property , ami ll,, 

||1 ' 1 " file to accrue, both to (hem ami'ihe State, 
from their settlemenl among ub, are Inoaloula' 
l ' 1, l " ll ""' 1 !l "-" people to Buitablo looa- 
tions, whore lands, within the reach of their 
available means, m ij be Beoured, and where 
enterprises to whiob thej are adapti I 
theii energy, is the worli to whiob those who 
""' '"-,,, inn, i, -,i, si,, .„i,i applj ii,.,,, elves i 
it is the mission oi Toj Rksoi ... m to truth- 
fuiiy publish the raollitlos and advanl 
'■ " '' '" ettlers bj • nn Beotion ol the State, 
Wfl thinl all who porusolts columns will roadllj 
,ini1 loootlons whore thej can ongago In the 
ll "" 1 "' buslni bi oupa thai will bi si 

suit tlleln, 

mi. H-itisriii CONOBBB8 
The reci ul i on • . held a! Ofa 

email, Ohio, WOB ftttl mini l, v ruany Qjefl wk 

bavi givi i, much aii, otion to the Buojajt 

ed ., creli 

'"'I' ' Bdar « Al "' giving historical 

ski tches of ornamental tree planting, | nn d. 
soape gardening, and the history ,.( ,.. 

nee and tL-.-it 
value, be concluded as foil 

"I trust, thai to ibis ondalloths* 

associations dedicated to thi work ol , 

I wealth, andol 
beautifying tbe earth on whiob we t 

lini ni will BXtl ml a grateful 
, " "' ""' " helping hand, [n conclusion, let 
me urge upon ., (Jar ' e j Q | 

■ ration ol the topii - before it— tbe use 
of forests; the influi ,,„i be ne . 

'" ' ''• "' ' ! " itional means br 

wll,r|1 ted wnh forestry 

u " lK - to what . Kit nt can thi land-owner enter 
profitably upon Ihe busim is oi tree-planting 

"" l| f *<■ onltun What legislation can the 

i tbe increase and preserra- 

II the General 

l foresU 
on its public lauds? What is the precise ex- 
tent ol What ia the comparative 
value ol various umber trees? How shall we 
seouri wind bri aks on thi 
chemical process can we preserve our timber 
used in bailding and fencing? And what for- 
u localities! 
1 which Bhonld I..- answered 

laible. Thej 
whioh the American peopli are anxious to bora 
answered, and bi fore which all 

legislation, all consideration of tbe 
value of wood products, - i (rude, 

all study of land tenure, Bink into msigoifi- 

I trust the deliberation, oi ' 

vention will poinl the ■■ l these 

problems can be Bolved, a ur vast 

forest wealth will be economically preserved, 
and profitably 

i V'-w Voi I; //, raid, in commenting on the 

The rapidity with which onr woods and for- 
alarming. Id the 
wondrous development of the country very 
iiafts are made on our timber produc- 
tion, and the consumption ia fai in e: 
the Datural snpplj , or what must be the supply 
of the future. The statisticians who have 
turned their attention to the cjui 
us that the 

the making of shoe pegs alone requires 100,000 
of soft maple; lucifer matches demand 
390,000 oubio feet of pine; lasts, bo 
■ ml tool handles call for cords of 
lurch, while the burning of bricks consumes 
3,000,000 cor. i- ,,i wood, ol various 
300,000 di a i. Ii graph p -,,i an- 

anally, and In addition to all this d 
houBeB i" be buill and railroad tii - to be laid. 
The qu ,j view 

Is, ill, n fore, ol primi importance. If the out- 
i the planting 
ption, il" ,t an error is 

reotifli .1 the bi tti i 



u ■ ■ '' unfrequi ntlj r »i l< tti r- from the 

East, from parlies who contemplate comiug to 
oui Smte, in whioh thej nak what sections of 

it are the mosl I In. liv, \.. 

I< rial In detail, Buoh questions. 

• lux journal gives, m each Dnml 
aoeount ol the olimate and prodm I 
"i thi Boil of everj loi ality, oompiled from our 
b, in He ii i. ipi ofivi looalitii - 0on- 
sequontly, oui iftex reading 

Tm Rxaoi ri i through, b infor* 

Illation as u. 1 

thi | hove the Bame mi ans ol ju Iging where 
I portion • ol ll are to be found W i 

foi ia wonderful State 

ndapti .1 to the oultivatlon ol ol Bl anything 

thai will gron in an j dim ,:. ,,, ...iiuin. and 

I lest mat *, i to Btranger i, 

It, i- ii, it it is n,,i already Oiled up, to the 
oxtonl oi itaoapaolty , with Bottlers, But, when 

II b,c, .me- both i know I, in the i isl and 
1: i" . ll «'ii rapidly do go with n d< Birabls 

; eoplo. 

ITINIDl inns- 

roagoof vii - irdino 

oounty is i>, in:; largi u lui ri 


lion for Tu« itMonncea op Oauvobmu.] 
Forty years ngo luit littli 01 scarcely any- 
thing wns known of the grent region lying 
between the RiiHsinn possession and Gulf of 
Mexico, north and -„.iiih, and from the Mis- 
souri rivei und Pncifle Ocean, < • 1 1 -. t mid west. 
Lewis And Clai ki b id followed the Oolum- 
im its Bourci to its mouth, anil once in a 
while n trnding Bhip oalled in at the 
village "i Verba Buena, on the bay ol Ban 
Prancisco, while the larger portion of the 
seotion I have alluded (o, was designated on 
the map as the < In ..i Unexplored Region. 

About this time, Joe Smith and his brother, 
Hiram, discovered or at least pretended to 
have discovered, th< the Inscrip- 

tion on which formed the substance of the 
Bo of Mormon, and basis of that religion, 

The new doctrine found many odl 
enabling the Smiths to erect, soon after, the 
Great Mormon Temple at Nunvoo, which was 
supposed to be, in many respects, a facsimile 
of that lmilt ages before by King Solomon. 

The people of Illinois, however, could not 
endure Mormonism and, risiug in their moj- 
• sly, drov the whole Beet ont of the State, 
shooting Joe and Hiram, as they were attempt- 
ing to escape through a window of the temple, 
and burning thai edifice, if I am not mistaken, 
to ashes. 

The next stand was made in Missouri; but 
the doctrine of from two to twenty wives for 
each man whs t ... strong .1 dose for the 1 
citizen of that State, and they were told in 
hum. iy. but very enipbati angxiage, 

" to git up and git." which they did al onoe, 
orossing the border iu short order, and fleeing 
to Suit Luke, firmly believing they were bo far 
removed from civilization thai their troubles 
were at an end, and from heuceforth they 
could enjoy the pleasure of polygamy free of 
interference from the outside world. 

Jast about the tune t li •- >- reached their des- 
tination, the war betweeu the I'm led States 
and Mexico broke out. It lasted twj years, re- 
sulting in the acquisition of California— which 
this country gained, tirst by <• inquest, and 
afterwards by absolute pni 
Boareely h ..1 the treaty of peace been ratified, 

m y pud ovei . when M irshall m ide 

il disc ivi rj ol g .Id, in the tail 
Sutter's Mill, at what is now known as Coloma, 
ou the south fork of the American river, in 
El Dorado c mnty The ui wb Bpre el like wild- 
fire, the inhabitants then living iu California 

hing behind, and rushic 
long to lli. "diggiu 

In due Hue the news reached the Si il 
of the Miss .in 1 river, which was follow, d by an 
exaitemi nt lhal comph 1. lyovi rshadowed every- 
thing els.; 111. guld Illlllo In cimilej the nm 

. aud in . very 
placi notl ki it ever having been known 

Companies were fonued, ships placed on the 
ronte, and during thi tii-i live months of 1849, 
160,000 of the most energetic voung men that 
isted -tui.d for the new El Dorado, 
some by steamer, otl 1 p Horn, aud 

tie larger number by way of the plains, all 
reaching here by the end of the j 

To my mind, these were the men cho 

Almighty God for the express purpose of dis- 

ng, and making known to the world, the 

.... - of the vast section extending 

from tbi Missouri rivei to thi Pacific ocean, 

ind from Alask 1 and the Russian 

pa ioas to Mexic ., north and nouth. 

[laving arrived in •' 1 lit . .1 mi a, niilnng could 

Willi no knowledge of the 

1 uo capital, except their own 

energy, tin tup. 1 1 ■ I . ■ 1 - . ui. 1 pi 1 . -. -.■ 1 . 

a odl 1 1 iki a, and ni vei befon had bui Ii grand 

I. He actoi 
bi inspired mi thing fai tbovi moi tal 

1 draini d, in ordei I 
Ho n golden I un and shafts wi n 
'loon m ii,, . ,i,,i k 1, 1, , 1. Tunnels 

UtO He '. . l_\ I. > '.V ■ ■ I ■ of Hie lie mot 
1 'I 10 el ml mil f the III I pOI |" II- 

Cho oi 
■ euty feet iu di irui ti 1 
I in el. to van i b liki chafl befon 
nd thi pei I mi n hi 1 irning 

an am. thai pi m trail 

ind in California, di oovi 1 ing 

Ii r. etion and Hi. n . rousing the 
onderful vi in 

I, ode. 

•Sue . then they ha vi travel ml thi tfl 


and open 1 og up the seemingly unlimitei a- 

ernl di posits of this p .rtion of the West 
orn continent. 

It is a common thing, uow days, for people 
to speak sueeringly ol the '40ers. H 
under any circumstances, could more uugrate- 
ful words be uttered. Most of them | IIIV , 
passed away, and, in many eases, their bones 
l»0 bleaching ou the hill tops, and in the 

valleys of the localities they Boughl to develop, 

They toiled aud spent tl,, u lives that the 
millions, who came after them, might reap; aud 
like all suoh pure, unselfish natures, scarcely 
any of them ever secured so much as a more 
pittance for themselves; aud the historian of 
tho future, will surely place them in the same 
category with the immortal baud which landed 
on Plymouth Rook in 1620. 

California was then an unknown couutry, in 
the strictest aeuse of the word, and if one of 
tbem had dud. and immediately found himself 
the inhabitant of another material sphere, the 
difference in the two situations could not have 
been more striking, than that between this 
Stale and the section from which he had emi- 

Everything was an experiment, aud tli 
had to bear tho whole brunt of the battle, it 
has taken all the years that have intervened 
since then to discover what we now know of 
the mighty resources, peculiarities and great 
possibilities of this brightest star in the grand 
constellation of slates which form the great 
American Rl public 

The immigrant who cornea here now laki no 

chances whatever. If he wishes to plant a 
vin.yard he can determine, at once, just where 
to locate, lie kind of land to select, and most 
desirable varieties of vine to set out. Should 
he desire au orchard, the same remarks are Every problem has In en 
solved: and what to raise, where to raise it, how 
to s.ll, where 1.1 sell it, what to ship, how, 
whi 1. . and when to Bhip— all are perfectly un- 
derstood, and the '49ors are the men to whom 
we are indebted for this knowledge, which has 
cost untold millions, 

Till within a v. 1 \ few years, all our principal 
industries have been failures, or at least prob- 
1. in atioal, and immense fortunes have been 
sunk in experimenting, getting them on a pay- 
ing basis, and bringing California productions 
to the high standard they have attained. 

I firmly believe that the "hand of God" is visi- 
ble in all this. Nothing but boundless Wisdom 
could have conceivi 1 such a plan, and nothing 
mid have accomplished such mighty re- 
sults. Had the Comstoek Lode been discovered 
previous to the gold of California, it could not 
have been worked, as then were no means of 
transporting supplies and machinery over the 
mountain regions aud trackless wu 
it and the East. 

No sooner, however, had the fact been clearly 
demonstrated that it would pay, than one of 
the finest mountain roads evei constructed, in 
any age of the world, was built across the 
Sierras, from Placerville to Virginia City, over 
which thi heaviest ten-mule team could pass, 
and at the same time, if necessary, the finest 
Concord coach, hackoi buggy; while the found- 
I workshops of San Francisco wen fully 
able to furnish .very particle of machinery thai 
was needed, thus rendering the the working of 
it a comparatively easy matter. 

The finding, 01 alleged finding, of the 
silv.r plates, by Joe anil Hiram Smith, was the 
oommeuci tnent oi this great plan, the Mor- 
mons unwittingly establishing a half-way-house 
at Salt Lake city, for the great immigration of 
1849 The Mexican war was the next factor 
through which we acquired California. Then 
came the gold discovery of Marshall, at Suiter's 
Mill, whnh completely re vnln 1 10111 z«-d the com- 
meroial world, and formed h di b era In Ameri- 
can civilization, at the same time being the 
Almighty's method <>f produoing the army of 
prospectors, who were destined to become His 
agents for the devi lopmenl of tbegreat mineral 
i. [ion of thi western portion of North America. 

To my mind tbej were fully ae ih bo as wen. 

iln twelve Apostles, and whoever admits Divine 
agemy in tie one case, must do the same in 
the ..Hi. 1 . ..1 . ! 11 I..- guilty of greal in 
enoy, Then followed th. vast immigration of 
t'.i, v. inch, as 1 havi already stated, was com 
plendid body of men tho 
world bad 1 vi 1 known, and, but for whosi 
dauntless, superhuman energy, tho Pacific 

Blopi WOUld have 1 , main, .1, In tin I .1 I J , 11 

.inch unknown oountry, and tho buc« 

cess of ih. 1 in. .11 , in ;, in ih. groat war, been 

vi ry questionable, as il probablyconld not have 

''" ' " ° " T " " '0 B ,, bul foi lie 

gold from the mini - ol Oalil 

I'm. illy, vnw the whole subject as we m iy, 
twist and turn it m ,i,|, miinne *,/ 

""' 'till the "hand of Almighty God " is 
plainly visible, mid in the not far distant 
future, when the region I havi desorib 
hive become a mighty empire, the Bl 
California attained to a population ol ten 
million people, this fair city, the largest and 
proudest in all the world, stretching over the 
peninsula as far as San, Jose, the uupredju- 
diced historian of that period will sum the 
whole matter impartially up, and then will the 
whole subject be viewed iu its true light, th. 
merits of the noble-hearted Pioneers recog- 
nized, the mission of the '1'Jers fully appre- 
ciated, ami then- aaored memory be revered 
throughout all coming generations. 


rmnoii Ki . ,, ..,■ .m lie., 

Saving just returned from repeated trips among 
what I term the absoluto resources of California, 
inv mm. I la more than ever impressed with the Idea 
that water will always occupy a predominant posi- 
tion. Any movement or action that shall tend to 
tho irrigation of lands, uow almost worthless, and 
give impetus to our vino and fruit culture, and to 
the lands a value of from oue to three hundred per 
acre, should be encouraged, and adding, thereby, 
to our future wealth us a State. The ahove has 
been called forth from several projects now in prog- 
rens of development. 

Not only is the irrigation of lauds attracting the 
attention of capitalists, hut equally that of pro- 
viding our rapidly growing cities with pure moun- 
tain water for all domestic purposes. Some of 
these projects have a combinative purpose, while 
those who provide our ciite« with pure mountain 
water are necessarily distinct, aa theii water should 
be of tho purest quality of granite strainer] waters, 
while the water for irrigation, carrying alluvial 
silt in suspension, can be taken from the several 
streams that seem to have been provided by an 
All-wise Providence for the especial purposes for 
whioh we deem them intended. Wo havo become 
acquainted with several of these projects, ranging 
from Pitt river to Merced; but tho most notable 
are those now in aotive progress, with capital bc- 
thetn, to render them an almost assured success. 
Among the prominent ones under consideration, is 
to provide the foot-hills of Butte county with 
water for irrigation and other purposes, which will 
make that county equal to the vineyards of Bor- 
deaux, France. Another to furnish Stockton, 
Oakland, San Jose and other cities with the largest 
amount of pure granite Btraioed water that can he 
obtained on this coast. As progressive movement 
is being made with the latter, wo will deal with 
that first, 

Some lime since, a Water Commission was or- 
ganized by legislative action to inspect the different 
sources that might provide a sufficient supply of 
pure water for the City of San Francisco, the water- 
sheds of the Spring Valley Water Company having 
proved scarcely adequate f,,, even tho present sup- 
ply of this rapidly growing city in dry sen 
is remarkable, that while every other system ,,| 
water eupply was canvassed, the Tuolumne river, 
furnishing a supply as below indicated (owned by 
Mr. J. G. Divoll and Mr. Wm. O. Long, who have 
expended twenty to twenty-live thousand doll ira in 
improvements of their rights) and being the nearest 
available mpply, should have been overlooked, and 
not reported upon or examined by the Water Com- 
missioners appointed by the State. 

It is probable that their attention was not called 
to the fact, and they were ignorant of the further 
fool that the immense water-sheds, of 728 iquare 
miles, in an entirely granitic formation, consisted 
of a series of lakes underlying the " glaciers' lying 
westerlyand northwesterly of Mounts Dana, Parker, 
and Whitney, and northerly of tho Yo Somite domes, 
which wore an everlasting fountain, from which 
pure, fresh water would flow, as long as time lasts. 
It is a palpable fact that they did not enter into the 
consideration of the Commissioners, else they would 
not havo arrived at tho conclusion that no real 
amount of cloar water, amounting to a continuous 
flow per diem, could compete with tho 13,000,000 or 
16,000,000 gallons per day, (supposed m l)G the 
extreme flow of the Spring Valley Company I. WU 
available within tho power of the city to obtain, for 
tho consideration asked, far the above hunted sup- 

Tho facts aro, that a reconnaissance made by J. P. 
Dart, Civil Engineer, [Mr, Divoll'fl engineer), on 
the dryeat day of the year 1882, proved the amount 
of flow at Armstrong's Hi idge, the of tin ditch 
un. 1 pipe ..1 the Tuolumne, Stockton, and Oakland 

vv 1 r.iiii|,.niv. in i„, Bl, 888,800 gallons eaoh 'i 

hours by tin 1 1 1 .1 supply alone, Iu strange contrast 
with the Spring Valley Water Ooiupiinv. [n ad 
itn ui to the above, om Ol the many available laki I, 
under their water-shod, Laki Elinoi by a raised dam 
of 38 fool at the outlet— tho lako boing from one 
un, I one-half to one and ihroo-fourths miles in 
uugth, with ono-half to throo-fourtliB of amllool 

width, with a maximum depth of 300 feet— would 

Withhold an amount of pure water, at an elovation 

of 4,80" feet, equal to 6,902,608,713 gallons, or 

61,000,000 gallons daily flow, for 108 days 

ing the extreme droughl of am. season 

added to the main flow In the dryesl day, would 

100,000 gallons each 

dayol out dryesl rear. The amount of reserve 

-iniiated, viz.: 01,01)11,000 per day, for 108 

■ ■ -m,i it. d io the englni ■ t-in obit I Mr. J, 

P. Dart, as about One-tenth Of the actual | 

11 I. with its numerous lakes 
controlled by the abov. loklng at theso 

facts, it will seem strange to those interest! .1 In the 
pure water supply of California, that these facts 
should have been so long withheld, rjnl when we 

B *P I iDBider the vail amount of brain labor 

and work that must be brought to hear to bring 
into line, and utilize, by capital, these vast " re- 

we m -v bi able to overlook till 
Bighted policy that has hitherto ruled. ai,.i rather 
congratulate ourselves that at last a syBtem or cap- 

y " broad-gnage" men, will 
to open up these water reserves to our rapidly-in- 
immigration. All the rivers first indicated 
in this article, are susceptible of utilization for 
viniculture! or fruit purposes, and the thousands 
of acres now unutilized will yet h, able, with even 
the soiled waters of the rivers, to stand m and In. 
dividiiallv make a mark as strong as any province 
of France has ever made m (he vine and fruil in- 
let eat. 

The condition of the waters so complained of by 
the farmers, will, iu the future, become an element 
of wealth upon the immi Dse uuountof now unutil- 
ized adobe, or volcanic sml, with winch our north- 
ern foothills an- en re, I It 1, even a question with 

thi writer whether the aoreage of the now unutil- 
ized lands, with a judicious distribution of the 
muddied waters spoken of, carrying, perhaps, 
three-eights per cent, of alluvial silt (in suspension) 
will not, in the near future, challenge the wheat- 
growing interest of the valley in acreage; because 
those muddied waters, carrying the vitalizing 
mountain drift, will ever be, and becom 
strengthening element of the aforesaid adobe and 
volcanic soils which now lie uselessly upon our 
foot-hills, especially in our northern counties, 
where the semi-tropical fruits grow abundantly, 
when sufficient moisture is properly applied. 
great question, and in the near future we 
ma j hope to see the vast amount of land, now 
comparatively idle, produce the choicest fro 
every kind, which, before the expiration of this 
year, can be canned in glass with perfection and 

Our, wine, our vinioultural interests, are but In 
their Infancy. Our horticultural and other inter- 
, ipidly advancing. I may boldly assert 
Ih il in ten years, with " broad-gnage" men at the 
fore, our vinicnltural acreage will exceed our 
wheat fields. Who will then speak of thi 1. - 
sources" of California in derision' I fear to 
lengthen this article, but will come again with 
facts. Poo. 


A writ. 1 in 11 in commenting ed- 

itorially on thi above heading, in n recent ar- 
ticle, very jnstlj B 1 

California has all the grains, except rice, 
whether th. v tn grown in the north or south. 
The wheat of 1 \ pt is improved by 

our soil und climate, Our lawns are filled with 
plants and trees brought from innumerable lo- 
calities. We have lilac, snowball, labornam, 
mid spin ni from Northern Europe, ericas and 
tncomas from Southern Africa magnolias and 
rhodendrous from the Carolinas; camelias 
and azaleas from Japan, dracamas from the 
Bandwioh Islands; palms and oistus from the 
East Indies; eucalyptus and other plants an 

in Australia, while other regions have 
been equally generous in their vegetable gifts. 
All the trees, grains, flowers and fruits thut 
have been brought us, whether from the north, 
south, east, or west, have nt onco, und as if at 
home, Uiken root in our fertile fields and gar- 
dens, aud readied out affectionately leaf, 
blade, Bpire, or tendril, to bathe iu our sun 
shine and breathe our balmy air 1 very! 

planted has grown ,j kly and produced lav- 
ishly fifty, 11 huu, Ire, I, and even a thousand 

fold, repaying liberally the superintendence oi 
man, and the ti ndi r oare of natui a. 

LAND 1 11. 

Though Italy possesses 57,000,000 acres of 

onltnrable land, equal to the whole of Great 

. and hi- Onlj D, ,000 Of inhabitants 

dependenl on agriculture alone, 3,000,000 of 
theso are laborers, who are wrotchedly poor, 
earning in many plaoeBloss than a ihill'ng a 

day, and in. while reOOiving more than I 

11,, \ have no cottages, bul herd Id thi small 

towns, die rapidly of diseases produced i..\ bad 

living, and are a permanent daugei t,, II,. well 
being of tho country. 






Tho Oslifornil Dew tnber 28tb, thua 

speaks of the value of Ihfl walnut OTOp n. tblfl 

A few weeks since we callttl attention to the Cal- 
ifornia almond crop, and thia week iri touot upon 
,,„. jubjeol ol H,.- English walnutB of California, 
ffhiofa already oooupj quite a promlnenl place 
among our Stato produotlooB. We are Indi bti d to 
Mr. Meade, of Hie III in nl Geo. W. Meade i Oo., "I 
,| 11H ,.,, v . f, , r m.nii.' ml' r« slii'K f'n In mul sliillhtics 

in regard to thia ant, II la bul a tm feara since 
timt thia coaal d( pi tided prlnoipallj upon Obili for 
its walnut supply; bul al the present timeaofaal 
hi* the production of tbe walnul increased In this 
State, Ibatbeiidoa supplying our entire coaal and 
territorial trade, wo have become large exj 
tbe Eastern citiea, where our heft walnuts are 
being received with universal favor, ranking ahead 
oi all imported nuts, with the Bingle i boi ption per- 
haps of tii" Naples, and our Boft-ahi 11 nalnul rank- 
ially with thai variety. The total orop ol 
this year is estimated by Mr. Meade to approximate 
650,000 pounds, as nearly as can l>e ascertained* 
ilvidi '1 among the following counties: Loh Lngeli s' 
400.000 pounds; San Bernardino. 100,000 poundB, 
Santa Barbara and Ventura, 150,000 pounds; total, 
650,000 pounds. Of this quantity it is estimated 
that not less than 400,000 pounds ban 
marketed East, at an average price here 
and one-balf cents per pound. Out of this pi Ice il 
is believed that tho producer has realized from 
seven and one-half to] eight cents per pound, at 
which figures a haudsome margin is visible, es- 
pecially so when wo take into consideration thai 
the walnut growersiof Chili on an average do not 
realize much if anything over two to two and one- 
half cents per pound net for then production. 
While the production of this nut is chiefly eon- 
fined to tbe counties above named it is being yearly 
demonstrated that many sections of the Btate 
hitherto considered unfit for nut growing are 
equally as well adapted to the production of both 
the almond and walnut as in those sections where 
it is no longer an experiment. The walnut which 
heretofore has had tho best reputation is grown at 
Los Nietos. in Los Angeles connty, though some of 
the Santa Barbara and Ventura nuts this year are 
equally as good. Those known'as Los Angeles City 
and San Gabriel Mission walnuts, from the racl Ol 
their running uneven in quality and brightness, 
and being poorly filled, do not meet with ITavor by 
the trade; but, as new orchards are coming into 
bearing, we may look in a few years for an improve- 
ment in this respect. With the whole couutry for 
a market, and an unlimited field in our 8tate for 
their production, we look forward to the time when 
our walnut", like our almonds and raisins, will 
drive out all foreign importations. That am b a 
time is not very far off any intelligent observer 
will admit who notes the gigantic strides our State 
is now making. 


A man of family, that is, a man who is worthy of 
bavins In bia keeping the rearing of a family, who 
la anxious to draw around bimtbe practical bless- 
inga thai enable men to fully enjoy tho contont- 
meutsof a home, can Uud no better plaoetooast 
tho anchor of bis hopes than here in Fresno 
oounty. [Tore he will ttnd I Bell In the neigh- 
borhood of Bohools In which his children can 
acquire all the learning necceBSary 10 the require- 
ments of ii good business education, and employ- 
i for them to learn the swtet mde- 
pendenee of honest toll. Any man who la willing 
and able to work can obtain a colony lot upou such 
terms as will enable him to pay for it out of tho 
proceeds ol the twenty acres in whiofa he invests— 
for Bimply nothing but his labor. So sure are tho 
first owners of these colonies that men can make 
money out of them In grape and fruit culture, 
that some of them uotonly sell without receiving a 
cent down. but. in some instances known to us. 
carry the purchasers of their twonty-aore lots until 
such time as a return come* to the purchaser either 
in a grape or fruit crop; the only requisite being 
that he Bpend his tune in earnestly briuging his lot 
ood cultivation. Tho cannery would have 
given work to a hundred boys and girls more than 
presented thomsolves last year, and its capacity 
will be doubled next year. The work iu fruit pre 
Berving establishments averages about five months 
of each year, and good wages are paid for boys and 
girls as well as men. The canals and ranches also 
employ more or less help. A man who can and 
will work can free himself from debt at the end of 
the fourth yeai, and be in possession of a tract of 
land that will produce an annual income of from 
$2,000 to $4,000. Of course, a man can do much 
better if he has a few hundred dollars to start 
with; bul the thing lias been done and can bo done 
again as above staled. Almost any legitimate busi- 
ness undertaking will bo successful here if adapted 
to the wants of the county. Wo can safely say 
that Fresno county presents to the man of mode- 
rate means and to the laboring man more induce- 
ments Io come and found a home of his own than 
any other portiou ol tbe coast.—/"' i 


DISTILLERY, ,_ .... _. __ 

( Branch of Ncrw V ork), 


816 and 818 



Near St Helena, Napa Comity, California. 


Brands of Eed and 
White Wines. 


Burgundy, Bordeaux and 
Rhine Wines. 

Orders Received and 
Promptly Attended to by 




We have been at considerable pains to gather the 
figures of the raisin export of the Sunt., Ann valley 
during the season'ju»t closed, and find thai 
and steamer Miipments I. 

24,886 boxes. It is probable that some (■ 
remain foi Bhipment, and the total would I 
what we Baid it would he early in thi 
000 boxes. In 1881 we marketed ahonl 10,000 
boxes, the product being excellent. Muoh ol lb 
crop was BbSpped dlreotly East, aa baa been the 
case with the present crop. The plokin 
and packing is done much better every year, mors 
care and attention being niv' a, and this I 
us a good reputation abroad. In tfnv 
equal the best product of the Mai 
even if are do nol do II now. We have tbe soil and 

climate, and the prospeol is g I for tWa Industry 

to assume huge proportions in our favored Santa 
Anavalhv. V>. need nevor fear that tho market 
can be glutted. The trouble will I"- thai the de 
mand will always exceed tho supply.— Santa - 1 "" 


In the y< si i 8 (here will ho fom eollpses; two 

of tbeann. and tWO "I thl DJOOD, 

I. A slight partial eollpae "f the moon, April 22; 
only one dlgtl beln inywhew. Tbia 
eclipse will be visible tothi 

Aria, Australia, and 

II. a total soli] I *« sun Uaj 6, risible 

. to the Bouth i 

Hi. a pari ' i m Ootohei lltn 

and 16th. Vleiblfl to North tod Bi uth America, 
lin ,i , ,,, porilona ol Europe and 

To Ihose living i" thia locality, thi cc 

w ,ii commence si I one 0*0101 It on the morning 

of Ootobei I6th. 

iv. An ai I ■ " '"'"'' "' 


ml I o'olookp.«.,tbo 

».,.. setting ati .tofgroal B I Uol,p . ,0 ; i 

TbePaolfio BJA] IU B«» s, flaw ol ' "" 

above eollpses. 

Farm prospects were never more favorable in 
this section at this season of tbe year. Grain is 
growing finely. The cold snap was of great benefit 
to it, as it gave it by the set-hack a heavier root 
and prevented the tops from growing too fast and 
rank. We have had for the season nearly 11 inches 
of rain, and this with the almost constant fogs, 
have kept the ground in splendid condition. The 
weather is now as balmy as spring, and since the 
last warm rains all nature has put on a broad grin. 
The dairy season is unusually promising. Many 
of the daries in Marin county, notwithstanding the 
long spell ol cold weather, are now averanin^ one 
pound of butter a day to tbe cow. Stock of all 
kinds is generally in batter condition than usual 
for this seasou of the year. On the Laguna, in 
Marin county, two or three new hop fields will be 
planted this spring. Mrs. L. W. Wftlkl 1 1- Betting 
out about 20 acres, I. R.Jewell Will add about 20 
acres to bin present field of 15 acres. Charley Mar- 
tin will also put out quite a large field. Mr. Pepper 
and other nurserymen in this seotlon inform us 

that tin- (|, liiiind I'M fruit tn en und vines was never 
so great here as it has been this season. Ol many 
varieties, all the stock suitahle for planting has 
I,,, 11 ml,, 11 limn Mi, nursenes, and they haven't a 
tree on hand. Farmers have made mi re improve- 
ments on their farms the past year than any pre- 
vious vear finct- our settlement. The whole coun- 
try ln-urn (lie iippi-irano- "t thrift ami prosperity, 
and Un general outlook In all this section could not 
well bu more promising. — Petaluma ' 'out U < 


Between Montg rj and Kearny Street*. 

The Leading Market of tbe Paciflc 


GoodH punlia— ■! 111 tin- Market DOed no other recom- 

Tlios. BROWN, Superintendent. 




\\ ', 1 mi sal] attention to tho cheap lands 
on Bouoma mountain. In tbe near future 
some of the best grapes und fruitB will be 
grown in what is known ua the wurm belt on 
that mountain. It in above the fogs and onli- 
,l try frosts, and muoh "f Ihe land ih peouliarly 
adapted for vineyard and orchards The bind 
iH cheap, wail 1 and wood abundant and the 
very beBt, the olimate fine, tho Bcenary can 

not bo Km |>ii id in the Ooast Range, and 

with H lull' 11 >. bucked by praotiaal sense 

and industry, a man can in torn years make 

bimsell indi 1 lenl Land In bbjoII 

od foi 1 116 to (SO p 

ooi Hug i" looatlon *nd Improi ats and 

othei advantagi 1 ttls noai the on 11 1 

i,.aiiiiy l, ,ci.ii and ( Idi nco and fruit 

think poBBOBses b advante ps 

ovi 1 land 1 lowi t down In thi /alloys, ThoBe 

,,, a i,w yoars, will Q Il "" 'i"" 1,1 " '» 

value— PeMuma I 'oui l< 1 

09 " " " f • 

Pacific "Fiflear.dl stol Powder, 

Cordially Invitee thepabli to visit him« v 
Itore, " ere they will »<■•■ the liirge.t ano 
cholcesl atocli »r English and Foreign «pe> 
eloltlei in Woolens r,,, the Spring s.o«on. 
QIts nia caU. 


1 ., i, \, •»• Styles, Prices und a«>»i- 

iiy. ( Ivlllty i" all. N" trouble to «how 
goods. Lightest and Largeet Tailoring t-... 
tabllshmenl on the ooaet. *»u 11, faction 
Kiiiiruiiti'Fil. Store lighted by Electricity, 




: iwn— 

Pants from S 5 00 

Suits from 20 00 

Overcoats from 15 00 

Dress Coats from 20 00 

Genuine Gx Beaver Suits 

from 6000 

Black Doeskin Pants from 7 00 
White Vests rrom 3 00 

Fancy Vests from 6 00 

Euglisli Cords for Hunting Suits 


With Instructions for Self-measurement 

with our Gazette of New Fashions, 

- i : >' X F I* E E . 


Bright <Jlaze, in Iron and Wooden 




FUSE, Etc. 

I Itl.M II" A I. Ill IM I . 

No. 230 California Street, 


ii i,i i.\ NOB, 
A tract of 2,600 sores i» oow bolng roolalmod. In 

H„. vinnil;, "I 'I'vm I v in iln glOOgll, Hull ■>'"«' l'i 1 1, 



thi It opv irtu 

offi pboIi " "" » W« vl "' "■ ";"'" ,!■ 

properly fron 

Dirywigi I i I "',' , ^'"'," 

i ; •"'; i , ," l " ,l ", u , ,; ; 

ll IVhol to tUi WkjMODl pnr ur> 

mo ■■ ufi ■"■■" I »» ,I|; ' ';, '" 

I i PotUsna, Mstoo 

NICOI^I^, Tho Tailor, 

Men's Furnishing Depart- 
ment, . 

Ilaolnvllvsntt lohlsWra ' "•'"; l, i ' n , 1 ; 

I,,.,,,,, mi la the Inrgaat atoofc ol iheniM" 

Baati • •■ '••■ 





NICOLL, The Tailor, 

Ready-made Department, 

hwgo.t00kofM.n%B0ys-.ndi "•• 


Orth.N. W ..tPntl '"".'.TW Cronus 

^r2»h.° Men'" Suits ftoui 18 Boy' »olt* 

, '-;:,r:^' at"; ntiom paid .•• .- 

i, ii" • ">•"" i 

NKOMi, Tlit- Tailor* 


Marls.ot Stroot, 




1 1 


i\ i i.i.i CUR \ i 'ED PRODUCTS OF THE 

r Old I «. 

Santa Anita Vineyard, 

San Gabriel Valley, California. 

Vintage of 1875, 1876, and 1877, 

Will be found very rich and choice. 
Warranted pure and of full body. 


Vintages of 1875 and 1876. 

Tlii^ is a Wine of Superior Qual- 
ity, and such as lias never been 
on the market in any country. 
This article SHOULD NOT be 
classed with the so-called Angel- 
ica Wines of this (oast, but is ol 
a rich, rare flavor and full bod- 
ied, and NO CORDIAL can com- 
pare with it. 


Manufacture of 1875 and 1876, 
Cannot be excelled, having been 
but a few months before the 
Publie, it is meeting with un- 
paralleled favor, to the exclu- 
sion of all other brands. 



Telegraph Institute 



F. R. CLARKE, Principal. 

A Practical Buslni BS Tl ill 

a». i Middle Aged ol i i si 

lag throng it tl 

Imil usual rali s l .■ . i i. i,i 

i i for id. Young 
\. a » • j ■ i 
L'ultlon Is Lobs tnau ono 

I, ,in,l - in pi i- mi. mill. 


Full Business < *■•. Pull Noi ntal < oai ic, 

'ivniiivr. Course, Review Course, 

Academic Cuurso, Special Course*, 

Languages Telegraphy. 

tx., containing rull partli nlars, 
■i hi postpaid A. Lin -- P. II CLARKE, 

Btoi kton, Col 




Org^*=»J-Z ecl 1864;. 

JANUARY 1883. 

Special Cold Medals 








Are Manufactured from the best 
selected grapes, grown upon soil 
peculiarly adapted to fine bran- 
dies, and is always retained in 
private stock until over live 
years of age, and none offered 
for sale at a less age. Guaranteed 
free from foreign spirits or adul- 
terations of any kind, and the 
identity of the brand alw ays pre- 
served, which is a guarantee for 
One quality, flavor, and purity. 

IF* I IF*. IE O 3NT Ij Y . 

No. 406 California Street. San Fran- 

Capital, paid up. Gold, - - - $300,000 00 

Premiums "noe organization, $4,155 239 10 
Losses, Binoe organization, - - $1,859,286 64 
Assets, Jau. 1, 1883, - - - $717,156 63 
Surplus 'or Policy Hol-U-rs. - - 710,860 63 
Reinsurance Keserve, - - - 172,898 50 

Net Surplus Over Everything, - 237,962 13 Lerdo. finished Juno, 1874; Lerdo to Bumuer, fin- 
ished 1875; Bumni r to Oalienti , Qoishi d U 

i.i \i iim, MANAGER A N. TOWNS AM> 

Tho following letters, from a, n. Towns, Gen- 
eral Manager ol the Central and Southern Pacific 
railroads, to the Btat< B Iroad Commis- 
si re, are well worth the lime required I 

"axeful reading by the publii straight- 

forward, boneat, and pi rtini nt; 
Bam Fbahi i 

Honorable Board o) 
Qbmtu in . in regard to the aubji ol refi rred to 
"i the oonstruotion "i rallroadi in the 
California, and the bi m thi r< from, and 

agrei able to pi isi . I desire to nay the testimony 

derived from experience bas led to thi settled eon- 
elusion thai the oonstruotion and opi ration of rail- 
roads oonfer di vi lopmi ol u| on thi 
try nerved by tbuiu. 

I bad supposi .1 this to be bo fully admitted as to 
have passed beyond the realm of controvei 
ago. From vhal was Baid at the last meeting, and 

from the reports of the proceedings of your h r- 

able body, it appears that this common and well- 
established couclusion has been questioned, and 

"I ' 'I' 1" tldt'd lipilll to Hlippill I llll op|.Orl|e 

theory, relati b to the Southern Pa 
ByBti in in the Ban Joaquin valley and (be oountli - 
ngelea and San Bernardino. 
I understand that it is alleged that tho Bouthi i n 
Paciilo system has not promoted the oreation ol 
wealth, or tho settlement of population, or tho 
gem r*l welfare of tho communities named. Bj 
tins position, tin re ii ralsi .1 an issue of fact, wbioh 
haB induced me to Institute b oaii ful rovion of tbe 

evuloncCM upon which thi- settled coiicIuhioiih in 

favor nf railroad building bavi i» en hased. 

The fuels herein presented are from official 
sources. They are i itatlslios, deter- 

minate of conclusions, folly establishing tl 
economic value of railroad construction. 

^..ur attention is most respectfully call. 
to the comparative Btatistio data, and. with your 
kind permission, I will, later no, present In tbe 

most direol ma r al my command, the general 

considerations bearing upon this subject 
Ritllroail •,, ii..... 

The Tulare Valley Railroad, connecting Latbrop 
with Goshen, was constructed during tl 

1870-1. Theeztena a of thai line were madi ae 

folli wi then to Tipton, finished Juni 
Tipton to Delano, finished June. 1878; Delano to 


j. v. iioruiiTOH r isldeni 

J. In N. SBEPABD Vice- President. 

COAS R. STORY Secretary 

R. H. MA GILL Genernl Agent, 

ii P. Snr.rriEDi. J PATrensos. N. W. Sj-adldino 

skill, .i Experts, judges ..I brandies, of nil 
null Ooi lnr> mill s, leiitlsts, ut once pro- 
nounce K. J. BALDWIN'S 

ii.- PUREST and BEST in the noiti.u 

One of Many Testimonials: 

San FBJLBOncO, May 2S, 1881. 

i 1 liALDwix.Eag.— Diur nir: I have great pleas- 
ill n.ut \ ..ur Santa A I 
Brandy, Hi in) opinion, us In tbal ol man) "i my 

,,,,1 ,,,], ,| in Uoqin l. Uavi I mil | 
any bra., I and, 1 aoubl from the 

I , tin .. lei tioi 
mi I Hi. iin ployed in ri 

. I one yon 
ill || l.i. ,1 
u Id boat i "i sin I. a Dm 
■ lion. 

I mn, mi s triii-. , yours. 
(BlKntd.) A.J BOWIE, M. D 

For ll..t or < old Punches 
BBANDl ■ unnol be equal 
pnrpoaea II I. ahead ■. 
> l. i.i...... ..-.. 

ful, and no li.n.iinl.r. ... 

... . i. ...... I by lt» u««- 

brandy la made in u m 
manubKiuri-ii •■■p<-< > . n> 

by a llr.t hernial, » 

Impni ltii-i iimi ,i U >— i 
brandy wundi i fully, In u 

. •■ 


; A 

. .....i.i 


oil., i ; 

is u 

.....1 1... 


.1 • 

Seoul « 


1 1, 

I , ,i. i.. 



em ••• till, 

r .11 

.. Bald 


I7and 19 Fremont street. 



Planing Knives, Currier Knives. Saw 

Mandrels, and Saws of Every 

Description Made to Order. 


Foraair hy all let/ling Druggists, Minor Merchants, 

,11,., ting Ii ii- rs 

B. J. BALDWIN :i7 Bills si...i 

I I., ll.ililo "'• I. 

SAN PUANI isi o. 

Queen City market. 


Al-mi mi minim OK 

Choicest Easter 
Foreign B 




..r all KIikU 


1164 11^8 Market St., and 6-8 Taylor St., 

i '.iii. iii. to lebaobepi, Bnlshi .1 June 1876; Tebaob- 
epl to Mojave, finished July, 1876; Mojavi to Ban 
Fernaudo, finished Bi ph mbi r, 1876; Sun Fernando 
to Spadra, finished April, 1871; Bpadra to Ban Oor- 
gonio, finished October, 187 [Onio to 
IiiiIi.i, flnished June 1870; Indlo to Vuma. 
June, 1877; from Got-lun north i" Han ford fln- 
ished December 187G; from Batifonl to Huron, fln- 
ished January. 1877; Loa xngelea Bystem i - 

in cti (I Willi Hi. S.n i I 

5,1870; road completed to the Colorado rivei iu 
1877; Yuma to El Paso opened up totrsffioMay, 
1881, and to Now Orleai 

From the foregoing, it will be seen that I 
geles was connected with Baa Franoisoo September 
5, 187C. Through communication between the 
run.-, .if San Francisco and Los Angeles, therefore, 
had been establish .1 bul sis years. Eastward connec- 
tions, via the A. T. & s. r. v.. i: , affording outlets 
f..i the products ol Loh Angelas ami Sam Francisi-n 

tablished to Deminsr, March, 1881; to BI 
Paso with tin Ti i '■ 6 Paolflo, J knuary 1. 1882. 
and to the Gulf of Mexico February 1, 1883. 
it ...lit to Products. 

Fruui the lime ol tl mpletion of the road t.> 

Yuma, the staple products of Bouthern California 
... i. . aported to Arizona, and, with tbe fin 
tension "t" the road to Tucson and thi 
hue, these produota flndlng market 
Win ii tho Junction with the Atohlnsou, Topeka, & 
8antn Fe Euilroad was i HI cti d, n still broader area 
was • ' i >• in .i mi i" the Bemi tropioal produota of the 
southern portion ol this State, Tbe differences ol 
production between different parts of the earth 
constitute- tho basis of commercial exchange be- 
tween them, The f run.-, and garden truok of Los 

Angeles ripen earlier In the bi b i Uian tl 

produota In the region lying east ol thi Bierra Ne- 
vada range, and oortb ol thi 85tb parallel. 

In illustraiiou: potatoes, tomatoes, greei 
iimi other garden vegetables are obtainable in Los 
Angeles as early as April, while theao art) 

f I oannot be obtained lb of llie 85th parallel 

bi fori May, and In -mi further northern latitudes 
not bofore June and July, The rate of transpoi lo- 
tion betwi en Bouthei a I lalifornin and the 
(restern Blates affords a profitable margin foi the 
exportation ol garden vegetables, while 83 
of the people ol the Dniti d In lotl- 

tadi i whi re the tropioal aud icml tropioal produota 
.if Southern California oannol be grown. 

This fact will oonfei upon Bouthern California 
permanent and ready market foi her produota. 

in e pletion of the railroad Hi 

i,, otlnp, He southern pai I "i oni Bute with thi 

Blatei and Ti rrltorli i m mi d II 

a limited ox tent, the i luotlon ol frull and wine, 

in thi oounl il Loa in oloa and Ban D rnardlno, 

but tho completion ot the lailmaili in QUI 

Colllerr.'ll lipilll t hut Ki elloli ft | „ , ,|, |„ | ,|„ i nilr | lt , t f,, r 

iu, ol.. r, through the porl of Wilmingto 
i""l all dairy, ardi □ produi 

bd in Impetus to tbeie industries, whiob bai 

i onf< rn d wi altfa a] Iial pai I ol tl i 

1 iase ol Taxable Propoi I] 

Thai this is bo \b further emphasized i.y the In- 
rtj during tho past ti □ 
In 1870 the tax roll ol L 

tbe aggregate taxable property to be |6,01 07< [n 
II lor ii. .it count] liowi d tbi 
iblo propei tj I 
|Q pi i cent. In The official 

iw thai il. largi i pi i o nt.of tblsii 
should be oredih d to tl 

■ iim .1 by ,i comparison of tho 
lax roll i-i 1870 with tli tl ol 1882 as relates to Ban 
lino county, I ■ Hows: 

i 103,189 

Being a gain ol per ci ol , and us in tho 

former case, over 00 1 1 

oredih .1 to the period whioh 

oompli lion ol tbi rail Nor is the of- 

Ibil Ii is Batlsfactorj as relati i to tl i 
Hi b In • - mi valley. Ban .Joaquin 

oounty, the wealthiest) and most populous of ihe 

Ban Joaquin vallej inties, contaim d but 57,880,- 

•li of taxable property in 1870, while the tax 

roll or 1882 shows 828 114,756 within that oounty. 

Like comparisons instituted relating to tho other 

conntiesof the San Joaquin valley show like re- 

itings . f the tax roll 

for Stanislaus county in 1880 showed S3, i 

being a 
I over 300 per o< 
Tho same results are obtained by a comparison of 
the value of the taxable propert] 
years 1870 and 1882 in tbe counties of Han Bernar- 
dino, Merced, Fresno, Tulare, and Kern; and for 
your In tn r information the following tabular state- 
ment, obtained from the i fficeof the Comptroller of 
ii - table includes the taxable 
property in the counties mentioned for the yearB 
I860, 1870 and I 

I ! 

Stanislaui ' I 


11,377,891 191 ' 

One Bnndred Millions ol Value Created. 

cable properly in Los Angeles, San 
Bi rnardino, San Joaquin, nisluus, 

1 Tulare and Keru counties, in 1860 

millions less 

than tbe taxable property of Los Angeles county 


Iu other words, Los Angeles county to-day has 50 

propi rly than the entire 

Ban Joaquin valli j including San Joaquin county 

l San Bernardino counllesj. 

Ii id in the > • ar I860. 

The ag( ol these counties 

in 1870 amount 11, while tbe present 

iMe property in the 

intiei foots up S91.0I0.591, an mcioase of 

ovei 300 per cent. These counties, therefore, have 

ijnco 1870 S60 332,700, the increaa 
about doublo tho amount ol the aggregatd ts 
property for 1870. 

That this i norm. .'1- kith, Ibis gTttt- 

ifying evidenoe ol prospi rity is due to the mil nonce 
..I railroad oonstruotion, is fully i Btablished by the 
well-known attendant I olj outlets for 

tho products of the San Joaquin valley prior to the 
building of railroads nan by way of the San Joa- 
quin river to San Franoitco. That river could not 
be profitably navigated beyond Firebangh's Farry. 
the City of Stocktou was prsotioally the 
head of navigation upon that watercourse. But 
tbli ihmi nt of railroad communication 
ohanged tho character of tho industries of the 
country from a region devote, l to grazing I" the 
profitable pursuits of agriculture and vinloullure. 

The statistics of tl inty ol Kern present no 

record of taxable property iu the year 18G0. In tho 
year 1870 the aggaegate value of taxable property 
in ti.i' oonnly.'amonnl 

the sum of 15,131,001, 
an Inon use of 250 per 

Pn iwing m ide bj all the counties 

In tho BanJoaq valloy in a single footing, the 

ropi i ty, from 1870 I 

In tho Ban Joaquin 
valloy 6,1 res ol land ad ipl 

Ini ill pin poses. Thi "I this land, 

prioi lo Hi" rallroa I building, could nol bi 
, , , ,i ,i ■ :, , , i ton vl tbal valuation, tin i 

gale val t tho land would 

tvorage value ol the laud i 

acre, oi I t duatl I about 1130,000,- 

i i ootlon of raih 


rtboiil one bundri ,i million d ill 
Chal tie bo valui - have boon ooufbrn .i bj the oon- 

paronl whon II I o m ilderod tbal dlvi st" d of such 
railroad communication they would al onoe n torn 

I 2 




to tlielr former valuation. These ■ If eiflo facts con- 
stitute a itrODg BhOWlog i" I'vor of niilroada, but 

they are reinforced bj other and higher consldera- 

Uoosi Ihi il 'i ind Intelli olual rah I qnlok 

Qommarjloatiorj wltu the great oentei -i soolal and 
Intelli olual i»if. and 1 1 1 • < genoral oonvenl i 
comfort ol railroad oommunloation with all parte 
,,i ni< oountrj oan ool be over-( atlmated. The 
cost of the lappllei for the people ol the Ban 
Joaquin valley baa been groatlj reduoed. The in- 
crease of produol Btnoa tho oonstruotlOD of rail- 
roads ban been m rj marltod. The population ol 

the Ban Joaquin valley has bo ion ased bj ovi r 

16,000 people, more than 16,000 buildln 
been ereoted, rillagoa and towns have sprung up 
along tli<- line ol the ros i Bud genorallj the 
wealth has been onhanoed and population greatly 

It sh'tuid be, and Is, no doubt, well Known to 
you thai fresh fruits, grown In tho Ban Joaquin 
valley, and in the oountiea ol Los Angeles and San 
Bernardino, are Hln|i|H'd i(. the ol ties "I tl 
and sold at a rate but little, ii any, In i soi ib ol the 
market price obtained for them in the Oltiea of 
San Francisco and 8ncrani<'tiin. 

Early garden Btufl la transported from the Oily of 
Los Angeles to KaDsas City, St. Louis ami I 
and sold in the markets ol those eilies al a rate 
scarcely in excess of the retail price for the same 
commodities in Los Angeli a Itself. The green fruit 
shipments from the Baoramento and Ban Joaquin 
valleys show a constantly augumenti d tonnage, aud 
an unlimited marked Is found for tbi m In »i Izooa, 
New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, as well as in the 
States and Territories further east. Orohai 
den ami dairy prodoots require qulok as Wl II Bfl 
cheap transportation, ami this requirement oan be 
met by no other agency than the railroads. 

Tho construction of railroads, then, has oonf erred 
upon the sections of country, under oonstd 
unlimited market-* for all the products to which 
they have given cheap and rapid transportation, 
and have placed the population- ,,: these sections 
in cheap and quick communication with all parts of 
the world. 

In all this they have conferred benefit* nlndi ■-•■'■ 
not in- estimated. R Bpeotfully, yours, 

A. N To IB, Q neral Manager. 
Manager Towne's Second Letter, 

San Fbjwi bi o, February 7, 1883. 
Honorable Hoard o] Railroad I o 
Gentlf.mi u>! BInee our coinmunioation to you ol 
day belore yesterday BOme things have occurred to 
us which we beR you will permit us to preseut in 

In the administration of your high office there 
are many things to be considered. 

However zealous you may be to arrive at an 
early decision, your zeal should be well-informed 
and enlightened. The gravity of the Bitualion 
obliges me to appeal to you for justice. You are 
the judges, jury and executioners. And lam sure 
we are uot deceived in our faith thai yon will do 
nothing that will harm our prop* rties, We will di 
maud nothing which will not be In full aocord with 
the rights guaranteed liy the Constitution. Tui I it 
as fixed by our Company an- thi " mils ol muoh 
labor, after serious consideration, and a thorough 
conviction that no higher rate Wa- 
necessary to meet the requir.m, ntsoi tin- < 'oin|i,ui\ 

These proposition- are not inspired bv p 
interest. The writer has no property i i >-; ' ' ! 
of these railroad corporations. H>- la here lode- 
velop the interests of the country, and to bring 
about fair returns upon the property be i 
And the welfare of tho country through whlob the 
roads rnn, will, in the future, as in the paMt, alike 

with their owners, have (all islderatlon. 

As a proof of tin-, look .u the Internal pi 

. lit of the roads, all Indus- 
tries are encouraged, and pi 

precedent. The measures adopted DJ 

m their policy, and tho results achieved, must !»■ 
obvious t" > •■■ ry eandld mind, and it oan hardly be 
denied that the ends sought have been attained 
I-ti to meet necessary expenses, ibl requirements 
Qi neral Qovi rnment, nndei the " Thurman 
Act." a small Interesl on thi capital employed, and 

2d to reduce the rates, from time to ti by our 

own volition. 
This we have d from Ihe high maximum 

.,||,„v,,l I,-, l.,,v, to II,, , IV . rag.- of two ami »!■(.. n 

bnndredthi 2.16 oenta per ton pei mile on freight, 
and i and il&uundredtba [8.00 w nts pei mile 

foi H" wholi ■ t< "i. foi thi >• ai ol 

1881. i- nl thai 'i "in i"' i" lo« 

these figures for 18M. 

Wi- would a i. i landld oonslderatlon lo t 

oi thoio rates, with the ratoa oharged 

b« ii,, roadi ol '■' '■■■ Boulh Wales, as pei their laal 

(1880) which are foui and tlxt] foui bund 

pi i ton pei i on fi 

M. an doublo thai ohargi d bj the Oontral Pa- 

. . . i |i i ied i"" and bul fortj foui bund 

ii LOO - - nl i Ifl Ii 

i I,.,, thi poopli ol California. Whal 
i„ ,i. , ,,. i, nil,, i i ii i ol tho wisdom 

,,i ,i„ polios i ''""'i Al "' " l1,11 l "' 11 '' 

ill i ''■ o m i"' on, rod 


i hi ■(.„.. i. ..i >■• » ■oatli Wales, 
glting imarly 1,000 mil, h, am own- ,1 bj thi 

people, and operated for their benefit, and from 
whii-ii they receive nothing In return bul Iheserv- 
loe performed In the transportation of passengers 
and properly. While, on the hand, the Oen- 
tral Paolfio Railroad Company la required bylaw to 
oarry, fret ol oharge, (overcortain seotionH of it. 
In,,-;, officers In Oharge of convicts, and lunatics, 
Intended for exhibition at the State Fairs 
,(,.,, to. It noi only performs a service equally as 
valuables* the roads ol Wow South Wales, but It 
pays baos to the Slate a large amount of monoy, iu 
the waj of taxes, barbor dues, eto. The amount 
paid by the Central Pacific Bsilroad and leased 
llDOB for tolls (upon Its own roperty), and harbor 
dnei for the year L881, was 843,000. The total 
amount of assessment or taxes was nearly $700,000 
for the state of California, to which must bo added 
tho amount disbursed fo labor, fuel, material, and 
supplies, a very largo amount of which finds its way 
back to the people of California, and which would 
probably equal the amount received for the entire 
Ben loe within the Stale. 

If wo do not possess your full confidence, we in- 
vite you to make a Bearobing inquiry into these af- 
fairs, in support of what we tell you, and yon will. 
as I,. moral, I. gentlemen, admit that our position is 
not only tenable, bul thai it and our acts are just 
to all. During the i ffioial term of your immediate 
predecessors, we made many most important re- 
duotlona In our rates, (substantiated by their re- 
ports), which are not seemingly fully understood 
or appreciated. We call your special attention to 
these matters, and would urge upon you the fact 
t tint w, have placed to the credit of tho farmers of 
this State many millions of dollars by cheapening 
rates from their farms to the consumers of their 
breadstuff* in Europe, all of which are matters of 

re ,1 with the Chamber of Commerce and Board 

of Trade, in tins oily. 

Further, wo have done very much to develop and 
enriob the State, which was referred to at length in 
my oommunloation day before yesterday. 

■i ii predecessors were absolved from further 
reductions, in Ihe eyes of fair-minded men, by the 
great reductions made by our Company, during 
their term of office, and, should the four yeare of 
the future be as prosperous and encouraging as the 
put, we pi online corresponding concessions in our 
rat, B. But, With a dry year in prospect, and all the 
attendant oirourostances, the Company cannot, in 

JUS • to itself, at tins time, further reduce its 

ad, in making this appeal to your honorable 
Board, wo do so in full that you, in your 
wisdom, will do even-handed justice to this prop- 
erty, ami , ven tie, null it be thi property of a cor- 
poration. To adjust the rates fairly alike to the 
roads ami the people, as best to be home, and to 
develop thi business of the roads, is no easy task. 
Blnoe the road was completed, di srly fourteen years 

ago, this work of reduol has been constant, and 

it bos demonstrated, to men ol < xpei lence, the Im- 
possibility of an equitable and fair adjustment of 
a tariff, without n thorough knowledge of matters 
entering into and forming important factors relat- 
ing thereto. I r< Bpeotfullj commend to your atten- 
tion tho able disonssiori and testimony of Messrs. 
Adams, Fink, Blauohard, and Atkinson, whose 
opinions, bj reason of the profound study given 
tin- Intricate aubji ot, should bsve the highest value. 
Shall the life Btudj of those men of acknowledged 

ability 1 ntweighed in ii" balance by the few 

days' eonaideration you gen til men have given this 

Are our rates such that thoughtful men contem- 
plate them with deep concern as a menace to the 
welfare of the 8late? 

Is there muoh poverty and suffering? 

In what din ,-lioii Is the ,|, velopmeiit of the State 
i [ed? 

in what difficulties is the oountrj involved, from 
wbloh y,,u are called upon (o extricate it in suoh 

Btate In a perilous condition? I- there any 

Ion of business? [a not the reverse the faet'r 

from all parb) of this State, assurances of a high 

state of prosperity are given. 

There Is Profitable Employment 

I oi ail who are willing lo work. Wages for all 
labor, both abllled and unskilled, are higher than 
foi suoh employments eael ,,i the Rooky ofount- 
iims. As an evident* ,,i tins general prosperity,] 
refei to the ooin roaervos, belonging to the people, 

ami ,I,-| in ,i in the banka ,,t the state. 

in, January I, 1888, there waa Btandlng to the 
on ,iit oi ,i,p, ,i,ii,,i „. in Mi,, gavlngs banl 

155,000,000, and In tli in iroial banks, July 1, 

L882, over |85 000,000 an aggregate ol 100,000,000. 

This sum is sulli-ieiii, with Mi,, present compara- 
tively low prlOOH ol material and labor, lo more 

tiian duplloate ail Mm miie H of road operated by this 

Company dining the \eur 1882, excluding portions 

,,i the heavy work on the mountain sootlons. 
Your attention is also oallod to the balanoi In i 

0| n., , inning,, and oipc -h of 1882, HOW before 

ron i llvldi uda di i larod, II applied 
to ti apitai omi loyod, oi the Oi ntral Pao 

..ii, „, would amount tO but ii 

fi ,, Hon ovi i two pi i cent, No I [hifnl oi roa- 

lOnablO man will sav thai Is too mueli. Any ., I- 

duotloni in ratea will di oi larll) bring, thla turplua 
down, and |oopardlxu our ability l d lutoresl 

„„,| ,,Mi, 'i , ipOnSOS, Home ,,l Me B0 TOOdS alremly 

built wero constructed, at tho price of many efforts, 
across a country where them was no pathway 

marked out. Thoy were built far In adi in. nt. i at mam gn al saorlfloes, 1 hi j have 

all been roironed, and many ol them relald with 

Bteel, having worn oiil. in main : 

two sots of iron rails, ii" j have all bi bh n laid 
witt, ties for a Beoood or third time. And ri I wo 

have but it spars,- population tO suppoit them, IS 
compared with roads of the Fast. 

In view of these coii i orations, I would further 
appeal to you for justice ami protection. 

Some of the measures you are proposing would 

operate as restraining orders ami forOO 118 tO build 

up barriers, high and wido, to protect a property 

that has done mo mU0h to make llus great common 
wealth rich and prosperous. 

Respectfully yours, 

A. N. Townii, Oonerai Manager. 


Last week, 111 speaking of the inareuso ol 

population that has taken place in this tnty 

during the last two years, we put the number 
nt 500 persons among the DgrioultnraliaU. 
This is a very low , itimate Chi In 
vote of this county, aH Bhown b\ I 
isters of 1880 and 1882, is 188. Tins increased 
citizenship wan not shown m thi rote i ibI In 
Wat8onville and Santa Cruz, ond mosl repre- 
sent at least 2,00n people, as thi n is, on an 

average, hut one voter to live and a ball per 
sons. The increased population of thi last 
two yeors, estimated ut J. 1 largely 

on the farm, in the vineyai l and setting out 
trees. Their presence in the bills is what bus 
set men to grubbing oat roots, plowing bleep 
side-hills, erecting cotl looting spring 

water to comfortable homes, fi acing in nil till- 
able spots, iiinl (1, milling the vulne of mount- 
ain lauds. — Santa Crxu Sentinel. 


A correspoudeut of the Boston i/oui 
ing from this State, says, iu the course of a 

The fact i-, the winter climate ol California 

is one of the best iu the world Bxcept upon 
the mountains there is no -now, and only an 
occasianal frosl In Ihe ooasl valleys. All along 
the const, from San Diego to Mendooino 
county, and inland for 100 miles, the tourist 
Audi that the winter is simply the vernal sea- 
son. Hero and thi 1 1 i|ieniiio 
on the trees, winch me, m many instances, blos- 
soming for more fruit The hill 
with new grass, there is thi tilth ol fields, the 

budding and bloss 

dens, the bloon 13 the wayside, 

the blue sky, the sun, and, for the most part, 
th,- train |Ull sea. 

Shipping and Commission merchants, 


:t^. - » >luiket Street, 

niillDltMl SILIR REFIM'll 

^biiinlael ui-.-i- ..I t li«- 



Put up iii Barrels Expressly «<>« Ho Oon> 



in it,., i, u i... i cport. 


At I. on est Aliiilt.-I Kill. 

OfPco: 325 Mnrlmt Stroot, Up Stair*. 

rt*r7C\ v woo* inii'i. ni i,, i.v ii In 

?S I'y. i aovi bi row the publli Ospllsl 

t' ii, .i in., i. it. Wo will si n ". 

i ,,,,. lovorywbon to wort roi 

Is ii„ i no. irou o»u work ", i ' ' Ivi rnui 

u tl Dtl I '"II l>») 

. Ij us wi H No one . mi i iii i i 

poy, io oiii Inn ..' on, i i ..n> .... QI nail ti nun , 

lj i,M,i lionoroulj Address. 

Co., ".'I ,i Its Mullie. 

San Francisco, - - California. 




I Ik- Hi. ...U hi Dlnlnif-rooni In the World! 

WM. r. HARRISON, Manager, 




Fire and Marine Insurance 

Capital, paid in M, - $200.C 

Assets, Dec. 31, 1881, $377,457.82 

Losses Paid since Company was Or- 
ganized nearly, $800,000. 

JOHN H. WISB President 

CHAS. A. LA TON -ecreUry 


No. 405 California Streei. S. F. 


onount ot a few 
■i « • will inform JOB 
amount most . 


glad lo communicate with you an.i 


ui-li tO u.K I S COD- 

■■■M, nl Ol Wbal lo. nil, I await OUT 



D win. I, von Sod ii p«J* 
ronr list md 

on nl I 

and tho trouble -i »ti- 1, 


wi . tan rtion i» 


n I, 

rant youi buslnaas.and will arooure you i ijualU 


i . ,,i,i. h oi lltl 



i mi,. i ,i dlffli all 

IubI whal fou ".ii i 

"-■ .i i gl" I "' 


\i. v.. , v. .1 OJ QI ' -II, U .1. lo 

yoil till v hIi,,II u I «•.■• 

nd all ordi ■ ""• '"■ 

■ iTOd, 


ii you wanl hi- ',' isl 
ijlvi voa tin p .,■■ i i to do I | ou » ,"' tl 

oi.l oi Oil 

yon to "' I 

GEO. P. R0WELL & CO., 

n i 

to havi roi 

ad> ■ , i !■■■ o i 


uio. i ■ vm w » 

,,. .i 

l„. I, 


,, |10\1 vv 











O F 


& MANN, 

Nos.3'22aud 321 California Street. 

and 302 and 304 Sau- 

soine Street, 

San Fr-o-noisoo. 


Druggists and Manufac- 
turing Uhemists, 

1 111 IB M HI \i;ki\ \XJB OS 

Porelkn Perfumery, Cologne!, Scented 

Toilet Soaps, Mull, Tootli and Noll 

Brashes, Couius, Balr OH*, Pomades, Face 

Powder* and Cosmetics, sponges, 

Patent Uedlol Btc , ' << 

Au;ente for Tile 
Dwelling House Under writers... NOW York, 

§2,400,744 06. 

Glrard F. «!« M. Ins. Co Philadelphia, 

$1,101,313 26. 

La Contluuce Ins. Co Paris, France, 


New Orleans Ins. Ass'n Now Orleans, 


Standard Fire Oillce. ...London, England. 


St. Paul F d» M. Ins. Co. ..St. Paul, Minn., 

$837,803 43. 

The Fire Ins. Ass'n (Limited) . .London, Enjj., 

$1,342,673 14. 

Teutonlu Ins. Co New Orleans, 

$401,7 53 71. 
Wotertown Ins. Co Wntertown, N, Y., 

$1,006,656 23. 


I he London and Provincial Murine Insur- 
ance company... London, 

L,. Fonder. Marine ..... Co Paris, 


Capital Represented. . . $27,650,627 



Palace Drag Store, 

635 Market Street, - - SAN FRANCISCO 

*,,.. lal ttfents and Adjusle 

F. P. BACON, i 0. L. FOOTS. Sec 

ill I. 

Globe Jron Works Co. 



and FORGE. 

Manufacturers and Repairers of all Kinds of 


Hoisting and 

Mining Machinery, 

Portable, Stationary and 
Marine Engines. 


Which does away with Combrow Pomp 
Rod., V Bobs and Balance Bobs, operating 
•qamllyw.U in shaft, or incline. | admlUIn« 

..i deflect Into distant workings. Circa 

Urs furnished free, upon application. 



him;< iAl/i'i ES. 


222 and 224 Fremont St., ,,.,..... ........... 

San Franoleoo. 





Church and Steamboat BELLS and GONG* 

BRASS CASTINGS of nil kinds, 



Hooker's I'. ..••.. 


*7"Tna boBt sDd mux 
durable In use, aIko 
n varletj ol other 


. For MINING and 
Boot's Blast Bio worn. 

rjrVentUstlngMlnwsi.d forSmeitlng Works 

Pot Mining Purposes. 







The Bonthern Pacific is now completed to ita 

Eastern terminus, and (he lust spike i aeoting 

tiiie ootst wnii NuwOrleaiiB baa been driven. What 
effect tin-* »iii have upon us is yet to bo seen, but 

iIhti- I"' little iliuil.t 1 1. nt it will 1. 1- uf material 

aid in our future welfare. It i« anDounced thai 
emigrants oan ibip al Havre, through to California 
, la, tblB route, foi IG5; 11 bo It maj bi tbi mi ana 
ot bringing to our coast a largo portion of the la- 

boring populall il tbo old oountrli ■■. and praotl- 

cally solving Hie Obioesi quest! by furnishing 

reasonable white laboi to do oui woi k, ii will also 
be the means of bringing a greal deal ol emigration 
through tn Bonthern Oallfornla and making our 
Ivantagi - known to the world, and there is 
do doubl bul thai many who would never have vis- 
ited us will nofl Bud their way bore f>>r the winter 
months. The further completion of the Atlantic 
& Pacific will still farther aid ua in tins respect 
and it is Baffl to predlot that Bouthern California is 
aon "ii the turning-point for a prosperous future 
more brilliant than moBl ol aa would believe. We 
have now two transcontinental roads, the B. P. and 
the A. A P.; both will pass through our valley, the 
latter by the C. s.; another road, the I tab South- 
ern, is pointing toward us, and will come in time. 
We shall thus have railroad connection with the 
BOIltb Ufa. the 8. P., the Central BtatoB and Terri- 
toru b iwt. the \. ,v l'.. the Northern Territorii a t>ia 
Ulab Southoru and Utah Northern, [twill be hut 
■ fevi »i n- i» lure Ban Bernardino will be I a ntrol 
poinl from whloh we can t»k< rail to any portion 
of the Unit- '1 Btati b .'.irect, and a point upon wbioh 
ail atti i linn will b< centored, on scoount of ita 
railroad fac s, added to its many othei induce- 
ments. Below we give an aooountol the eomple- 
lion ol the Bunset Route: 

The new road leavi - the mam Hue ol the Booth' 

, ru Pacific road al Dcming, N U . and runs to El 

i . ,.. win re it crosses tin Rio Grande, it 

extends thus by a oirouitous rout.', across Texas, to 

Ban Inton i on a sting al thai i tl with the 

Galveston, II irri-burg and Ban Antonio i 
running ihenci to connect with the formerTexaa 
and \, u ( i, |. ,10- mad. a. .1 ii rmlnati a al 
Ti,. piaci wbi re the lost Bplke was drivi n into 
rener, i* in the south-western partol Texas, 
aboni 100 miles from a bridgi wrosa the El Paso 
nw , ,,. ,, i tributary ol the Rio Grand 
I'm i iv. r — Sat I 

wood GROWING. 
We learn from the Fresno Expositor thut 

v i ha i I Bold at seven dollai i per cord 

in that town during the pasl year, and those 
rtho haul it up to town aay thai there is Ytry 
Utile profll in n to th- m al thai price, and thai 
il,, pi ici in net continue to adt anc< . fn 

\ writer in thi l/to, in aommentin 
on tho above, says: 

The w I supply .seems to be a mutter worth 

consideration, and it Booms remarkable thut 
some ol the parties owning lund near Fresno, 
susceptible <>f being irrigated, have not taken 
th. matter uud I re, In fool, 

w. don'l Bee why every farmei .Iocs not devole 
a portion of his ground to growing tim 
fuel. In some parts of the 8tate, thi farms an 
surrounded by r.,«-, ..l cottunwoods, willows, 
gums, eto., and, from time to timi , theBi tri ei 
are topped about eighl Let from tho ground, 

and made into Brew I The tree al once puts 

out n new top, and, in u year or two, is 
to j iel I unother crop oi wood In other places 
considerable areas of land are planted with 
blue gums, and, from lime to time, are cut 
down for wood. TheBi trei a ipring up again 
from tho roots, and are cut down again 
us soon us they have attained a sufficient 
growth, Land devoted to timber culture pays 
i over $100 per acre in sections 
where wood is chi ap, but iu this section it will 
i ,tl> in . rcesa ol thai figure where wood 
: per cord, it will p 
per annum. 

The California JLloyds 




• Established In 1801). 



The Pomona rimes, Los Angeles count: 
I wiv day briuga new citizens to our town, and 

i buildings an o mi need. The 

town of Pomona and the valli | bu n ding il is 

[ng null an astonishing rapidity. I ■ 
have held out raiibful and r. maim 
the town through the Blow daya ol the pasl 

;,,,| II, „l ll.Mi jo,! OUUd 111 

making their homes In n L'l who hav« I 

here but a Bhon time are more and mon pleased 

win, the oouuti ■ , " 1 '"oae " 

just arrived are happy in theirohoice ol locaiion. 
No one seems disappointed, No complaints ol 
being wrongly Informed or ol having had over- 
drawn or bogus inducements held out. This 
country needs oo bolstering or galvenii i 

gtauds squai ita mi rits. All taki right bold 

and bhow thai their entire satisfaction and lull de- 
termination oi Btaying by building homes, 
bouaea, and otherwise Improving. And another 
point, vi rj pleasing to all conei rned, is thai those 
coming are ot the kind that make good citizens 
and a prosperous commuuii ibserving 

II is plum that Pomona Is destined to be a 

live, busl townol oo small proportions or mean 

fcppearanco, and that the ralle) Burrounding it will 
keep pace and be peopled bj a odrresponding class- 

aolasB that bus tain law.upholdsi allty.andbuilda 

so i-bousos and ol.urohes. tl takes time to bring 

aboui great acbievnients. Ten yeorB hei 
,, uiii Bhon to Ihe world whal oai 

lied where everything, is as I rableasitia 


Paid-Tp Capital, 



Nos. 4'li and 418 California St. 

Agencies Ll all the Prinoipal Oitiea of the 
United States. 

G.TOWOEABD ld ^|».O.KITj aidBnt 

, QATun Boorotar, 

, , i ,;MiM,, I "I A«o„t 

utsu'uoK T hUUEN »"™»°' 

A mammoth OAK. 

jneBolano BepaWtoan thus speaks of the value 
| this tree tor ftre wood: 

We nil know.aa n matte, of foot, thot the oak 
crows to an enormous size on thla OOOBt. It does 

not tower np like the gli idw I. but grows to 

mable height, whon It branches out in all 

olions, and many of ita arms or limbs are 

nearly ball theBlzeol the bodj thai 
To look at one of theae trees ooauallj whll. 
through a grove there Isn't onepei in a thous- 
and that bos any idea of tho am .tol Btove J 

that one of these gnarled, buBhy-toppodtrei 
,,,„„ i,„ the benefltof tboao who Boaroelj ovei 

,,v.. it ,. thought, we wll mtion an 

on. ol i • mammoth trees wasoi 

B Abe thle'a word tor this: He 

Wlodonhisi h anoaktbat.i n ^edhito 

,,,. lal B iBWorth 10] rd 

oi tbofai rslivlnginBu valloj oi ol 

on boat - le 'i"" K '" 0VM 

hold their pence. 


\v, find thi following in a late issue oi the 

I have examined the folli 
yards inn! eolnnies for phylloxera, and faili 
find the Blightesl tra Mnlter's 

Butler, B irton, Bisi o, Eggi rs, Wil- 
liam-, Hudson, and Ki an I . and 
Neviid-i, Churob, Central California, uud Scan- 
dinavian colonies I Bhould like "to 
everj vineyardist in the county to be very care- 
ful iu ordering euiiiugs and rooted vin> 
| H hard I] • o hi yond the limits of 
OUUty, and bj for the moat pru.hiit 
nol to do bo when we consider the possible re- 
JH.H, o " irda phylloxera Now, thut .-. 
still olenr ol this pest, a will be worth millions 

of dollars to this pi ising and thriving 

nf a fruit-growing community not to li 

ighl among as, ' Ine -ingle in- 
utting will do tbi business Buy your 
rooted ■■ • " l " 1 (lHlt ,r ' ,H IL| ''"'"" 

,( you can possibly be Buiti d. This ie ihe 
only real safeguard we have M. I 1 
Local KesoU-nt Inspector. 


Apricots ar< certainly oneol the coming I 

i nrell in all coasl counties south ol Ban 
I , inntles, 
inoluding X*oio. Sacramento and Butter, it requlrea 
adeep, rich, alluvial soil to produce them to per- 
fection. In fact, il profll la the object, it is a waste 
of time and money to attempt to grow them on 
Indiffen nl land. Il is, wi bi lieve, universally con- 
ceded thai the trees dO better and are loogi 

other kind of roots. 
I . ,1. will bring apricots into 

bearing earlier (ban Pbie, we think, 

,., ,,,„ bul is at the expense of Ihe thrift and con- 

led life ol the tree. .Many timid 

predicting that the groat demand for and the 
amounl ol apricots trees planted is indicative thai 

tbe business is ov. rd For our Bingli sell we 

i„ w little appn henslonln that hue. for tho reason 
tliforcia ialbeonlj country In the three con- 

, La where the aprlcota prosper, oonsequi 

,i„ ,], nand tor them in i presi rved Btate is almoa 
unlimited.— S, F, Patron, 

mi: IDAHO mini ... GRASS VALLBY. 

Th „ ,;,,,„ bailey I aton says: The bullion yield 

o| this mine, sinoe I860, hash..,, -T.inT.mii, fro... 

„hioli 163 dividi .,..150. have been paid. 

,ldera have received IS per cent, of the 

..lion produced, whloh Isequal t..-r 1.086 per 

\ mine that gives MS t.. stock-holders out 

-,,in [| produoei ia the kind ol a mine thai 

I many investor are just now hunting for. 

n „ [dahO produced W8B,686 III bullion last year. 

:lll ,i paid W68.B i dividends. It haa d i belter 

raethanthla. Last year waa lh. ttfl 

.ear in the history ol thomlne. [I tool I 

per ton.ataooal of 

p | ton (or mining and milling. I 

,i„. i.ioo-fool lev.i baa boen oxl 

I .,,,,,.., level aud Btopea havenol d 

wellfor pas . M „ ,-., ,l.„ do bolter 

hoi On tho 1,300-fool level the ledge is two 

and One-half feet wide, ou an average. 


I eb 



For Cooking-, Parlors, Offices, Halls, Bed-Rooms, Churches, Stores, Etc. 



Over 500 Different Sizes. Styles and Patterns to Select from. 


»/ *>/ £/ *.; 

nidi \ I) OA1 <•■ . 

Winter Arrangement. 

Commenolng Sunday, Oct. 22nd, 1882, 
and until furtbw nottoi ' raina will leave 

from "'"I arrlya nt Ban ITrani 

i r,,\v'iiHi mi si . b> iwi ■ ii u .mi in, itreotaj u follows: 

mamt\< 1 17RERS OP 

plain; japanned and stamped 

8. F. 


t 0:60 a. M. 
10 lu h, U 

.1 III p M 

1 01 U 
11:30 P.M. 

J ..Ban Mateo, He.lwood,.. 
1 1 

6:40 a. It. 
•10:02 A. M. 

0:02 P ,M, 

8:80 a. m. 

In II V V 

4-;<op. m. 

j .Santa Clara. San .lose anil. . 
1 ..Principal Way BtatlOM ' 

{1.-05 A. M. 
•10*2 A. M. 


• 830 p m. 

1 .Gilroy.PaJaro.CaKtrovlllo. 1 
j and Monterey 1 

myi p.m. 

10:40 A M.| | .Hollister ami Tree Plnos. | | cm p. M. 

10:40 a. m| i.WattKmvIlle.Apios.Soiruol.l 1 6 . 02 p_ M 

.„ ■„ 1 (.Salinas, Bolcdad and Way 1 1 fiflq „ „ 
10:10a. M.| { Stations ■ 1 1 6 * ap -"' 

•Sundays excepted. tSnmlays only (Bportmi d'8 

Btage connections are raadi crlthtbelOsaOA 
ozoopt Poscadero Stains via 8an Mateo, which con- 
nect with BOO * M Trm n. 



110, 112, 114, 116 and 118 Battery St 


Sold on Sun. lay ii...riilngB— good to re- 

i hi 'i U 

To Ban Claru or Sun Joso 12 60 

To Monti '■ ■■ oi Banta Orus • 6 00 

Also to principal i tta bi twi i D Ban Fran 

BanJoai ^^ 

Tickkt OrncBa.— Paesengor Depot, Townsend street* 

mill No ! '•■' 1 - 

II. H HI. AH. 
Bnpi rii.i.mlcnt. Asst I 

ay 3. P Atlantic Express Trail 
mB _ c t c |, inolsco dall] rle Oakland 

l, Yu- 
"' rry. 



LEAVE Mil*. UK CORN1 it ... 

gi-'ir-t and Brum I J P. «-. 


ConnoctinK »l Yokohama with Strain.™ for Bbaughae 

No. 1 


•Six Different -Style*. The It.-- 1 Btl I- I .tr« now in use. Kosy Biding, si ,,p|.- and very 
Neat. Wiih', »hBfU or Canopy Top. Manufactured l>> tile 



Price from $00 to •160. HENRY HOBTOP, Patentee. 

ill from Sao Fran 

\ it \iiii annsrj ' s - 


- <>i* in 

j v |. |,|, M in li 

.ll.l.l. Ii .... March "■ 

sPli I M. NOTII I 

I'l,. si.- iblp 

i;iii, will con- 
Hum liu n 

tor Tour* 
v . ..ii lid i hi *•*• ." '.I 




524 Sacramento Street, San Francisco. 

into bars, and returns made Hi fHM 
to forty-eight hours. 

Bullion can i> forwarded to this offlo from any p»" 
of the Interior bj express, and tetarai madi In the 
same manner. 

Careful Anslyi ,H water*, 

industrial produi b . i '■• Mini - 1 umlni d and 
puon. ConsultatlmB on chemical and metallurgical 

ttxcarslon Tickets to sokohumn 

turn ut it. I.... .i Bates. 

ml lt«- 

Oabiu plana on exhibition and passage tickets foi 
hbIo ate. i». u. it Co. 's General Omces, Boom 
7 1, Corner Pourtli and Townsend streets. 

Kim kkkiuiit apply to OBO. U, RICE, 
r'rviKbt Agent, at tin- Pacific alall Bteamabip Com- 
pany's Wharf, or at No. Wi Market Street, Union 


i ten'] PasBengi r Ak< w 












Union Pacific Railway 




Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 



Galveston. Harrisbnrg and San 
Antonio Railroad, 



Leave Son Prmnetsco Dally. 

m . | rompl oonneotlon with the osTeral R*il«aj 

-torn States, for all tho Cities of thf 



-n^tsjst -s*oms. 

iVlth the several St.-aiuer Lines to 

HJxvsl^vi^ci-. Franoe. 

\.\ii vi. i. BCROPBAN PORTS. 

THE NEVADA BANK SUver Palace slee ^^ Coaches * 

t. r. »ABmrwoBTH. 


M. T. BREWER & CO., 

No.. 30 and 32 J Street, 

ulo di alora In Foreign »»'i Domestle Ora»n 

nnil Orl -.1 liiill-. 

mo Flower Beads i • i - ,. . • glvousstrlol B0 and 39 
j Htreet. •: •'■•■ 



i I IM I to 

I till 


...ii..... .. 

■ ' '"••" l "" 1 inns nisiic 

. ,.,. :,i ,,;., all i " ularato 

U UMlAJtTC 't <>j., PortUnd, Maluo. 


The Leading Merchant Tailor 


i ANn Maitotaotouti 
NO. 701 >I A It K i: T S T It E i: T, 

Awarded tho First Promlum 

VI i 

MEC1 1 A N I < «• FA ut in 1 »38a 
At Portland, Oregon, 

\ ii i.i. i.i m OF 

French, Cormon and English Cloths 


Samples with Self- measurement Sent Tree. 


Paid Dp Oauital $3,000,000 

Reserve ID. S. Bonds) 3,600 000 

Agency "« New York »i Wail si»« 

tgenoy at Vlrglnlai Nevada. 

c, ,i,i. 
Buys snd sells Bzohango and Tologi 

This Bank has Bpeolal PaoUIUei ft»i Deal- 
ing in Dnlllon. 

san FRANCISCO, California. 

Second to None In ii»«* World. 

v. .i.i. . and Intel 

for oouiforl and twni ncol , 'J ,„d 

nRtbooloBi I a] P^iS'aMd modal i , 

Acompi i ! ' 0ar - lo ' 

Ohlldres ondi ■<« of ago. n»if « 

i« •••• Baggage pei «••" P«KKS. 

i... unds <.r Baggage pw i>"" "■ 

■•ngeri free. 


AT liu 


, ,,,,, ..r lilarkel Street, *"••■ B'mnclsco, 

A.N.T..- '• " 

., Pass, h Plotol i 






WILL REMOVE TO 741, 743, 745 MARKET ST., 


A . I f . . n 

Water Regulator 


Pateni issued Aug. W, 1870, Be tow d las i 

For the Prevention and of 




1 •■ "1 water Inlet. 

Door for potting •" 

S§ j w 8 ' Outlet to Pump. 

Heat. (lie water to boiling point Freei it fir all chemical Imparities Sav.i from 

!I0 i pei cent >.t water by condensation, Prevents the forum i Ion of ecale, and iavei 

fully 95 per cent. In ftn-i. 

Farther particular! with fall lescilptivo circular and price list can bo obtained 
t the oHlce of the 


:t :t O PINE fe* X It E E T, Tt O O >I 7. 

Descriptive Catalogue Sent on Application. 
Mm ..••:.. lory, Columbia Foundry, 133 and 185 Beale Street 

J. D. CDLP. 

8, K. TJORNT0N. 

J. D. CULP & CO., 


A.r»fl Importers of 



W liolcsalc «,xxci Retail Dealers ixi 



Chamber, Parlor, Library and Dining 



Book and Library Case Wardrobes, Ladies' Writing Desks, Turkish 

Easy and Lounging Chairs, Etc. — Hotels and Private 

Residences Furnished. — Designs Furnished 

No. 16 Front Street, 

The l '(;iHI.S" 
are a Four and 
Inch Cigar. 
iVlade front Pure 






and Estimates Given. 


J&. c c o . 


Send for a 
Sample r - 
der, and 
Give our 

44 GIRLS " 

a Trial. 


J35 Market Street. - - San Francisco. 


Manufactured by 

J. D. CULP & CO., 

No. 10 Front Street, - ' ■ SAN FRANCISCO. 





vim- ••■■ or near Steveni < ■ •• -i. The Par- 
orlte \ mi. in - i lie Putore ..i I he District 

An experienced ritloulturlsl furnishes the Ban la 
ntinel with the following valuable informa- 

\ (rip through what is called the " Wine Bell" of 
BantaChua Valley la now iotoroatlng and Instrue- 
live, rii' center of the region ia on Hie Btevens 

Creek road. It begins al t a mile beyond tbe 

Meridian road, and BXtenda northward to Mountain 
View, and aontbward and ea tward, following tbe 
i tbe mountains, to Qilroy. Il iuoludi a on 
the average about two miles ol the valley, and ex- 
teuds a considerable distance Into the foot-hills. 
Theaoil ia a reddiab, gravelly loam, which is pe- 
culiarly suitable for tbe produolion of a Ine grapes, 
although, "i eouree, II Isaomi what irai table. There 
aregulobes, for instance, In whioh the red soil in 
covered l»y » ■ 1« «-§» . strong. bl el, w_. table mold, 
toorlohfoi vines; and, again, there are mixtures 
of botli soils. Thore are also pecullarillea of con- 
foruiatiun, which arc said to make considerable, 
difference l • < • 1 1 j aa to the flavor and npenidg of the 
grapes. Souio lols slope lo Ihe north', andl others 
to the east and treat; and though^llmlrgrow good 
grapes, those that have, a gepnif /declination to the 
southeast arc said to be the" beat of all. Thev are 
protected from the north and northwest windB, and 
they are open to tlie sun the whole of the day. 
Consequently the grapi a ripen earlier, and are less 
liable to be damaged by arly or late (rosts. 80 
far, therefore, such situations Lave been carefully 
seleoted by experienced viticultonsts, and the re- 
sult has fully vindicated tbe wisdom of their course 
iu that respect. 

The Stevens' Ore< h road runs through about tlie 
ceutvr of the belt, and the largest and most nour- 
ishing vineyards lie on both aides of it. A little to 
tbe north 8. P. Collins of San Francisco, has a 
tract containing 250 acres, the greater portion of 
which is oovered with flourishing vines, and the 
real ia now in course 01 preparation for planting 
during the coming season. The lot is in splendid 
condition, the ground having been carefully se- 
lected aud well prepan d. and the outtings well cul- 
tivated through the season. J. T. Doyle, also of 
San FranoisCO, lias 150 aorea Of vines in good con- 
dition, aud i^ preparing to plant another large tract. 
This gentleman has also ereottd a large brick build- 
ing with cellar, for Hie roauufaciure and storage of 
wine, whioh is Bttcd With all the most approved ap- 
pliances fm tbe business, and miiBt have cost alto- 
gether, nearlj thirty thousand dollars. A. C. Hol- 
lenback has 120 ai n 8 ol 1 Lneyard, and J. P. Pierce, 
100 acres. Tlie latter gentleman hus also made 
elaborate pn parationa for tlie manufacture of wine, 
aud will probably make arrangements to purchase 
aud nse grapes grown on the smaller tracts 
around him. Then there are numerous tracts. 
ranging from twenty to fifty acres each, planted to 
vines, aud intended to supply the several wine 
presses that are to be put up by the larger growers. 
Among the most notable of these is that of J. B. J. 
Portal. This gentleman is a Frenchman, and comes 
to the business with the experience of ages on his 
brow, so to speak. He has made an excellent se- 
lection, both as to soil and situation, and by his 
success in wine-making from a smaller vineyard, 
has already achieved a high reputation, and has 
demonstrated that Santa Clara Valley has no supe- 
rior in the world in Us capabilities for tbe produc- 
tion of the finer kinds of Burgundy. He has forty 
acres just coming into bearing, and will plant fifty 
acres more next bi aeon, all ol tbe 1 l ioiccst Burgundy 

Great pains have been taken by all in this region 

to exolude inferior or diseased vines. The very 

. 1 gi net illy been bi Ii on >i n nh- 

out regani to the price. Indeed, several U 

notplauti-d laal aeaaon because of tbe difficulty of 

obtaining ■ BOffloiOnl number of rutin. 

varieties deaired, Ziufandel 1 in- fav- 
orite, and next to it 1 lea Obarbonneau. The 

other principal varieties planted are Trousseau. 
Mataro, tfalvoisi . and Peiil Pinot, But in every 
Ithy onttinga have been planted, aud 
the result is a small' 11 percentage of loss, and a 
healthier and more 1 Igoroua growth than can often 
bo seen in young vineyards. 

And this is but the beginning. Mont of the land 
in the district above mentioned a/Ill surely be 
planted with vines within tho next year or two. 
Several Urge, capitalists i.nv<- taken bold of tin bus- 
iness and an preparing to plant from five hundred 
to one thonaai The result of this ac- 
tivity is every where seen In the Increased price of 
land anil in the solid improvements whioh arc going 
on. Land thai ildhavi been purchased 
at $60 an acre now rangei from 1100 to 
acre, with plenty of 1 that. Ami, In- 
deed, why ihould 1 hesitate about the exj llture 

\q Oral ooatof land when 

■ toii for then 

1, lo I.. . |. land at very high 
ippoai .. to i" no good roaaon 

why It should not lut, ThOBOil and tbOl 

■ . manont. 

are there, and it certainly should not take long to 
gain the necessary experience under existing con- 

Pituir IN « \i.ii-i»it\iA. 
\ oorrt ipondi ml of tbi New York Staal Zettung, 

I Oral Class Ql H I'aper, gives the following 111- 

md Itisti uotlve view of the frnil Interests 
in < .1 1 if. .1 oil 

California rmlt baa becomo an important Btaple 
in the markota of the world, and la sent, canned, 
preserved mid ilrie.l, to all countries. It is tbe 
wonderful!) comprehensive oharaoterof frultcul- 
ture in ibis state thai constitutes its most striking 
trait. The variety ol fruita bui bb fully grown 

here far surpasses Hint of any other region ol equal 

extent,. and It keeps on ountlnunlly increasing by 
the introduction ol m w grades and Bpeoles from 
every part of the globe. Although semi-tropical 
fruits thrive best soiiti'iut the 85th degree of lati- 
tude, in the counties bf* Vontura, Santa Barbara, 
Loa Angi 1. - Ban Bi fnardino and San Diego, it has 
beeji "4'hiniut u... -■.fully in other parts of the, 
I even as far north us the bonier county 

of Shasta. Many of those who grow 1 1 mt foi their 
use raise, side by side, thai ol the tropics and that 
of the north temporal aone— the currant ami the 
orango, the oherry and the Ok. strawberries and 
pineapples, bananas datei ami apples. California 
fruit ranohes display apple, pear, peach, plum, 
prune, apricot, neotarlne, cherry, quiuce, fig, 
orange, lemon, inn. , pomegranate, olive, English 
walnut ami nlmond trees, The Dg tree gives two 

rics and strawberrioB arrive In oondition al 

Denver after a four days' Journey. Verj Btriking, 
also, is the sizo to whioh frull treea attain. The 

a|.,i .1 ;iovs 1 1 tin dimensions of a largo Eastern 
shade tree. Phonominal si/e uml growth, Indeed, 
are characterising ,,f all kind ■■ ol treea in this cli- 
mate. Tim Australian blue-gum m BUOalyptUS, 

snoots up twenty feel In a Bluglc year 

California appIeBare distinguished for extraordin- 
ary size and splendid oolor The mosl highly prized 
im the famous bi 11 Qowoi Thi ) are grown 
fully aa far sooth as Ban Dlogo county, near the 
Mexican border; but il is 111 the hilly Counties ol 
the north, where tho win tore aro coldi r, thai they 
are Jucicst and burdlest, Bartlott pears have been 
remarkably prolific, ami under the mosl fuvor.ible 
couditions have yielded a nel profit of 93,000 per 
acre in a Binglo Boason. The apncol baaglvi d some 
of tho best results. The delicate flavor ol our ap- 
ricot has made il very popular Im table u,, s, J- 

well as for oannlog and drying mid thi 01 ips being 
enormous ami the prloes { I, Ii has bfou a profit- 
able fruit to grow, lu 1870 a twelve-acre apricol 
orobard mat s.m 1 . ,u i - • ■. . . 1 - 1 1 

of fruit that was Bold D I pound. This 

nett, ,| a profit ol -I .'no pn acre. 1 In II.. hatii.s of 

the Baoramen to, about twenty mllei belon 

of Bacramonto, there are a large number ol prolific 

peach ranches that in good veins have pi 

27,000 pounde of fruit to the 

Oneoi the moat important ol the ioduatriea de- 
veloped in tins Slab' has h. en the canning ..I fruit. 
California canned fruit, while prized for its size, 


crops a year in the Bouthern counties of theBtate 

All kinds Ol In iins grow in prolusion, an. 1 cum- 

earlier and itay loogei than In tbe Bast, straw- 
berries are usually to he had the whole year round, 
and always from Maroh to January. Bomeol the 

most valuable features of California Iriilt are the 

freedom from worms, the fitness for drying, and 

exempliou from any form of ,!. 

ii h>- boon laid bj some thai California fruit 

lacks fla\oi and j in. 1 in IU, ami is in these respect* 

inferior to Eastern fruit, bol thi a aertlon will not 

bear a fair tost. The.. , u iu California 

that is not of tie- beat quality, but there is not 
much of U, and 1 n iv \. 11 the quantity la deoroaa- 
Ing, 1 1 1 1 1 1 r .... 1 . 1 . 1 1 1 in grade and speoii-s is going 
on oontlnually, and the care and skill displayed are 
consiaiiih beoomiog more marked. The average 
frnil raisi d to-day la ol a high order "f 1 icelli nee. 

At the beginning Of hist year the Htato poasOBsed 

about 6,000,000 frull trees, among them 3 100,000 

apph . HI |" 11 h, HUH, HUH pear, 2110,000 plum 

and prune, 13(1,0110 cherry, '.',',11,(11111 api 1, fin.iiliil 

flg, 1,000,000 orange, and 1 10,000 lemon trei b, 
Trees begin to boar al d much earlier age than in 
the East. Thi real advantages, pe 

cuinarlly coiinidned, ..I I, ml nillin.. in this Stale. 

r h treea often boai Ihe second yi u aftoi plant- 
ing; apple 1 1 1 !■ m. id in ti„. third vi ar, and 

i„ ax abundantly In tbe nub. In this dry climate, 
too, ripe frull kci pi In good oondition much longer, 

and im haidiei than II |( in i ||| i cllinales. 'I'IiIh 

is partlonlarl] notloeablo with fruit ol 10 perishable 
aoharaoter »" plums andoherrlos. <'aiifoiuiaohor- 

color, freedom from worms, taste, and II 

be sent abroad at lower prices, as a rule, than thai 

of South European oounti [1 b. I Inly thi 

B |'i icot* and ie Otai lo I Pi 11 In: al I I 1 

1 111 thi London m irki l at lower pi lo ~ tfa in 
the same 1. m. I ol frnil from this Btato. 

Oanneriea of fruit and vegelablca havi 1 -■ 

tabllsbed in all tin Important frull distrusts "i this 

State. The produce thus put Dp in 

11,400,000 cms, 01 which 8,000,000 a 

berries in their natural (orm; 700,000 were Jellies 

and sauces, Mid 1,700,000 kltohec regotablos, the 

last item inoludlng 8,000, ana ol tomatoes and 

500,000 of green peas. The Sao l''i .iiicihc. . ennnr- 
ios put up 8,000,000 cuns, and thoae "f S.m Joae 
2,000,000. Peaches, pears, apricots, plum*, and 
oberrioB me tim fruits most u*cd here for oanning 
The apricot it regarded aa thi moBl profltabla The 

best peaches and a|nlc,,ls hi.' ..hi a i Q| ,1 1 1 1 on I In 
ran. Ins ttloOg tllO Saci iiiiicnbi to and li.un Ihe 

wai m and ahi m rod frail bell of Bolano county, 

not fur trom tin* ■ • 1 1 y . whoro large fruit ripout 

soonest, and therefore fotchoi IhO I" it prlOl I 111 

In si plums come from Napa and Sonoma rminl , 

ami thi bt il ohen It i from Us la, i the b o 

from tin:, city. Tho market prices in largo quan 

titles per dozen can | Ol ' DOUndt I II D ITO, fOI 

table fruit, f.1.85 to $2.60; foi pio fruit -I in h. 
11.60; foi torn il 

n. rl - r '- in pi ii In .. plums, api loots aud pi ora, 
$60 to 100 a ton, Neotarluoa, apple*, d 

i iaw bei i Ii s, blaokboi i Ii i and i ai pin rrlcs 

qi d to a |i in. oxi ban othi i 'i uft Fbo 

borrlea are sold main!) in tho homo markets, 

.. n '• inneries are bi Ing ereoted Id the » ari 
nut dlatriots, One of th ■ ,\„. ,. """ 


oolonj . In thi B in Joaquin rallej . whi re- 1 -, , , , . 


the right of winch li sold bj ■ oorporatioi 
i rate ol 120 I 

count npon s profit ol al Ii ibI • 100 to 121 

lor all the fruit they can I (pOI I, and || R . j |i|n 

foi [hell wares is constantly increasing, Tiinn' 

and* of m. u. WOmOn and I luldi, i, h,„| en ,p] 
ne nl in tin in. 


The following Worthy tribute to the farmer i, 
from ih. pi I, ..i Ralph VYaldo Emi i 

The gloi v <>i the farm, r is, that, in the dirisJOQ 
of labor, it is bis pari to on at , all trade resu u 
laal on in* primitive activity. He stands cloa© to 
nature; beobtalna the earth the bread »nd 

I which wa* do to be. The 

first farm, r was the ih*t man, and all historic no- 
bility n ami uso of land. Tb« 
larini r's ofi,. ml important, but j 00 
mnsl not try tO paint linn in rOB" colors. Yoacag. 
"not make pretty compliments to fate and graviu- 

tion, whose minister ie Is, Hi i e] ota the on 

cessltles. It is tin beauty I Bonomyol 

Ihe world thai main-, hi* COmel D6S8. He litnda to 

the onl> i ol i!.' ' d tbi ■'• ithei Ihe soil, anj 

crops, as the sails of the slop bend to tlie wind. 
He represents continuous hard labor year in ind 
ind small gams. He takes the pace of 
seasons, plants ami chemistry. Nature never hui- 
itom by atom, little by little, she achieves kn 
work. The fanner ins himself 10 Nature, and ac- 
quires that lifelong p : belongs to her; 
he must wail lor his sntertsio- 
meuts. his bin rtli i and in* spending must be on i 
farmer's scale, not a It were ns fslM 
i ne and massy expense 
He hu 
10 him. in the great hoo«e- 
. or of tbe 
breadr. :- each loaf. Iti*forbimio 
say if men shall many or not. Early marritga 
ami the number ol births ibly con- 
nected with an sbuodanoe of food. The- farmer u 
a boarded capital of health, as the farm isof wealth, 
ami it is from him that the health and power, moral 
and intellectual, of the eilies come. Tbe .city ii 
always recruited from the country. The men in 
lii drii iug-wb.eelj 
of tradf. , and ihe wounti : genins- 
are the children aud gramlchildi' u of the farmer, 
and are spending the euergies wbii'h their father,' 
hardy, silent life accumulat. .1 in lrosty furrova 
He is a continuous benefactor. He who digs a well 
constructs a stone foundation, plants an orebsrd, 
builds a doublo house, reclaims a -wamp, orw 
much as puts a stone seat by (be waysldi , nukr; 

the land 10 fai lOVI ly and dl I a fOI 

tune which he cannot can him, but 

i* useful io bis country long afterward. 

Who are I! Ogy »nd 

ohi mistry, the quarrj r of ihe 

brook, the lightning of the cloud, II ,. casting of 

Ml*, the ph'W of th. •• 

was born ihe -uu of agea deoom] 
mellowed his land, soaked it with light and heU 
i it with vegetable film, tbeu witl 

: u m whose decays mid* 

the p. al "I hi* meadow. 

it \i«.i\ UAKINO, 

In all parts of the State there is an utiuanil 
tendency among land owner* and farmers toward 

viticulture, and it has been dSDgSI 

that the busllic-s of [ - will bl 

overdono. But then ill who 

outer the business thon.n.'iiU understand it * ui 

Her *** 
thoroughly dh 

Ion held at Sau Pi 

A,t that oonvenl alettei was read from J»m«* 

luralial stab d thai Ihe raisin bualm as ol ihe S'*" 

ita that we can 

make in this Bl una. A" 

thai i- U 

the propi i i lim its and lands. Thi i 
almost ' roi j a hi "■ Hi 

i in Into 

retains "* about 161 10 an 101 om fi - ir "*' 

vines, for each succccdlm; i. UlCUll 

1 1. ii additional labor, Thi n tun 

10 foi ilm haul 1 '. 
j'Un I i" li I tli and : hui hu Ihe si\lb year-* 

total ol ri MO against 170 10 ror i (| ■ 
pioking and pai 

i ii i the emi of * ix 


m, mm to the above stab mi 
olti .i an Inal ai n 

i two ii in s, In about thirty months A 

tim. ol plantin w l.SOOai 

,,.,. ovoi - 100 Mi Boyd li ■ 

m i -I i u lo i ip i, "-I 
...I [hi to h. iati ■ LOioi | lo all who | 
im.. th, ralaln b ■ 



Editor and Proprietor. 



|Offlc»-:W(l Nan>om« St., Halleik Building 1 . 

Entered at the P. 0. San Francisco. 


Six Mouths, $1.25— Postage Paid. 


ISSUED >I O N T II I . -\ . 

eases "I tli' throat and lun .1 resi- 

dence heri ol a few monthi . fiud relief ind ofton 

i" ■ ' • ol IK.- I fresh trade winds of 

summer i hf\ the heat and prevents malaria in 

on) -i' its dreadful formi 

Divopsitj "i i' 1 1 1 1 ii-i .iii ciBts according i" 

10 rliit .1 i limato mu) be 
found i" -mi anj tasto I In the ' Colorado 
the climate i- • cceedingly warm, while at Julian, 

- iii" them all, go will mention o ne, th e El Cajon, 

which tl gh the of .1. H. Benedict, 

Esq . we were enabled to visit I h 

cated -••in. fourtc dl< f San I iii 

i ••nt.'iiii- 18,000 acres pi i icli raooth lanfl 

in, mi \.illi \ is i five to i- mil) Ion and from 

three to four in width, forming .• beautiful plain 

Fr the principal ?allej run oumorouv branches 

. n |,,,, ket -. in tnemsi K . - l. n je ■ oough Fi u 


Area - Topography - Re- 
mate, Etc. 

I' il City, and Other 

Town.. Desorlbed, 

[Bj G. D a, Traveling A.gL.No.2.] 

San Diego was the Bret nty 

settled in California. A- earl) 
as 1542, and onlj 60 years aftei 

tile ill-. OVerj "I Aim rn ;.. :i 

party "f whiter, under Cabrillo, 
paid a visit to the beautiful bay 
from which this section takes its 

In 1709 Europe ms began i - 
tablishing miwons undi i the 
Padre- uf the Pram iscan order. 
Thi* called settlers, .ml I missions 
were fmindi H fi rnr San I Hi 
Sonoma San Diego was first 
. and jiiKtly claims |>rior settle- 
ment t«> other |i.ut- of Califor- 

The c ty ..f San I »ii go » .- 

Organized in 1850, and is the 
sec- m. I in -i/i. ui < 'alifnnn 

it has mi uri.-ji ,,f 'I.., 

which is naturally divided into 

| ! 

The county is bounded on the 
north by San Bernardino, on the 
south i... Lowei • 'alifornia, on 
the east bj Vrizona (the < !olo- 
rado river forming the line), and 
■ •ii tli. v.. -t In tin I'., ifii . I 
and I \ county, these 

forming the nuuthwest corni r of 
thi i i ti I St 

Natural Dlvl.lon. 

e stated, this county 

iirallj divided into three 

the first to be 

■in-. I being that fwrtiou 
Im.. - - ' i.l tin San .1 i. into 
mi-, • uibracing more than 
half ..f the county, and 
"f tin .i. .i i Viloradu di 

n i. in man) 

placi In; sea level It 

is charm teri/.eil b) sand 1 1 1 i 1 <- . 

'■ i its, dr) laki -. mud 

Vole ui... I, hot Kj)i 

Tl.. -. . ond •■ 
of the San -Ii' mi .i 

whii h ■!-• in tin- 
. .foot-hill- ..I Hi. 

Coa-t i;. ,,,;,, Tl.. -. lull ,.i,.l 
M i. .'..I.. I with 

' lrtl.ll tlllll'l-l . V. Il I i- Il 

•■ ot gre .' i» il hi to the 

Tin- third i • i ion Iii hi I -•-■ • i a the o (, ...i hills 
I. i» ing 

thi .I' ■ i ion "i "f 

tin- inhubil ml an to bi found, foi il 
Mterod il 


'I ho i i well ii 

n di' i- 

■ i. i in ■ on tin . . ill. ail i mild and 

I III I' I I '■ ' '"" Tin 

II ' II" Hlllllptiull Hid "Hi' i 'Il 

SCENE ON THE COLORADO 1IIVER. I in tin I. . "I lull hi i lli" mil) 

, i- all Id •'■ i" l at Son I >ii 

ol i, mi|ii i. .1 by thi ba) « inda ond 

,„ , ., lional fo I' dtai nun, win I. 

-iiiuiii. i i. i n pel potuolly 

band and Pratt 

The tillable land in San Diogo o it) is not in 

i • ountii ..i 'in Stati , 

i ,, ba found In ralluj , canyoi ad | 

i all ovi i thi ■ ountj Tl iri 

■•• hundred to tweut) 
. i aon . .. ii. fl a tun I pni i to di 

, ,,i,,mi Thi oil is "i H" celobrated rod land of 
i •.ihf.,1 in,., M'i i in I,,. i-il\ nil. d, ond ii qualities 
i,, i i, i. ui, in . moistun an I u bi tl u than on) ol 
ti„. I,, .hi, i noil i, ond i- aaturall) adapti tl to the 

i I... 11..11 of fruit, ond wpecioll) tho rao. One 

of the prim ipa I this lovi I) valli ) is 

fruil i luood witl ' the oidol irrij ition 

vVi had ii.. pi in tire ol sampling sonn 

grown b) Mi Clark, with onl) tl id 

mi i moi ture ol tl I To bo) that tin i 

u| would bo i t "•■ : " u " v 

i ithi i fori i I '" • 

r, Hint flat "i . mill, i ii ui pi i , . i, ., ini.i. apples 


qualifications not to In found in fi 

' 'ranges also i Iu< Ii need by the 

fine on hard ol VIi Chasi ich < 

the e ' in I- bi ■■ n ii-ii il product 

uf thu 1 dloy, ond il is 

favored valley had 

t i.i. i.-. I the attention of • apital 

ii, at tin pre*- 

1 1 

is to tho aredit o| J il i: 

.ii. t, and 

ride tli it 'in- i Mill \ alley 

is ,,|„ aed to tin otl lemi n< of 

, lunate in a counti j i I 
i hi . ini-ti opii ill fruit - ore 
■ i,i ii tors 
ha\ • I'l.i. ed 'in • land • 

quite n asonablc fig .-, and we 

think tint the valli y «ill be- 
come "in ..f tin most di sirable 

- in tin State, The 

Boy »r Sun Diego 

i ,1 
P ■ Coast, it 

l- -"Hi" I H "lit'. 

iy tin. . in width, and almost 
land loi ked, tl. 

red in its 

i trance is 600 

|i » .Hi .i depth of 22 

I i ii nt t" 

k) call .a 

.-■iii I ii. .-,. Tin bottom of the 

, -nti.i and op- 

ii iks tO "ii'! 

i in iii. -i 

■ ,i. the 
« Ity ..I sun HI. ...... 

-. . 

affording excellent di 

population "l 
1,000 I- ople. 

- ne i. H in. -- bl 
, i, .lit to the oitj . and « itfa the 
Dumorous hand le re ridi noes 

that San 
i ... spirit, 

The public buildings compare 
i Lvorabl) with other poi I - ol 
155,000 court 
house, h itli it- li.iinl-"iii. j ii 
pride t" 
thi tow ii 

1 1 
Hi. in. in igumonl ' u I Had 
, ,,i thi finest hotels 
in Siiiitln i n i '.ilil.'i in . 

1 1 -. « I", ii ,'i" 

irj ,.ii.l lighted ^^ it l< 
I- i 

w int. i n "i i n 

. th. ) will I., well 
| for b) i In- ' ii .11. nt t hi. I - 

hotel ii""- - may 

i„ found in .iii" " " i thi town, 

Thi i". Mi. -i I I i \ -i. in i -"-I tho 

-. I I house, ^ -in ..i Hon i i:. i , is n lino 

, and ndin d Bm 

i iov ..i iii. oitj and I 

Son I iii •• I. ■■ 

oantili in... ,i 1. 1 w houi aro ■ ■ » ho 

i. . awi ii full d - 1 -" I ""i" ■ I ' ' ttionery, 

wall papi '. paii 

ill si,, ,,,,,! J ui ,,n, . .. i, ii. line of books, 



stationery, etc., and lias, also, the news depot nt his 
place of bueioesa on Fifth Btreot opposite tlio Oom- 
iui riiiil bank. 

I lonBOlidated bank of 8nn Diego is a reliablo 
Institution, 60d has the confidence of the public. 
Bryant Howard is cashier. 


Tho San Diogo Sun and Union are both good 
papers, and are well supported. They are trying 
to make known tho resources of tho county, and 
are deserving of the high estimation in which they 
are held. 

Heal Estate. 
Rial estate is active, and among the leading deal- 
ers Is the firm of Faircbild A Angler, who are lo- 
cated on Fifth street. Wo can recommend them 
to bo gentlemen of integrity and good business 
qualifications, well informed upon real estate in- 
terests in San Diego city and county. 

Joseph Favire is also a large dealer in real estate, 
his place of business being on Fifth street, where 
he is to be seen during business hours. 
San Diego is naturally adapted as a forwarding 
point, as she has communication every five days 
with San Francisco— 482 miles distant— as Goodall, 
Perkins & Uo.'s commodious steamers ply between 
those ports. The fare is $15. San Diego is 
connected by the California Southern to Colton, 
and by the Southern Pacific, via Los Angeles, to 
San Francisco (548 miles), thus giving the protty 
little town all the advantages necessary for the 
transportation of produce. 

The latest records give tho total value of Snn 
Diego'sreal estate, etc., at $7,321 ,747, double what it 
was thi year previous. There is also a marked ad- 
vance shown in the amount of land enclosed, 
wbiob is 5,162 acres, about one hundred per cent 
more than last year's report. The land cultivated 
'7 acres, an increase of over 8.000 acres since 
the last report. There were 11,209 acres of wheat 
sown, yielding 420.499 bushels; 3.260 acres of bBrlc-y, 
yielding 58,024 bushels; 8,125 acres of hay yjelded 
8 914 tons. In tho county there are 140,286 head 
of sheep, from which were shorn the fine amount 
of 950,354 pounds of wool. Bees produce well, for 
during tho past year, in 21,278 stands of bees, 246,- 
989 pounds of hooey were made. There are several 
thousaud fruit trees of all kinds, both deciduous 
and citrus These are in bearing condition as well 
as several hundred acres of vines, and more are 
continually being planted. 

National City, 
The nest town in size, lies about four miles south 
of San Diego, and is the terminus of the California 
Southern Railroad. This is where the railroad 
shops, etc., are located. 

National City is located on a fine level plain 
overlot king the south arm of San Diego bay. The 
railroad company are building a fine wharf to 
connect the terminal poiut with a liue of their 
steamers to ply between National City and San 

The success of National City is due to Kimball 
Brothers, who do not leave a stone unturned to ad- 
vance the interests of this section. We did not 
notice a squirrel in our travels over the National 
ranch, which, we suppose, is duo to the use of A. 
R. Booth's patent squirrel poison. 

The International hotel, located here, is a fine 
three story structure containing 30 rooms, all fitted 
np with elegant furniture; the beds are excellent 
and the table abounds in all the delicacies of the 
season. It is just the home for the traveler who s 
seeking either health, pleasure or recreation. 

Press and Business. 

The National City Record is edited and published 
by W. Burgess. It is a great help to the city and 
deserves good patronage. 

There are several stores, livery stables, etc., all 
doing their quota of business. 

Numerous handsome residences are to be seen 
here, as well as orchards of olives and oranges, all 
in line condition and on the road to further pros- 

Taking tho train for Colton one passes through 
San Diego proper and Old San Diego, with its 
ancient adobe buildings and tilo covered roofs. 
Wb contrast the old and tho now town and notice 
what a change time has wrought, as the old town, 
In a measure, has gone to decay, while tho new is 
constantly being improved. 

Santa Blur^arlra Valley. 
We proceed, on the road, through Santa Mar- 
garita valley, which is a fertile body of land, the 
tyof J. 0. Flood, of San Francisco. It is 
supposed that in the future this section will bo 
rod furnish homes for thousands of inhab- 
itants, ffhO Will improve iiinl bring it into the high 
state of i ultivatlon of which it is worthy. 
Tomeeula Canyon and Town. 
After we leave Santa Margarita vulloy, wo enter 
hi, one Of the pretty and romantic 
spots of this lovoly section. In the midst of this 
Ion of I'.iii Brook. Bore Is a 
i rolling spot, win, grand anenory and 

One who is worried with tho 
Of business could bo woll repaid by a 

residence of a fow weeks in this most lovely nook 
in San Diego county. After a rido of twelve miles 
Temeoula is roaohed. This iB a new town situated 
at the head of a large valley, of whioh tho Pejol 
ranch is a part. It is here where large quantities 
of grain and stock aro grown. Mr. Pomeroy, of 
Los Angeles, has recently subdivided and opened 
thisseotion to settlement. Here largo quantities 
of water aro suitably located for irrigation. This 
gentleman has capital and energy, much that is nec- 
essary to a successful and permanent undertaking. 
Mining Towns. 

Julian is one of the principal mining sections of 
the county, and is surroundeed by grand scenery. 
[n addition to the mining it has agricultural ad- 
vantages and a sanitarium for those afflicted with 

Banning is also a mining town in San Felipo 
canyon, and contains several stores, hotels, etc. 

Fort Yuma, which was established as early as 
1849, is a mining town, and has the reputation of 
being the warmest locality in tho Uuited States. 
Oilier Towns. 

Bear Valley, Bernardo, Ballena, and Forest City 
are among the smaller settlements of San Diego 

Taken as a whole, San Diego is a wonderlul 
county, with great resources that await the sturdy 
emigrant and capitalist to develop, and which is well 
worth tho effort which will so well repay thorn in 
tho end. 

Those of our readers who are curious to know 
something about ostrich farming will gather in- 
instruction from the remarks of C. J. Sketchley 
recently delivered before the Farmers' Club of 
New York city. This gentleman has had ex- 
perience in the businefs at Cape Colony, in Africa. 
He furnished his hearers with the following stat, 

Feathers to the amount of SO 250,000 aro ex- 
ported lrom South Africa every year. Nine-tenths 
of these feathers are taken from tame birds. I 
hope to be able to convince you before I finish 
these remarks that ostriches pay considerable bet- 
ter than any other kind of live stock. The breed- 
ing is managed in the following way: A pair of 
birds, which cost at the Cape from $750 to SI ,200, 
or what we call a set — three birds— are inclosed in 
a lot, varying in size from 40 by 60 yards in two 
acres. If the birds are in good condition they will 
soon begin to lay. Then the eggs are taken from 
them and put into an incubator for hatching. 
They will lay 30 eggs before settng, and, if well 
fed, begin again in two or three weeks. Tho num- 
ber of eggs each bird will lay varies from 40 to 90 
a year. One set of three birds, from Juno 30, 1871, 
to June 30, 1873, laid 188 eggs, which produced 133 
chicks; of these 18 died, leaving 115 young birds. 
Of these 74 were sold at three months old for £16 
each, and allowing the remaining 41 to be worth 
only £12 each, we have a return of £1,676 from one 
set of birds. The next year the same set laid 113 
eggs, producing 77 chicks, and the first six months 
of the third year they laid 97 eggs, producing 81 
chicks. The average increase is from 30 to 45 
chickens a year from each pair. The chickens are 
worth, when a month old, from S40 to $50 each; a 
year old, S100; two years old, S150; four years old, 
from $200 to S250. At five years, when they begin 
to lay, they aro worth from $600 to $1,000 a pair. 
The chickens require careful attention for the first 
three months, after which time, until breeding, 
they run in a flock like sheep, and mustered 
for plucking every seven months. Each pair of 
full grown birds will furnish feathers worth $60 at 
each period of plucking, or $120 worth every four- 
teen months. The white ostrich feathers bring in 
the London markets from $120 to $150 a pound. 
The diseases to which ostriches aro liable aie few. 


Will. B.Green, tho accon pliahed editor of the Oolu i 
Sun. thus spooks, In the course of on editorial In bis 
paper, of tho luluro of Colusa county: 

When wo affirm that tho Baoramonto vallej is to bo 
tho conterof wealth ami populal Ion ol I lie Paciflc i loaBt, 
and that Colusa county will bo tho heart of the Socro. 
mouto valley, wo are only giving uttorai 
i t pi ct to see with our own eyes, although tho frosts of 
50 winters have possod ovi r our hi ad, 88 of whii b have 

been In tin- BaCM ito vallCJ U we Bhoulll vary 

from a long lino of vigorous ancestors, and Qnd, pn • 
maturely, a resting placo by the side of tll( loved com 
punion gone before, there are ninny, no younger, who 
will see tho fulfillment of all wo may ben write, 

Sixty miles from north to south, and twenty wiles 
from east to west, la an unbroken valley of Dno alluvial 
deposit. The small amount, proportionately, of tule 
lands aro comparatively easy of reclamation, nnJ the 
f«w alkali spots will soon disappear; but W0 have a 

thousand squares miles capable of pr II iDfl snythll g 

that man's necessities or man's caprices may desire. 

The soil of the foot-hills Is ull rich, end will pi ICO 

vineyards equal to tho finest in Eurepi The volleys 
Id the foot-hills, and the mountainous portions of tho 
county have a soil unequaled in fertility, and DJOBl of 
them have water for Irrigation when needed. So that 
of our ■.•stimated 2,800 square mlleB. over 2,000 Will SCI 
a fln<- state of cultivation. 

Just 'in our northern boundary, Stony erei ■ 
from the foot-hills, after running 40 miles i 
furnishing water for manyalittle valloyand hillside 
orchard and vineyard. Here it will be taken In a huge 

ditch along tho foot-btlle for ii itlro length of tha 

county, watering all the land between the foot-hills 
and tho "trough" (where the overflow from the river 
and the foot-bill waters meet). It will not furnish 
water for all this land in tbo summer, but expi rli QCC 
has proved that this land Hooded In tho winter will 
grow profusely anything tliut is planted, from i 
delicate berry that ran be grown to the hardy wheat 
plant. This will come soon. 

Geo. F. Pucker, one of the most practical and con- 
servative common-senso men in Colusa count > 
moving iu the matter of a ditch to bo taken OUt of the 
river near the mouth of Stony creek and brought along 
Bido of the levee as fur down as the town of Colusa. 
His Idea is lo make a levee and Irrigation district com- 
bined— build a levee strong onougl) to keep the floods 
off tho land ami have another embankment on tho 
west side to hold thi waters of tho ditch. Thi 
winter flooding all this vast area of lund will be com- 
paratively nothing. In speaking with a practical 

farmer on the II f the ditch, he said he would rather 

have 100 acres set In alfalfa, th it t ould have a certain 
flooding every yeor, than the whole 800 acnes of bla 
present farm. This plan affords cheaper irrigation 
than cun be fcuinl In an] Otb' t place In California, ami 
tho land is equal to any In the known world. Any of 
it will produce ten tons of alfalfa baj o year to the 
sere, bcsidi i pi lis month! In the yi ir, 

And the raarki t for baj is not ovorstoi k< d until oil tlu 
nntlousof the old world have been Burfoited with meat 
Cheap and quick transportation is bringll 
month to our door This Bcbeme now advocated by 
Mr. Packer, and others, will Irrigate obOUl 70 square 
mTlea of land, and when It is all done, a quartet 
will b( u big farm, and 80 acres thi aveoogi Over 
500 families between Colusa and Jacinto. Dr. Glenn's 
big much wi'i qalcklj moll into small farms, for II 
win iircomo too valuable I., tiiini. of planting to wheat 
or to anything that One niun can manage on a large 
scale. In twontj years Colusa will havi a rural, farm- 
lug population of 60.000. und lor toWUS and villages 
win contain as many more, It is tho ifflrt at all these 
things that Is slow of commencement. Wo though! II 
would start sooner— start before the much poorer re- 
gion of tho San Joaqulu valley, but it bo happened 
that some rich men turned their attention in that di- 
rection first. 


A correspondent of the San Jose rimes believes 
in diversified farming in Napa and other parts of 
the 8tate. Ho says: 

Take tho well-known Napa valley for instance; 
there tho culture of tho vino is creeping from the 
valley up the high-covered hills, higher and higher, 
oven to the summits. And it is said (hat on the 
hills the vineB grow even better than in tho valley. 
Up, up tho steep sides of the magnificent mount- 
ain of St. Helena, northward from Calistoga, the 
culture of tho vino is bringing its blessings, though 
perhaps these blessings would have less drawbacks 
were they cultivated for raisins instead of wine. 
Where grapes can grow, however, tho larger fmit 
must 'also be profitable. Even in many parts of 
Lake county, now given over to almost profitless 
sheep-raising and is probsblo that a 
Bono rted movement for diversified farming would 

me liberal returns. But as long as a contrary 

beliof Is provalent In any locality, one or two men 
i-uii nut succeed In enterprises which need general 
concurrence to unsure success. Sheop farming and 
cattlo-raising as main occupations In a hilly coun- 
try, moan bad roads and few of them, no markets, 
illiteracy and intomporanoo. Life In snob placoB la 
not Hrortb living; bat let a hundred or so in ono 
Igbborhood undortako divorslflod farming, 
and a now and Improved soolal ordor would arise. 


We dip the following editorial from a late num- 
ber of the Marysvillo Appeal, which is worthy of 

At a lato mooting of tho Slate Horticultural 
Booiety, Dr. J. Btrentzel, who resides ne r Marti- 
nez, Contra Costs county, recommended tho gen- 
eral introduction of tho pecan tree in California, 
tho climate of which is said to bo well adapted to it. 
Tho pecan wood is hard, the nut valuable, and 
tho tree handsome, and free from all parasites 
which aro so seriously threatening all the fruits of 
tins State. The value of the nut may be inferred 
from tho fact that the last year's orop in a single 
count) in Ti - is, sold for about JGO.OOO. The only 
fault found with the pecan tree is too slow a 
growor for fast Calif unia. It Is like tho orange, 
only a lit I lo slower, and does not bear until about 
ton years of ago. Mr. Slreutz-l recommends that 
nuts for planting bo obtained from dealers, in 
proferonco to getting trees from the nursery. Tho 
seed Bhould bo planted in a box of dump sand 
transplanted firsl In March or April. Adonblorow 
,i trees planted around farms would mt 
excollent wind break, while furnishing a delightful 
shade, Georgo Briggs, tho pioneer fruit-grower of 
Yuba county, who owns an extensive fruit orchard 
and vineyard near Davlsvllle, has pecan trees grow- 
ing that aro fifteen yoara ..1.1, un.l bearing abun- 
dantly. At the Bosool orohards tho pecan trees urn 
also growing vigorously, as well »« In olhi i placi a 
in Napa valley. They grow without Ii i Igotion, and 

will thrive anywhere in (lie valley. Ah the ....I-. 

a inn a inii", and tho labor of planting oan be 

dono at odd tlinos when the. (armor la ool busy, 
every farmer should plant two rows of pecan lues, 
so aa to break the north winds. 


Tho Mining anil ScientiJIe Prut, of recent date, dig. 
coursed on one of Placer county's Industries as follows 

Id a recent Issue we made mention of an IropolraM 
mining enterprise In Western Placer, commonly knom 
OB thi Lincoln coal mine; but among the various md 
Important Industries, under the bead or mining fm 

Which Pine r county Is JUStlj Cell hr.,l,,|, Done holds , 

in -in i place among substantial and prnuunentindnt. 
trlcB than does the manufactory known ns thi Lincoln 
Pottery, situated at Lincoln, Placer county, and id t Ue 

lnime. Hale neighborhood of the coal mine. Adjacent 

I,, Hi. coal fields, of which wo hove heretofore spoken 

Is Situated an Odd elevation of land, known as Korky 

Ridge, which rises abruptlj at it- eastern ■ 

from B comparatively level country, to the height of 

.ii 1 100 feet above the level of thi plains its eastern 

lit miles west of tho base of the foot. 

hills of the SIojto Nevada mountains, and tbo ridge et- 

t. m.Ik woati rlv about two miles, gradually sloping to , 

ii i.i v. iii. the fiacrameuto valley. 

From the easti rn and abruptly sloping end of this 

taken the clay from which the Lincoln pottery 

tfl manufacturing material. Here, perhaps, la 

on.- ..f thi lari;. g( deposits of fine cluy in tho world. 

Ii is obtaini d, at comparatively no expense, by simply 

down the edge Of the hill and haullDg It tothe 
works, about half a mile distant, on the California and 
Oregon railroad. Ages will not exhaust this deposit, 
Willi ii Is from 20 ta 30 feet In doplh. 

Bean k Co., who own the pot- 

mploycd a large force of men, 

Which, tot" tin i with the force nt the coal mines, makes 

Lincoln B lively aud flourishing town. Here arc- man. 

I bl it ii t i T nl vases, uric B 
of Various dCstgns, The principle manufactures, how- 
ever, are lron-stono sewer pipe, chimney tops, fire 
brick and terra eolta ware. In burning these articles, 
large ami I are consumed, which also adds 

inn -ii to the welfare ol tbia vicinity. 

\t ii. iii Mechanics' Fair, among niany interesting 
and beautiful articles exhibited us the prodo 
this pottery, Was a magnificent large double antique 
nuptial vase. Which is a reproduction of one exhibited 
In Metropolitan Museum, Central Park, New Fork, tnd 
- known to be 2.200 years old. It wos mode to 
commemorate a princely marriage, and after the death 
of its owners was placed In their tomb where it re- 
mained for more than twenty centuries, until taken 
therefrom and sold to its present owners, the Mlssca 
Bruce, who loaned it to the above museum, v,l>. r. it 
wasu.uch admired for the unique compOBltli 
vases, and as Bin I p. ifection attained 

iu the crematic art at that early period. As I) 
,.i mil vase i cil never been copied, owing to tliodii 
I making, joining, drying and burning so large 
.,,,,1 ti..- lack .i competent artists, Messrs. 
Oladdln °ne of the most 

Skillful worker- In plastli clay In the Unit- I 

i his reproduction to be made in 
Show their artist's skill and give to the peoph 
mast an opportunity to see an unique ami beautiful 

: terracotta. Placer county should bi 
with four big marks in mining enterprise, - 
coal, und last, but nut little, terra cotta. 


Several inquiries have been received at this office 
about the expense of planting a bop field. In 
order to supply this information we have consulted 
several hop raisers. Through information thus 
gathered we are nble lo prtsent an itemized exhibit 
ol the cost of planting, cultivating and curing an 
acre of hops. Ground rent and (he cost of clearing 
are not included in the estimate: 

Plowing and harrowing - 

It, mis. 1,640 at one cent each lo #> 

Poll s, 820 al - ci iiis each 20 20 

Betlingpolea 100 

Twine and mining — : '"' 

Cultivating '- rS 

Training, a continuous task ; '".' 

Bucooring and stripping: twice BOO 

Total W5 CO , 

Added to the above is the cost of picking, curing, 
balling, eto. Estimating Ihe first crop of an acre 
Ol new hops at GOO pounds of cured, packing wonld 
cost $21, curing and bailing $15, and there would 
still remain an outlay for shipping. oommiaslone, 
insurance, etc. The outlay for an acre is $114, and 
tho return is GOO pounds of merchantable hops.— Press. 


The Los Angeles Llerald says : Were it possible 
to oovor simultaneously tho hills and plains ol our 
county with a luxuriant growth of trees, it caunot 
bo doubted that we should immediately receivesn 
annual rainfall equal to that or some other regions 
situated in tho same latitude, a* the planting of 
ti,-. . in BUffloienl number to bring aboul 
syllable result must of necessity be slow, bo II ii |Utl 
in many years boforo wo can depend eniirelj opon 
our rainfall. That our hitherto unhroki n 
Bona will be Interrupted henoeforth by occasional 
rains in true, bul the annual amount of n 
will not be Buffloleni foi our agricultural needs. 
ii,,, fore, for those of the present generation, a 

least, the necessity for ■ ■ resi rvoirs *"" 

exists. Thai those reservoirs, In aomo In 
will bo i-iiHtiy, is u matter of course, bul 

oostlyla necessarily extravngnntlj jxpenaiTS- 

Xi Isa rorj considerable mo.. nut of lane "' 

tin., ci unity now valueless because of ■ | "' 1, 

rod Uil« land la w situated thai 
almost ..II of it, bo roaohed by water from storage 
roser voire. 


vii. I. TKK FRUIT KARSBT mc ovtSR. 

-,.,ii.ili ill of tlif I .oh Aii-i'Iih .sV;iii-7V.i;>ii'. 

hm disoonrcea on Iho question of ov. 

ml market: 

It |g often : i - K . . 1 . " Will ilin fniii liiisiiu'HA not bo 

,ti cdoni " x"bn might u iri U nak, " wui there 

h bn id and meal produced ? You 

ould say 'No," most emphatically. Bread and 

he meats arc prodn I tn n ry country, Bul bow 

. j| witii tin- fruit" "'• j ir ■ ■• 1 1 in California. For 

DBlaoooi tbls !i the plow (There the apriool 

pi i-i, olloo. Phen an bul R n plaoea in the 
• i « i.i where the apricot grows al nil, and even 
here in California il crows and doea well only in 
c, ii on loo ilitii-H. . ! !• in i n r nun ket V" 

Kv, i \ when hi the civilised world. The demand 
[noreases faster than the supply for canned apri- 
coin. It la a matter of faot that the apricot is one 
<if, it doI tin beatol frnita canned, It is sought 
sfter not only in our own country bul in Europe. 
Large quantities are sent to England and lo all 
parts of the world, and the cry comes for more. 
And for dried or evaporated apricota the demand is 
jnuoll more than can bo produced for the next I 
twenty years. The dried apricot can bo kept or I 
sent to market two, tour or fix months hence, and ' 

puoed twenty car-loads .if dried fruits. Last, hut 
not least, comes the apple. It fa on* of the fruits 
that is next to bread and meat. It can be med in 
s.i nuiiiy ways that it can not well be dispensed 
With. Everybody uses tho apple in various ways 
it is a put of the living. Itis like all frnits, health- 

Dried apples are used by almost everyone, and 
ovaporated apples command good prices in every 
market. and good green apples In Ban Franoisoo 
worth $1.25, wholesale, all last summer and 
full. "Why is U"? One reason, there is a good 
demand. A great many thousand boxes aro ex- 
ported to New Zealand, Australia, China, Japan 
and many other foreign countries. In the upper 
country applo orchards, in many localities, have 

Degll Cted. The eodlin moth have played sad 

havoc with the apple orchards. Oregon does not 
• apples as in former years. The Oregon 
orchards bavo been neglected, and in many places, 

Some have been of the opinion that we will pro- 
duce too many oranges and lemons. But sinco wo 
have an outlet cast and lower freights wo will find 
a good market at paying prices. Our oranges come 
into market after the Florida oranges have betn 
marketed. Henco there is no danger of pro- 


The Hemi-wcekly Tocsin, published at Red Bluff, 
thus speaks of the produolivo capacity of one of 
its valleys: 

We do not believe that there is a richer agricul- 
tural seotion in the 8loto than Antelope vallev. 
The soil is the richest alluvial, or loomy in chur- 
BOter, nnd is capoble of growing tho choicest tropi- 
cal productions. This riuh soil is low enough to 
retain moisture, and yet it is high enough to bo 
abovo the floods. Antelope creek, a living Blreiim 
of sparkling mountain water, skirts the fool lulls 
on tho eastern border of Ibo valley. This stream 
carries a largo body of water— a Boffioli nl quantity 
to irrigate every foot of land in the valley, H i con- 
oraically diverted. At present, this rich valley is 
almost entirely dovoted to tbo cultivation of grain. 
We predict that this state of things will not last 
long. Antelope volley is entirely too rich and 
fraught with too many possibilities to grow grain, 
It is capable of growing crops that will return an 
hundred fold more than grain. It is capable of 
producing all kinds of berries, fruits. grapeB or 
hops. Any of these will poy an hundred fold more 
than grain. Indeed, we have held to the opinion 
for years, that the time will come when grain grow- 
ing will bo confined to the plains. The bottom land 

tbo river, is too valuable for grain production. 
There are thousands ol sores bordering the river 
belonging lo such men as Blossom, Rawson, Tj ler' 
Mooney, Ward, and on the Dye and Chard grants.' 
that is too valuable to grow grain. Time will 
provt this faot. Bat in addition to the rich alluvial 
Lntelope valley, II bag irrigating facilities 
that presages a brighter future (ban that of any 
other section of the suine extent known of in the 


The Yolo Mail, in speaking of Yolo county, 
says: Ii [s onpable ol as gr< al variety ol Drops 
an iinyseetioii thai can be found, from Siskiyou 
to San Diego Our wealth contented formerly 
of wheat, almost exclusively, until within tho 
past few years we have found our lands more 
valuable for other purposes. Our health will 
compare with any part of the State. Tbo last 
returns, of which we recollect, gave only one 
town in the State with a better health rnte. 
Wo were second. Oakland being first. Yet the 
tide of immigration flows southward from San 
Franoisoo as regularly and ot^constantly^os our 


the freight is nominal, compared to the freight on 
in. And what is said about apricots can 
be said about other of our fruits— the French prune 
and nectarine, The nectarine does not do well 
only in portions of California. It is good for can- 
ning;, si .od lor drying. The French 
prune is particularly good for drying, and always 
commands prices that pay the producer a good 
profit. Then the Bartlett pearls wanted to ship 
last to Chicago, si. Louis and further east to New 
York, Philadelphia, D »ton and from these places 
to be distributed to almost every oitj and town in 
tl.. i .mi.) s. Then v 1 1 • - demand for canned 
BariiiP :,,,,] the canneries 
want nil tin- good Bartletl pears thev can obtain. 
An.l tin market for dried Bartlett p<»rs is good. 
Bat other pears are ••• d foi hipping East, at 
remunerative prices. Then certain varii 
Beache* are wanted and thi canneries lake all the 
rb and i. ■'• I i iwfords, the U mon Cling, 
Orange Cling, White Heath Ollng, Balway and a 
tow other variolic* of peaches, And still, notwith- 
Standing that there is such large quantities or 
peache* canned, tbi demand Is not supplied. Then 
for .li i' I 

of Han Pranciaoo, was ■ month In Loi Aog< Ii ■ and 

Ban I'm rnardino • "ireo car- 
load" of dried fruits, bul "ll lit could i 

8,000 pounds. Thcso two oonntii - should have pro- 

ducing more oranges than can be sold at good 
prices. And if we produce good lemon*, there 
will be a market for them also. As to pro- 
ducing too many raisins, that is out of the question. 
Wo have the world for a market, and our raisins 
are wanted wherever known. There Is, at all times, 
a good market for canned or dried fruits, and there 
is no question but that those who will devot.- their 
time and money to fruit-raising will realize greater 
profits than the farmer who produces barley, wheat, 
corn or other farm products, be better paid in 
every way, and where the bcBt varieties are planted, 
three or four times the profit. And at the same 
tho lobor is lighter, pleasanter, and I might say, 
moro elevating. I have scarcely glanced at the 
facts in the oose, as regards fruit raising. As a 
matter of faot. the fruit business is only in its in- 
fancy yet in Callfoanla, and tho most sanguine can 
not realize what the fruit interests In California 
»ill be in ten, fifteen or twenty years honco. There 
prill l» 100 car-loads Of green and dried fruits go 
east and to foreign COUntrifcB to where thoro i» one 
now. At somo fnturo timo I may give moro facts 
and llgnres to prove beyond doubt that tho fruit 
business can not be overdone. 


Tho condition of tho gTowlng orops, according to 
tho Buttor Former, Is all that could bo desired. 

is too valuable. And Antelope valley land is rioh 
enough to grow tho moBt ohoioe produots of the 
soil. It is only a question of time when men with 
experience will come and elbow the grain growers 
of Antelope valley out of the way. When that time 
comes it will boa hlessing to Red Bluff, for then 
the land will bring forth its full productions, and 
ten families will ho ablo to live handsomely where 
one is struggling now. We do not know how land 
rates in Antelope valley, but if the same rich land, 
with Us irrigating facilities, was in Napa, Bolano, 
or Sonoma counties, it would be worth from $800 
to $500 per aoro. If tho land will not command 
these figures now, it is only because it is not farmed 
up to iw highest capacity. In the counties named 
tin v are in advance of us, and they cultlvato tho 
kind Of orops best adapted to the soil. It is only a 
question 'if tlmo. as before remarked, when a Dl n 
class of farmers will settlo in Antelope valley, for 
they will make It too valuablo for tho old fogies to 
stand tho temptation It is now settled nlmost 
exclusively by grain gTowors— larmers who know 
nothing else— and when tho men oorao who know 
tho value of fruits, vegetables and berries, the 
grain growers will bo crowded out. Tho old Bottlers 
will then leern it is moro profitable to grow grain 
on land worth only $35 per acre, than In Antolopo 
valley, where hind is worth $300 p. r aire. Around 
Tohamo, ond In faot all the bottom hind bordering 

river flows to the bay. Thero can be but two 
reasons for this. One, and perhaps the prin- 
cipal reason is that we have no place for 
skilled labor here. We have never developed 
one portion of our system. We are like a 
mature man on one aide, aDd on the other still 
an infant. Manufactories would call around 
us a desirable class of wealth creators, and 
. noble us to retain our money at home that we 
gather year by year, from our agriculture. 


The consumption of rai"lnH in the United States 
is increasing rapidly. Peter Wyokoff, a large 
foreign fruit broker at No. 54 BroBdway, New 
York, says: 

■• Valenola raisins aro an enormous crop this 
year; there is a heavy consumption in the United 
stai.s. exceeding any thing known b.rotofore. Tho 
Importation bat exceeded one million 28-ponnd 
boxes; yet six hundred boxes of Malagas have gono 
Into consumption also." 

As (be California crop this year ranged between 
100,000 ond 150,000 box. s ii hardbj becomes acir- 

oumslai « ii""' oompart .1 with tin- i ,600,000 boxes 

Imported from Europe. II will be manj \ca™ bo- 
fore fallfornla produces an amount equal to pre* 
ent homo consumption. — JHvtrttdt I'ree$. 




Oar readers have n led the manysalcsof real 

esta Ibis county, roportsd in lbs ZWomims dor* 

pasl i, vs monil ■• tnd Ilia prl© a paid. The 
pi |ci i liai e quits aatouislii ■ ! tbe old 

great bus be* □ the sdvsw i tbal ill ■ 

and unrefleoting bave n pi all do said tbe lop price 

In ii. and a reaotl oust lullow Peo 

pie of tlii- olaaa vl Ited dan Luis Oblapo a yi-ai ot 
more ago, Id aearoli ol land to buj bud Ducting the 
rates higbor tban bad bi poru-d tin \i n pre- 
vious, wen deterred fi pun-Imping; but. coming 

again, and finding man; dollars addi d ill aore, 

again went away, without becoming tbe owner of 

any land. This thi \ will probahlj 001 ue to do 

for years to do, mei ting with the >a m pi Isi s, 

going away with the it disapi iments, and 

expressing tbe that tboy bad not made 
their investments lu time. I ven here, where all 
should rejoice in the enhanced value of property, 
there are wise (?) men, who dubiously Bbake their 
too high." L?t Us com- 
pare the prices paid tot land in this county with 
those paid In othei parts of Ihe Stuto and else- 
where. Here k 1 wheal and dairy land in the 

ooast region sells at from HO t . ■ $25 an acre, and 
east of the Santa Lucia range from $2.50 to $10. 
Iu some small lulu neai lown, or In the Arroyo 
Grande bottom, or otherwise hivoiuhly loe.iteii, 
higher | Iced Tbe profits of farming 

need not be men) <l in detail here, bul il is 

enough to say tlmi n pin.liu-iive land exists 

in California. Hoie Ilie farmers are prosperous, 
and becoming mora wealthy every year. In Butte 
oounty, wo see large farms, at from B80 to $120 an 

aore; in Uameda oountj fr $100 to >500, and 

seldom do farms lu the uortbero opunties Bell for 
less than $50 an aore. In the state pf New York, 
farm land is held at upwards ol -l"u an acre. The 
most vnlnaiiii' are tbe dairj farms, and their pro- 
duct brings much Ii *t than lbs produotof the dairy 
farms of San Luis Obispn. Tbi wheat yield of the 
New York 'arms Is not hall u much per aore .is the 
yield in this county, The long winters of the East 
are much more damaging and expensive to the 
farmer than tbe dry season in this State. These 
aie advantages in favor "I our farming lands, and 

until onr prices have ei|iiiilk,| ai 

rates at which land la beld In tbal Btate thej can- 
not be said to have reached their highest. In fact, 

it would be a difficult matli i to '■ II what is the real 
value of the productive soil of this county. There 
are farm- that have produced $100, and as high 
as SH0 per acre, to then <>wm is iu the past year, 
and yet if $80 an acre was SBked for the laud, peo- 
ple would open their eyes in amazement. The 
axiom is thai n thing is wortb what it would cost to 
replace it. Thai Its good wheat land can be got in 
Washington and Dakota Tt rri lories, is quite true, 
ul the lauds of lln. County will produce what the 
lands of but fen aeotlonaof I In United States will. 
These landa cannot be replaced anywhere out of 
California in tin Unlti rhere are, there- 

fore, none wni. »i, hi, a fail comparison can be 
made. Here, with OUI unrivalled climate, tbe cer- 
tainty of orups, Ihe great ocean to secure forever 
oheap transportation, and thi prospect ol railroad 
connection with tbe ureal lini - ol thi country at no 
distant day, we maj claim tin most favored locality 
of the most favored Btate In the Union, and our 
lands wortbyof the high) si rates that dare be asked 
anywhere.— San Luit Obispo 2W1 1 


Wo take the following, tvhioll is a movement in 
Ihe right direction, from Ihe Dos Angeles 1 

We arc lull! tbal the Ban Joaquin rancho, near 
Tustln Oity and Bants Ana, Is now being subdi- 
vided ami Bold In small tracts. This ranch origin- 
ally comprised 48.000 acres, aud only a small 
portion oi n has be< n sold in Bettlera. Thi 
part of it is very tine land, and this movemi nt 
will DO iloiil.t rapidly " double up" the population 

of that section ol this county. It is In .-very way a 
i in olimate is excellent, the 

lob and adapted t" tbe growth of vines and 
fruits, as weii . , ,i farming purposes 

It is also in close proximity to a small bnl practic- 
able harbor, and (be scttli ment of those hauls will 
no donbl hasten the extension of the Southern 

Railroad to a station several miles distant, 
if not to a connection wltb the California South- 
ern near Han Luis Hey. The movement will also 
haatefl the subdivision and location oi other lands 
beyond, until the good wort reaohi a the a Ii brated 
Banta Margarita ranch In Kan Diego oounty, 
Lands thai an suitable foi Ullage are becoming 

too valoabli In I Hum California foi sheep 

' thai iin Hooka 
and bi rda irlll, al do II il laj be drlvi o to 

the ninuntains, and I] . . . ■ t j will be im- 

ln iin ii breeds, In Id In smaller numb is 

| hi OUltivatCd fee.,. Lou Angeles, 

with in i unrivaled oilman and soli, will »oon have 

ic r rlno-olad hills and plain mori ramona than 

tnd in i titlool 

■■.in in on 1 j a ii ran ni thi 

■ Raj ii luniii > 

has li d mi il" I "ii ni. 

BnbfOribfl foi ItU JlKaouuoasor UALiroiiNu. 


| dependent, in oomp n lug ita Ii ading 
town and county with Othei portions <>f the 


Miinv times pi rsons residing al Btocktou, "i 
nl othei points In Ban Joaquin oounty, have 
left for other places In California, or neighbor- 
ing States or Territories. In the majority oi 
Instances, they have returned to "old Ban Jon 
. i ii in ' ■ again, perfeotly satisfied to roam no 
more. A gentleman who has lately returned 

from an extended trip il ghoul the oouai 

and several middle i lies ol the State B(iyn 

that uo town that he visited, displays ho livi lj 
ii busiuess nspectafl Stockton. It is the nature 
of meu in I" dissatisfied occasionally, and de- 
sire a change, hut few, if any, who have left 

this Bed hove bettered their oonditiou iu 

any particular. During the past threi 
no place ou the coast can boast of more exteu- 
iive oi lasting improvi mi nts, tnd thi 
proveuiciits have been made only when 

sity demanded theni, Btooltton is tbe i I 

other places iu general intelligence ai 
erol morality as well. Much is smd in various 
sections, regarding climate and the health oi 
ipleT. StatistioB prove Btocktou i ntitli d 
to a place among the (> w leading cities, in 
poiul of health, in the whuli world, Strong 
men, beautiful women, and armii - of rosy- 
ohei ked ohildn o will testify to the truth of 

thi- slut, no nl. Win n is tin re n plaOG Ol ibis 
size that can boUSl of more wealth, or more 

mauiifacl is, or oommerci i Mi a sometimes 

talk ubout atoney matters being "tight," but 

tbe place is yet to In f, nihil where money 

matters are nol "tight' to men of moderati 
Idom cases of 
poverty requiring aid from the charitable, or 
whets relief is withheld, if needed, Taking 
everything into oonsidi ration, the residents oi 
Stocktou and the San Joaquin have no 
grumble, and, in faot, Ihi n is rorj little dis- 
content here. The industrious and inti 
farming population realize folly the product- 
iveness of the lands thej cultivate, and are gen- 
erally well-to-do, many I g wealthy. Gener- 
ally the people are nol quick to take up with 
outside ventures, aud w hen di ligbtfully-colored 

llei-olllllS ii( H I > I . . . . 1 1 . I I r _■ I , . 1 . II in lln ills. 

i. in. i reaoh us, we gaze arouud upon the broad 
extent oi the San Joaquin, with us beauty, 
natural advantages, and pimluctiveness, count 
over our cattle, and frii nds, aud children, and 
remain right here. 


About twelve mil.s from Auhnrii, in a westerly 
direction, there >• a district ol country that has 
proved •■ rolific In the production of 

the raisin grape. Mr. W Poster and Mr. F. Arndt 
have .'or several veara raised norqual- 

ityof grapes, and bavi ,| in the 

manufacture ol .. sup, rioi quslitj ol raisins, which 
tic y have been able to aell al very remunerate 
prices. During the last fen ■] others 

have engaged m the buelneas, and haw been 
equally successful. Tin Buccess ol these already 
in the buslnesB appi ai to bave on ati d a di sire In 
a number of others to make a venture m the name 

direr lion, and at I his lime that portion Ol tUOOOUMj 

is almost alive with people planting out graj 

Mr. James Oartnrigbt, who already has ., small 

vineyard, is planting 80 acres In addition to 

has already got. Tho Job brothers are planting 10 

acres, and Dr. U tnsou will plan) 

apring, and oontemplatei planting -10 acres more 

the spring following. Mi Oharles Gladding, of 

Lincoln, laaUo engaged ralbi i i itenaivi lj lo this 
business, bi Ing uov, i mployed In planting 

Most an ol the vim: « being planted by tbe 

above-named gi ntlemen are oi tho raisin 
Judging ii.. m what in,., alreadj bei □ done In thai 

P arl "' P'« mty, v. I., i warranted In saying 

that win ii the vim yards dovi hi Ing plai 

fully t0 I" arm g, that lhal locality Will bl prized for 

rioi i lui i lono th grapes and raisins, 

flaot r Herald, 


The Hem, ff a ,u, ,., v ,. xbe MonBurj barli j 

,K " now Miin ty, and lilti lj to hi c popular. 

It iH Bit-rowed, and was sen) out by thi Di 
P "'"'• <•' "i Agrli lulture foui oi Ave years ago. 

[inOtl I In < ana, la, ami I,., 

beads, which bang down with ailing, bal its 

straw is BO strong that it doe., „,,t fall dOWU 

even on thi rlohi Bl land, it has been treat d 

for mall , and pi mounood Buperior for that 

in up. ., ii m a little laii i than 

He co H i sii rowod, and and I easily di 

ti-'giiisin d from that, when growing, by a 

lightlj roddl h tin [i to thi I I when the 

hoads appear, 

< Al.ll OHM \s I'tTtltls 

\\ , iai,, tin follov. ii hi tin London 

Telegraph of Doeombi i Iflth 

\i tin • momi ni P ' i." 1 " ' tnd hoi hu* 

the Vlrirqni ot Lomi . arc doubtlc • i mulcting 

in. it, a iai- in Sai I « liicli would enable 

tin in to H ml'i an an iwi i i" tin qui rtion pro 
pounded recontlj in 111 " W a West- 

ern 1 Ol I, In \ Pi ml. ii U • \ IM.ill, M P., V\ ill 

i ihi a. with ill il 

,i to i" come iln liupp) and mi ii d home 

nl, nli il ami pro [JOrOll |li ■ •] •!• ' W I I .111 

readily imagim tin Hi i impul in ol tin il 

guest now on a visit to Ban Franoi co will be to 

■ pi' ■ ' toni 1 1 1 hi' u'li .1 qui ition houltl 

ever have lioon put. From » lial tin i h 
ni' California, tho Govomoi Goni nil ol Canadn and 
In- roj al -"i 1 in. 1 j hi ^ ' I" en tempted to con- 
clude thai no land iwisl upon i ai tli tin p 

nl " liieh .an- n • I..MH.1I1I1 Aim .1111 il "I di '. 

ami nun,, itin tati tics mi ■ tod, to 

prove what tho mineral and agrii iiltural wealth of 
i 'alifoi i" I ore I ban Iai -•■ 

tin. I area ' •' ' ' 'I tbal of the I nitcd Kin 
of the ' nine pi ion -nl. 1 of Ital I 10 000, 

res v iiiiin it ' onfim ,hii h are HI foi thi 
plow , ami as mm h I uitl a lin h In. h pri 

mil fruit-grow - 

i 'i addition, i hei e ari ni itain pasture* 

v'- hich, ni m .ii - "i moderati rainfall, i pabli 

of produoiug an imaeing quantitj of luperioi 
meat, Lumping toguthoi hoi metallic production, 

In I frilltS ami \ lin-, In i In-.-p, COttlo, ho] 

mule.-, I 'ahloi ma, H ilh an |U>] , ,pia| t.. 

that ni Franco, and with ' olimate which, subject 
to the accident ol i onfall, maj In od 
favorable, tnu I to ifford hapjij 

homes t" t iv ont ) timi a m .n\ h an ' 

the 1,000,000 In. in. ni bi in u ith n huh il i now 


Copfmr lull. 
Palaver. is, an 1 lln- San Joaquin and S ■ i ra 

Neva, la Narrow-Qange Baili tad will, unques- 
tionably have the effect of stimulating i ffbrl iu 
that field. Already Bigns ol new life are visible 
in the copper miuea of Oampo Si oo, the north- 
ern extremity of the Oalaveras oopper i"'lt. 
1 ensive copper formation along the west- 

ern verge of the foothills was thoroughly ex- 
plored more thin twi I nearly 
$5,000,000 worth of ore has been taki a out 
from th. mines al I opperopolia alone. The 
ore extracted ■■ al vi due to warrant 

to tide-water, and its shipment I.. Wahs, for 

i still any ,| U intity of ore, 

j mi. rioi i . ii. ii ihipi . 

maining, aud which oiil\ , i menus 

of transportation to enable parties to handli it 

with profit, and, so 

of it will be n nniM i 


A very intelligent Califncninn, who lately 
visit. ,| th. » , n of i Ihio, iu 

tbevioinitj of Sandusky, informs us thai the 
grapes raisi .1 there flnd i market 

at ^I'Jo In pi r ton. Hi re I In price is -VJn 

to s.'in j,er ton. Tins gentleman saj - tbal vines 
twentj years old there are not as large as two- 
year-old vines in California, The thmuess of 

the Boil, tOO, iiiipn god him II. BOJ 

iii. . ii inches to two feel 'i. ep, and 
in low thai depth then is a solid i«>ttoin of 

limestone Ti,, win. Qnda ii.el\ Bttlfl at $12 
to $18 a ease, at retail. Tin point whioh most 
-ii nok oui mi. . i man! was thi i u -, ,i in 

tin wiiu [''very di tail was us olo8elj 

ait. ndi ■ igh, if evi o the smallest 

point we looted, the wine would be au 

nil, i i.uluri . 8. F. ii 

,\ H \|-M»I,\ -l.ll.MX INI. I'OIV.V. 

The Banta Vnn Uoruld, In Bpeahing ol Ita town, 
i | thi • town wa i laid out, a shanty or 

two iii ing the i \t. nt ni i's improvi innuts,'and the 
tnuii Boarcely oommonced to grow until tin ,oai 
I87fi, si. i .i Miice. it Ijus fill outstripped 

nil th.- old settled oommuniilos, i atablisbi d before 
Banta ^nawaa over thought of, whioh, we think, 
bow lhal »" n.. i univ bavi the propi i loi i- 
leu for a large town, aud are rapldlj building II 

up. but iiini wi have the tntrj inrrounding It, 

n.'h in a: i oultural .mi inn i nil 1 1 u i ai produotlon, 
thli klj populati di and oontributlng to make thi 

"in of the Iai i| ., 

town - in Boutin in i lallfbrnla, Tho Banta koa 

valli y, Inoludlng Ihe towni ol Banta 1 

Tustln, \\i »in. i .ni. vo, now i on 

taiiii. a population of al Ii a il I Thi w I< rful 

growth in population and Improvi mi nt, ilnoo tbla 
valli j hiai. in 1 1 . i ■ aomothinfl almost 

I'h i ul. It has lew pan. lln U. 

OPP08I1 i: i n ion s(,, A[{| 

Commercial School 



Business Course. 

Only $70, 


Day and Evening Sessions, 

Uiiii1MI.<I Ten eher «- 

i I.... .,.,.. i, 

Rvunoiiiii>i<- Rate*. 

Superior I'll! Hide.. 

i <i Discipline, 

Excellent ipartmenls. 
ii. ,i.i. i,. i Location. 
Ladles Idmltted. 

Special Indncments Offered lo Per 
sons of Neglected Education. 

Business Coarse. 
Icademli Coarse. 

< ned • ..nmc.. 

Penmanship Coarae. 
U >.. Lantraases. 

PhaniiL-rii phi. < ..iir.e. 

Hpedal Branches. 

For Further Information call at the 
College Office 

No. 320 I=»OST ST.- 

Or Iddreas the Proprietors, 



Large Dwelling House and Out 



Within ii mile and a half of the town ot 
Orange. Prion,, or mi" 

with water >tOck. 

Land; also mljucent traots, at from §35 ' 
S65 per ac to, in tmots of lO acres 
3G0 acres, or intermediate j-izes. 

This land ho-s jiist been pun IiiimI at ■ l.iw prtc«. " 
a largo body, for cab, au.l aubdlvldi l into 1«> B 
tracts, and 1b Offered for sale In lots to irnit. at re«»* 
tblorst i'.v. i-inifoi. 

Part of the land, pried at from S33 to $87,501* 


tad, "ii see rani ol Ihe ibundai I thi wii 

[rrlg-ated mtheSanU Kua River direeUJ. 

u,„l Without Hi.' DOOeasltjr Of inir.lia-.luK wsi 

whioh oan bo had at til. IS poi som rh< m Ml# 
oessrul Vlneyardlats Irrhjato onlj In wlntsr. 


One hall lash; Balance, 0° f 
.inn Two it'iii 1 *; Interest) 8 v e 
oent. pev annum, 

mi i n iii.' Rancho SanttaaTJ 'J 

Santa Ann. which oitonds from th« ""' ll " l,ID '.« 

hall "i ii. ■ *•",» 

\..a Itlver, al Ihi no i larj au.l co»* w 

mi ni- nl Oriiiiif. *•"' , 
\n,i. an, I IU. lln lln I n,....e.. "'» 

\ I > I • I » lo 

no s* 8? Temple Illoofc 




A m:« CI UK ant. 

Are they grapes? No, certainly not; the 
metun shows n branch of a new variety of rod 
currant oalled "Pay'a Ne« prolific," taking lis 
name from the originator, the late Liucoln 
Kay. "I wi Btern New York, ami the varii iy ia n 
seedling of the Cherry ami Victoria varieties 
The new root was not given to I ho public until 
nfter he had cultivated it for eight or nine 


Joseph Wallace, i.i Riverside, writes to the 
Rural 1 'alifoi nlan aa follows: 

In compliance with your request, I herewith 
hand yon a list oi what I have found to be the 
most satisfactory varieties of fruit foi oannil 
M> ■ |" rieuci baa been coufiued chiefly to the 
peach and apricot. We are greatly confused 
here on varieties of apricots, in conaeqm 

reaped Vol it matures at a time when most 
other varieties are out of season, filling the 
space between the earliest and the lat< 
allowing n better choice of handling, 

The Bartlett is the only | found fit 

for canning. Tie past Beaaon I have used a 
large qnantity oi Prenoh, German, and Hun- 
garian pruues; also green and blue gage plums, 
ail "f which are Brat-olaas. Iu fact, all of our 

it is at a useless expensi of time audi ibor, and 

is, moreover, apt to bo neglected. 

u hi ui. TO i imi BOMBS. 
[mmigrante arriving in California 
Dob tie facl thai Butte oounty po 

nciit homt : . We bavi good, hi altby climate; 
exeollenl land, with abundant irrigating facili- 

years, alongside of oil the popular varieties, 
and became convinced of its superiority. For 
30 years, we are told. Mr. Fay enthusiastically 
endeavored to produce a red currant which 
would combine the size of the cherry curraut 
with the proline bearingqualitiesof some other 
variety; it being a fact that the cherry currant 
heretofore has been grown the largest, and, 
though bringing more money per quart, its 
bearing qualities have not made it profitable 
for the Eastern grower. Iu California, how- 
ever, the cherry currant has made a finerecord, 
and is the variety chiefly planted. There jb 
abundant testimony that Mr. Fay has 
ated a variety which is greotly superior to the 
cherry currant at the East, and, no doubt, 
California growers will be quick to give it a 

It is certainly a magnificent fruit in Bize and 
heavy bearing. Its color is a rich red, and 
those who have grown it at the East say that it 
haB a spicy flavor with much less acid than the 
ch--.-ry currant. It has a space of naked tern 
between the upper berry and th'- attachment to 
the bush, which largely reduces the cob! of 
picking, and prevents tie < rushinn "f uppei 
in the work 
The engraving, (or which we are indebted to 
C. M. Silva Si 8od, of New Castle, Cal . who 
are Introducing tie 

I, by tie Rural Veu Vorlcer from a 

branch grown in I bantouqua oounty, New 

York, and m are aasured that it ia an i aol 

icnUttion of the sample, It will bo iuter- 

>t will grow in Cali- 



our trees im it being, in many instances, true to 
Have found Royal, l, urge Barlj 
Peaoh, and Hemsklrk, the beBt varieties. My 
only obji otion to Moorpark ia its irregularity 

in ,i| ah ft Uow pi lohi an g I foi 

oanuing Burgi □ J t How, I rawford'e Late. 

i ind Balway a ipi rior, 

Poi several yearH the Lemon Cling baa been 
bigblj Mcommendod. it- teal during the part 

I i( U) be all that is claimed for it. 

idei it thi '" i" ooh wi bave, in every 

plums, prnnea, and neolarinea are in sverj 

n iy desirable, I ol flrsl quality, In plant- 

h trei -., I think wi Bbonld avoid using 

ti.„ ait' oted with ourled leaf, as 

ii,,,,. are pli ntj of good varieties wbioh are 
,,,,. from tins .1. feet. Overhoaring varietiea 
mighl al o bi pi |i ted, as the trei - call 

are to provo m BOtlsfaotory, any 

,,, them bearing BUfflolontlj heavy. [1 n lw< 
bi are too beavy, Ihe fruit la Bmal I worth 

less; 01, if thinned out while the fruit is young, 

ties, foi the growth ol grain, vegetables, flow- 
er-, and finite ol the Bemi-lropic and temperate 
zones; low rates of taxation; an efficient pub- 
lic school system, with Bi hool-housesenoii-h t" 
accommodate every locality ; fine church struct- 
ures, and man; I able ministers ol 
the different den miuationa in faot, every- 
thing desirable. Land is nol high just now, 
though it is appreoiatiug rapidlj in prii 
those who buy now will be -ore to grow 
wealthy in a few yerra, from increased value 
upon investments, in this oounty alone. — Oro- 


The Commercial World, of tins city, in re- 
the futu t" the Pacific Coast, says: 

In geographical position— thai ia to say, in 
Ita relation to other countries this ooasl ia pe- 
culiarly fortunate, it Btanda like a bal 
house on the shortest and most uatural high- 

wav in l wi i n the ri< Ii and si un-ci\ iliZi 

iii.ns of Eastern kaia, and the Oauoasian peo- 
|,|, b oconpj in ■ this oountrj and Europi ' 
posaibilities ol forming an indispensable oon- 

ting link iu the graud chain oi o mi n lal 

inti ii aange are almost incalculable, bo pi i 

feotly, In reaped "i natural advautagi 

ii,,. , |(j ,,f s ii m -' Mibie n. i Venice 

,,i the Mel i I ■ • thi great entn pol ol thi 

period betwi i n I uropi and Ufa 

pnrison doi h uol ui i tl to be dilated upon, foi 

,, i e , ridi q| \\, tru tl thai oui an a ol busi- 

q, gH W iU BI I-' He DOint, and make the OOffi- 

pnrison yi I on fi Iriklug, 



(•in.. n. i. ii Ntavtement of T\ro Hydraulic 

Tbe North Bloomfli-ld and Milton hydraulic 
mining companion, operating in thin connty, bive 
made their tliiancial Statement for 1882. From 
them we gather theno ilgurca: 

North hi. mm. id. i.i. 

B Gola'buUlon W86,U6 M 

Wster sales '-'."'-"-' I -' 

Divideuda from branoh company's vi,*** w 

Peraounlly reduced *." t »° 8° 

Total recol,.te WJ0.000 G6 

Dlnburs, in. ni k 

BondH redeemed, ion Iion.oon on 

Interest ou b.n.iM 37,076 w 

Expenses of lumliiK 168,714 OIJ 

DivtdcndB 135.HOO 00 

Totat disbursements $tyi.789 52 

Xnen issets a.911 13 

Showiug net profit in working the North Bloom- 
field mine proper of $235,331.32. 

Receipt* — 

Gobi bullion $416,014 1. 

Water Halm 1,42606 

Personally reduced 11,75909 

Total receipts $429,228 88 

Bonds rvdeemed, 60 5 00,000 00 

luiirchts ou bonds 12,818 83 

Improvements ou other prop, riy 13,908 07 

Expenses or mining 280,608 68 

Dividends 8.--.4 21 00 

Total disbursements $400,713 i J 

Increase in cssh assets 27,4 86 48 

Showing net profit in workiug the Milton mines 
of $180,877.80. 

As these properties are among tho leading hy- 
draulic gravel mines in the State, the following 
tabular statement, showing their operations for the 
past six years, will be of interest: 

Bullion Product. Water Soles. 

1877 M70 774 * '''.754 

lb78 M9.U3U 0,604 

1679 794,518 9.091 

1880 865.711 13,205 

1881 887,083 

1882 80.1.190 4.325 

Totals 14,410,911 100,403 

Net Profits. Dividends. 

1877 IS i 046 I 4.-..O0U 

lMTs 601.181 181,408 


1880 204 076 105,308 

1881 32 ■ .... 

1882 410,21.0 223,224 

$1 290,058 

Totals $2,333,558 

These niiute were closid fur four mouths during 
the year 1881, which accouuts for the small pro- 
duct fur that year. At Hi.- befrinniugol 1870, the 
two companies werelu debt over $1, 1100,000. 8ince 
then tins debt has been reduced lo $344 000. These 
payments and interest ou this indebtedui-ss chiefly 
account for the above discrepancy between profits 
and dividends.— Nevada Cil'j TratUOrlpt. 


In the report of President Reed, of thu8tato Univer- 
sity for !»*i 2, we Dod the following suggestions and 

r innndBtloiiB. which ore worthy of consideration: 

Tho needs of tho University ore many and greot. 
Find among tin in, and including most of them, Ih the 
need of a largo endowmout. Tho University was 
planned ou a Inn;.', perhaps ou ambitious, Bcale. Not 
content with the typical Now England collegi in which 
tho ancleut languages form the basis of the education 
given, the founders of the University of California do- 
l. rmlned to offor nt one to tho poople Of tbls new and 
thriving State, all tho cductioual advantages that Now 
England has beeu two or more conturles lu doveloplug. 
Tho plan is good, but Its very exteut will prove Its 
greatest weakness, if It Is not properly administered. 
It Is oue thing to man oflkiontly a single college with a 
single course o ' study, varied only by electlves within 
.ho course, but quite a different thing to man with 
. quol efficiency an aggregation of colleges or a univers- 
ity. Our corps of instructors la larger than would be. 
necessary for a single college, either of letters or ol 
Bcienco, having even a larger attendance thau the Uui- 
veralty now ha-, or d OUT im Mine la enough to pay bui h 
a corps of instructors more uenrly adequate salaries 
than ore now pild. But Instead of one such college 
we have many. Now, whatever doubts there may bo 
regarding the wisdom <.i t ., extensive s piau for a com- 
munity so young, we are committed to tbls broad 
policy, and It heboova us too carry the work to a suc- 
cessful Issue. Indeed, there would seem to bi 
reason • for believing that there is m California, II not 
au Immediate ncod I" a University on thin broad basis, 
. .1 1 111 1, 1 y u Held for tho development of such an ono. 
ii would only bs c nsurate with our material re- 
sources and prospi rlty, mid a Ot supplement to them. 
Indeed, I am of Iho opinion that, as a purely commer- 
cial enterprise, tho ample endowment of tho University 
would be a wise Investment, Wo have only to add to 
our material advantages the besl educational advan- 
tages to make the attractlonaol out Blab equal to those 
of any state In the Union, iii ih. . yes "i pcopb thai wi 
should most caro to have settle among US. No material, 
advantages compensate, In tbe eyes of a desirable pop 
ulatlon, for the loss of educational opportunities, 
And, as regards our educational possibilities, wo have 
in some respects advantages over old Bast) m institu- 
tions, In that we are not hampered by narrowing trad 
ition8. Now the first aud prime essential to the proper 
development of our University Is a Faculty learned 
enough and largo enough to give as good instruction 
ami bh abb- guidance as can be had In all the branches 
of study usually found In colleges of sclcuco and the 
liberal arts. To retain such able and learned men, and 
to secure others like them, good aud stable salaries tnrj it 
be paid; salaries that compare favorably With the earn- 
ings of successful men In Ibe professions of law and 

medicine, and thi re must be withal « feeling of confid- 
ence in the stability and permanence of tbe Institution; 
n fooling that whatever fluctuation of opiuiou there 
may bo ou matters of Stuto policy OI local interest, the 
University will always bo tbe center of a coiurimu In- 
terest, and the common object of a hearty and liberal 


Erom a late Ibbuo of ibeOalarerai OhronicU, wo take 
the following, In reference to tbe farming development 
In a portion of this old mining 

Throughout the central portion "f the COUnty, where 

placer mining was si extensivolj pursued In early 

days, there la quit- a lergi area of arabli land Tho in- 
clinations of ninny of thO rOllll boots, Ol 
the Sierra Nevada mountains are so gradual ss t" permit 

the busbandmau to till them will I difficulty, and the 

many coBy, weii-sie Lterod llttli valleys bord ring upon 

the mountain streams, sro s Dgtbi mostly 

productive lands in tim sint. . Tim, and experiments 

Will reveal tho foct that these Inn. Is ImmcdlBtl 

the snow belt are Infinitely adapted to fruit culture, 
more particularly tho apple, pear, and grapo, than tbe 
valley. A groat future undoubtedly awaits thai region 
in ibe development of the agricultural and uortlcul 
tural capabilities of the situation Thai fruits attain 
rare perfection on these mountain terraoea and In ih 
little valleys nesting i losi to tho flanks of th 
enow-clad mountains, which nature bss provided u» » 
great reservoir to hold baok abnndsnee of watei nntll >i 
is needed to alleviate tin tlnr-i ..( the i.i-i.l soil, has 
already been demonstrated. Theproduci ofthi plains 
in the way of table grapei and Wine, Is greatly inferior 
tothotof the higher lands, The quslllyol tho pears 
produced ou tho red soil along tin llmestOUi N 
tending in a northerly directi. m through thi 
very superior; and BB for sound, fully— !• 

i, finely-flavored appli i will hove 

to p i", lire them from mouutalu orobards ■ ' 1 1 
a home product of the lirsl .junlifj it t all. 

The present industrlBl prospcots ol tb untyare 

brighter ami "f s morn encouraging character tl 

bavi been for many yeara past Then bssl luring 

the past year an extraordinary Inquiry for mountain Contests over olalma are. numerous In both tbe 
United siai.s Land Oflli es lu Bacramonto and Btoi kton 
Tho northern portion ,■( Oalavi ras is mbraced In the 
Sacramento Land Dhtlrlot and the southern portion in 
the Btockton District astonishing as II may appear, 

the poorest foothill loud in Mm BOUUt) 

m si "i thi aurlfi i"" belt 

the Stani D the SOUth, I 

. the north— ia bow sought for «itii avidity 
A large shore of thi k land oaD b Irrl d from the 
canils constructed to c.nv. v water t" thi miners In 
early days. Twelve years ag,, there wi 
acres of lands inclosed bj fei 
times that area feni I 

homesteaded and pre-empted, the lines Ol which are 
only marked by the surveyor's stakes. 


Private enterprise brought ihecarp to California, 
and carp growers, of whom there are now hundreds 
in the State, should never forget the perseveiauee 
and enterprise of tbo late Mr. Poppe, who, at a cost 
of great labor and personal sacrifice, a cceeded iu 
bringing a half dozen ti*ii through from Germany 
alive, while many perished on the way. From tbe 
handful brought by Mr. Poppe moat of our ponds 
are now stocked, although during the last two or 
three years the U. 8. Fish Commissioners have 
sent out a large number of fiBb for distribution. 

The largest shipment of carp to this coust arrived 
on Sunday afternoon iu tbe palace car of tbe 
United Slates Fish Commission, which left Wash- 
ington with 19,000 fish, mostly carp. Besides the 
carp, there was a number of Japanese gold fish. 
Consignments of the h*b were distributed on the 
way out, and many of the fish here at present will 
be sent to Oregon, Nevada and some of the Terri- 
tories. They are all in good order, and are con- 
tained in small lin buckets, holding each 20 fish. 
They were kept in their native water, which forms 
the carp propagating ponds at Washiugtou, until 
Dalles, Texas, was reached! where tho water was 
changed, and again at Demi tig, N. M. The car is 
in charge of U. H. II. Moore ol tbe United States 
Fish Commission; James Oanawell, of Scotland, a 

fish expert, who, 00 bis r< lorn tu Washington, will 

go as specialist In clung.- of shad-hatching to tbe 
London I'l-ii Exhibition; F, L. Donnelly, another 
ii„i, expert; D, 17, Wood, Daniel Leeob (corres- 
ponding secretary ol tin. Smithsonian Institute), 
and Win. Dandridge as Steward Of tho car, accom- 
panied Mr.Mooreon his ovcrlutid journey.— Pacific 
Rural 1'renn. 

Ai.out a dozen large ranches ire left in this 
county, aud there appears to bo a disposition, on 
ii,, part of tb. owners, to subdivide Ihese, or snoli 

UOrtlODS Of them as are suitable lor small placeB, 

lob. cultivated. The demand for tillable hmda u 
■Dob,al ii.. present time, us to offer a strong in- 
due, in ,,, i lo ii.. owners of large tracts to "lot go" 

„f ih. in. v,' in. told Ibal .. remenl is now on 

fool ,,„ ih.. subdivision "f tin- Han Joaq ranch, 

wind, contains soma 18,000 acres, It Ilea In tbe 


The San Joaquin valley, at a not far distant day, 
will rival nny other R'diou of tin; State in the pro- 
duction of fruit. The soil and climate seem pecu- 
liarly adapted lo many varieties. The peach, plum, 
apricot, prune, and fig llouiish, and bear extraor- 
dinarily. They are free from all kinds of pests and 
thai so retard production in other sections 
of the state. Iu Btaoislani county bat very little 
at ten I on b is be* D paid 10 this very profitable busi- 
ness. Many reasons are assigned. The country is 
comparatively new, aud, on account of the low- 
price of laud, and the cheap manner in which 
it could be sown in grain, mon did not wish to 
engage In » business attended by considerable care 
and expense. Again, it Iibb been generally be- 
lieved trnits and vine hud lo be irrigated. Experi- 
ments teach that this is nut necessary in the rich 
bottoms oi the Stanislaus, Tuoiumno, and San 
Joaquin rivers. Mr. Stephen Itodgers, an enter- 
prising fiirrniir, is pulling out au orchard and vine- 
yard which, in a tew yeara, will rival uny oilier 
In the Slate. Ho has already 11,000 young trees 
growing iu a very healthy condition. He will add 
about 2,000 more this year. He grows his own 
seedlings and does bis own grafting, so he is certain 
to have the very best varieties and most healthy 
vines. He will this season pal out 10,000 vines, 

His expel llnelils tend to show Ibal ^i a pi -a grow OU- 

Urelj too thrifty on the ilisi bottom, but that the 

second WOUld be h'thr. He measured one vine 

that grew 34 feet in season. He intends to In- 
crease Ins orchard and vineyard unt'l each covers 
lOOaorcs, More farmers, who imve proper lands, 
should engage In ibis business. They would then 

have im leai ol dry weullu-r. All Kinds of Inula 

bring a high price in this Booth I oountry, par- 
ticularly tb" apricot, pencil mid prune. Thi | can 

nut bo proline (1 with any siilisfaclion in bill few 

aeotlonso! the 8tate.< Stanislaus Oounty News. 


The advantage of small farms, not only as tend- 
ing to insure personal independence and naiioual 
wealth, hut to augment national production ami 
wealth, was very effectively Illustrated by General 
Butler in in- a, Mice. ,.i ii,, recent Internationa) 
Dairy, Pair lo New York, by > comparison ot the 
agricultural statistics ol France witb ihosoofthe 
United States. With ■ total area bat Utile larger 
than that of the Btate ol Galifoi nls and much lees 
than that'll (bi Btatfl ol Texas, but all divided up 
into small freehold properties, and 
proved by careful oulton -. les her 

wine, cur. .1 frjils. ran silk, and other special pro- 
ducts, raises in. in- wheat, h irh J 
buokwhoat Iban all Ii m *rly as 

many horses and Deatcatll . mon sheep and more 
.'-third the qnanllt) ol swine, Buoh com- 
parisons teach us the wisdvlB of iho policy that in 
Frauce. by the Bubdlt i lion "i il" land, has made so 
large a propoi tion ol hei poople freeholders and 
farmers.— Contra Oo 

Shipping and Commission Merchants, 


390 Miiriici Streets 




Puro Grape 



Santa Anita Vineyard, 

San Gabriel Valley, California 

Vintagos of 1875, 1816, and 18T7, 

Will be found rer, rich ami choice, 
\\ ai ranted pore and of inn bou/ 


Vintages of 1875 and 1876. 
This i^ a Wine of Superior Qua|. 
ify, ami BUCll as has m-ter been 
on the market in .nn country, 
This article SHOULD NOT be 
classed \\ ilh the so-called Angel. 
ica Wines of I his ( 'oast, inn n | 
a rich, rare flavor ami lull bod. 
it <l. and Mi CORDIAL can cow. 
pare with it. 


Ma ii ii iii*-! urerc 

A 'i ii iti vim; TOWN. 

Our iniMtiiMK nelgbboi Llvoi moro, baa a Dumber 

ol go-tboad men, wbo sro lifting tbo importance of 

Hmii plsdo iiinMK »t H rate, Brios blooks bava 

i.e. n built, 1 1 'in 1 1. »-iii lie i, | ii him i in April, tbeatroela 
iiuve boon graded and gravelled, a woolen mill la 
now being aeriouelji considered, and a furtune lies 
i, i, Men in tin. thousands "f aores sol oul In grapes 
■ri„ re was iblpped by ffslls, Fargo \ Oo. i eipi 

tim punt mix montbStf88.8M.2t. May tbo Ony of 

M'.niii' in portl ■' luofl ''■■ an d baa all lbs i id- |hi , |. |M|I1I , ,.,„ „ lc , HouiImIi, and o»er rolgn 

il toll " ii'i eiim.iie. Zot AngakB Btprm. \ ,,„,.,,,, ,,i LWorm ralloy, Uaywardi Journal, 



i>ut up in Barrels Bspresaly r«»i Borne Con- 


iu Barrel snort, 


ai i. .«».-i Uarket BaCea 

ORloo: 386 Mnrbct Street, Up Stair. 


Manufacture of 1875 nnd 1816, 
Cannot l»e excelled] having been 
but a Iih months before tbe 
Public, it ifl im rinu with un- 
paralleled lii« or. to tbe exclu- 
sion of all other brands. 

Special Cold Medals 


a i -i . < u ii i i ; 


Are Manufactured from tbe be.1 
Belei ted grapes, grow n upon soil 
peculiarly adapted to fine brau- 
diesj ami iN always retained i» 
private stock until our fit' 
rears ol age, and none offers 
for sale at a less age. Guarantee! 
free from foreign spirits ora«iul- 
terationa ot an] Kind, and th' 
ideiititi of the brand alvt ;n* i»" 
sei» id. \\ bit h is a guarantee f<" 
liue quality] flavor^ and |»uril! 

SIcUled Bxperts, jnclses "i brnndlea ofd 
nuiioiim i>... tors and Melontli . .u oncep" 
nounco K. J. BALDWIN'S 


The PUHEST uml BBST In tb« WOKL' 1 

One of Many Testimonials: 


llsvqusl "' (In m ' " .ILt« 

srui iu! i 
iirodui i '"" 

I nui. w> i. 

.Il.l' 1 

i ,,, ii., i ... i ..I. i Punches the "i 111 " 1 

iik 1ND1 « ' •! •' ; '"' " 

l ioi u i- "'■■ nhvatl of nny otlieri » 

(,ttU ..„.-. .-..i.i. mud Heal 

mi i Inohi <-' ,, " 1 

i bj II '""- '■'•■ 

brandy Is mod ■• new pn 

iiiniiui red oapei UU] >■■> M 

i .- imlst, wh """" 

linpnr Res *■ 

brand] wond Ily, In a short time. 


Par Buti I i """ >: ' 

l " 

it J, ii\i.i»« in 81 ' "i- Street, 

ii,. i i»«'" "'' 

*, \\ I'U \M 1^1 O. 






Some time ngo Mr. G. G. Briggs, of Yolo cmily. 
i r, giving his expe- 
rn dc in raisin making op t" thai time. As it in 
In interesting history wi reprodooi II rortbi ban- 
eflt of our larg< - ii» t <>f readera who are or may 
hen afti i engage in this industi - 

In 1868 I bought a vineyard ol -lo acres. The 
T l D i . wi re nil of Hi" Oalifornia grape variety. 

In iin Bpring of l*Gl> I grafted them to Tokay and 
Muscat of U.xaudria— sometimes called Muscatel 
Oordo Blanco. 

[n 18721 bad more grapes thuu I could sell frosh 
In the market, and made a few raisins. 

In 1878 I Bbippcd most Of the g rapes East, and 
got nothing for themj but bad to pay $1,000 
freight, and lost nil my labor, boxes and grapes, 

Id 1874 I picked them for raisius. Ike 27th 
day of September the sun became dim and would 
hardly cast a shadow till the 25th of Ootobcr, when 
ii to rain heavily and continued raining 
nuiil nil my raisins that were not under cover had 
becomi completely rotten. When the rain com- 
menced I had takcu up about 20.050 pound- of 
and those which were Bpoilfcd by rain 
in , ], ,i about two days of bright sunshine. I lost 
160,000 pounds of raisins in the rain. 

In 1875 I made about 160,000 
pounds of raisins and planted 180 
acres of vines. 

In 1876 I made 190,000 pounds uf 
raisius and planted 140 acres o' 

Iu 1S77 I made 300,000 pounds 
of raisins and planted 60 aorta ol 

Id 1878 I made 100,000 pounds 
of raisins and planted 20 acres of 

In 1879 I made 640,000 pounds 
of raisins and planted 15 acres of 

In 1880 I made 800,000 pounds 
of raisius and planted 500 acres of 

In 1831 I made 1,000,000 pounds 
of raisius and intended to plant 75 
acres of vines. 

I shall then have over 1,000 acres 
in vines. 

Our raisins wero better last sea- 
son than ever before. Two-fiftLs 
of them were first class. 

I expect to make 150 boxes to 
the aero when my vines become 
full bearer.-), which will be in about 
four years. 

A box of California raisins holds 
20 pounds, full weight. We have 
put them up in whole, half, quar- 
quarter and eighth boxes. J. K. 
Armsby & Co.. of Chicago, have 
handlei them all for the past four 
years. Three years ago they sold 
them on commi-Biou, and tbej 
netted me two and a half cents a 
pouud. Two years sgo they paid 
me SI 10 a box. One year sgo 
they paid me 51 35 a box. Last 
year they payed me SI 75 a box for 
first class and $1 40 for second 

My entire crop of green fruit, 
dried fruit, almondB and raisins 
sold for about 5100,000 last sea- 
son, aDd my expenses have just 
about balanced it. I am satisfied 
that raisiu making will pay in 
California if it is economically 
managed. Our grapes are ready 
to begin picksng about August 
28th. We have trays to put 
them on when we pick them, 
composed of 4 boards, 7 inches wide. 3G in- 
ches long and a half an inch thick, cleated 
together by nailing with clout uails a Btrip 3 in- 
ched wide, 28 inches long and a quarter of an 
iDch thick across tue ends of the four seven-inch 
boards, making the tray 28x36 inches. We place s 
tray to a vine and pick the grapes and place them 
on it, and then elevate the north cud of till traj B 
Uttli bo as to get the full heat of the sun. Bomi 
vines have two tiays of grapes on them and others 
even more, but the average is about one tray to a 
foll-henring vine. A traT holds about 25 | 

grapes first sud •"• 1 oropol grapi 8, 

There Is a did. renc. ot abonl Ibree '•••" k« '" the 
tims of the ripening of the two crops, drapes \ugust will cure in about 15 

days, 'i bos. plcl fd the Drat oJ Ootobi i will re- 
quire from 30 to 50 days, ai d 

fir. heat to dry them, or to QoiBb 
drying them. 

When the grapes are half-dried, w< lorn tl 

over i. i mpty tray on tie ni and turn- 

ing tie m ovi .. I< aving tnom on the tray ; then we 
take ;, onanothot 

ind ti i. i ..■■ i 'I men will turn fi 

10 trays a day Win n iho n 
veput them into sweat hues, which hold about 100 

pounds. They are 28x36x7 inches. Tho raisius aro 
remly to pack four days after placing in sweat- 
boxes. V)ur puckers average about seven boxes a 
day, hmi layers ol in a pounds iu each box. 
Our viueyards are well situated for railroad ac- 

1 imodatlona. Our packing houses are close to 

BWitohes, which the railroad company has put in 
lor our convenience. We can load a car with 
raisins in 30 minutes. Wo sell all our raisins f. o. 
b. (free on board). Wo prune our vines to from 
10 to 20 buds, and they are no more than 10 
inehiH from the ground. Wo find the finest 
bnnohi a on or ni ax the ground. 

of practical lumbermen, who have traveled through 
the redwood region, a poor guess would be of moro 
value than the figures issued by the Government.— 
NoHlvwestern Lumberman. 


The following, which wo take from the Santa 
Ana Herald, contains much information ahoi t a 
valuable section of the State: 

The Santa Ana valley is ono of the largest and 
most productive districts in the State of Oalil 

in I'tvomi LUMBER. 

The Post-Intelligencer, of Seattle, W. T., has 
some severe strictures on Prof. Sargont's article, 
recently published in thy North American ' 
An extract from the article reads as follows: 

•The belt of redwood forests along the Califor- 
nia coast has alivays suffered severely at the hands 
ol the lumbermen, ami many of its finest and most 
accessible trees have ulready been removed. A 
large amount of this valuable timber is still stand- 
ing — less, however, than has geuerully been sup- 
posed; and at the present rate of consumption, the 
commercial importance of this forest will have dis- 
appeared in a few years more." 


A traveling correspondent of the Bulletin, of tbiB | It is about fifteen miles long and twenl 

city, furnishes that paper with the following Doles tending from the foothills to the. ocean. At lost 

The Pomona Laud and Water Company offers three-iuuril.x of this area la susceptible ol cnltiva- 

traots of 40 acres to settlers, at from §73 to ~l-'"> lion, and the day is not distant (if wo may judge by 

per acre. The location is midway between River- 
Bide and Los Angeles. The village of Pomona 
contains 400 peoplo, with public school, express 
and telegraph oftices, churches, and lailroad depot. 

Etiwauda is tho name ol a colony that baa made 
a fair start. Over 1,400 acres are said to have been 
sold in small allotments, within u year, at a rango 
Of $101)'" 515" per acre. <!oiierele pipe, tor nuta- 
tion, has been laid about seventeen miles in length. 
Tho electric light system is reported to have been 
successfully introduced. A $6,000 hotel Is Inst 

The Iowa tract is claimed to have good facilities 
for raisin culture. It is located near the famoua 
Cucamonga vineyard. 

Tho San Jacinto Ranch is being subdivided to 
suit Btook-raisiug, general farming, or, fruit-grow- 


The tray 

This, tho Washington Territory paper calls ■• the ing. Land is offered at from five to tbirty-flve 

very error of the moon, so to speak." It says: 

"In Humboldt county, California, the whole area 
of the redwood for«st has been mapped and platted. 
. gomi thing like 600,000 acres of that timber 
in that county alone. Disinterested experts eati- 
,,,.,[. inn, 000 feet of lumber as an average, if not a 
small Meld. At eighteen dollars per 1.000 foet, the 
! of Humboldt county alone would just 
„i„„it paj iim present national debt, There are 
Immense untouched bodies of redwood in Del Noite 
oouutj to the nortli of Humboldt In Mendocino, 
Sonoma, Maim, and Banta Oru* counties to the 
tontu, Vs.- do not know wnat the, writer meauB for 
rears. The oldest child bogtoten by any of 
n„. babes born to day will not llvo to see the supply 
,,i redwood exhausted on this coast. A statement 
so wild as the above leaves liltlo room for the recep- 
i„, i, ,,i what else the writer has to say us trustwor- 
thy material upon whloli to baas an opinion as to 
lent andvalue of onr forest growths. Wo 
trill ,,,,t follow linn further In this direction. He 

,.,,,|, ,,i| , || DOl Bl 1 I" the woo, Is." 

\„ | D | , t< .lure of these comments is tho 

,„,,,„„,, ol the amount ol redwood "landing in 

Bomboldl i iy- tl Is planed at 50.000,000 feet, 

,. huo ii,, forestry bollt tin ol California, under the 

dire* a,,, iv,, Bargont, put. It at 25,826.000.000 

for tlU entire BUM. According to the opinions of 

dollars per acre. 

In the El Cajon valley there is a large area of 
land being staked off that will bo offered at public 
auction within a week or two. 

Ontario, though one ot tho latest settlements 
projected, already boasts of a good-sized, readable, 
weekly newspaper. A horticultural college and a 
cable street railroad are among tho promised 
features of the future. 

Tho American colony offers land down to 550 per 
acre, and w ill sell in tracts as small as fivo acres. 

A sale of a tract of 40 acres near Coltun is re- 
ported at 56,000. 

The Colion cannery is being enlarged, M " 
fruit iB expected to bo handled tho coining summer 
by this concern than BVM before. 


ClH.rlesKruK.snys lie SI II, I /. 

,,, pu i oul M sores on Mi How, II mountain vlnoysrd, 

tod ground Isnowbolna plowod for thai ;po ■ 

•,. win be put out In o few wooks 

ranch, towards Oalistoga, w n ral aoros will be put out, 

what has been accomplished), wl en i vi rv acre of 
this district will be brought under cultivation, and 
made to yield ita proportion to swell tho grand 
total of our horticultural aud agricultural wealth. 
Already we have moro than 11,000 acres of irrig- 
able lands nnder cultivation; at least 6 000 acres 
embracing oichards nud vineyards, and every year 
sees tbiB area is extended. 

Wo exported last year 20,000 boxes of choice 
oranges aud 16,000 boxes of first-class raisius. 
This year wo expect to market 30,000 boxes of 
oranges aud 20 000 boxes ol raisins. Wool, grain, 
hops, potatoes aud miscellaneous sgrioultni 
ducts aud live stock wore exported from our valley 
last year, the weight of all exports, both by rail and 
sea. footing up og total of 21 600,000 

pounds, iu addition to the successful cultivation 
of tbo orange, lem..n, lime, ba- 
il <ii ., prune, the Boft Bbell wal- 
nut and almond, we can and do 
raise tho larg> st and fines, apples, 
pears, plurn«, varie- 

ties of grapes find a congenial 
home in onr valley, II 
conclusively demonstrated that 
the soil retains the moisture 
longi r, and the fruit is much 
larger aud better flavoied than 
moat other sections. Every year 
new vineyards are planted 
there is great profit in grape grow - 
ing at last year's pri 
ton, avir.eyard four year old yi( Id- 
in;; at least eight tons to till 
Tho raisin industry is destined to 
be of vast importance iu our vail, y , 
our climate being so peculiarly 
adapted to the successful manu - 
facture of raisins which will, In 
tho course of time, drive the 
foreign article from the markets 
of the country. The dem ind fi r 
the produot is steady at good fig- 
ures, and last year Beveral carloads 
were shipped direct to Eastern 
markets from this county. So 
much, briefly, for our produc- 

Ab to the climate of our valley 
it can not be excelled, even I 
famed regions of France, Spain or 
Italy. The average temperature 
for each month, during Ihi 
year, is as follows: January, 59 
February, 59 1 „ degs., 
March, 59*6 dega.; Apri: 
degs.; May, i I me, 71 

July. 73 degs.; August, 
- pti mber, 784 dtgs.; 
Ootober, 66 't degs.; November. 
68 degs.; December, 56 dega. 
Average for tho ytar. 65 'i degs. 
In January we had 28 pleasant 
days; February, 20; U 
Ap.ii, 28; May. 20;June, 28; July, 
pterober, 28; 
October, 30; Novemi 
cember, 28. 

There is scarcely a day iu the 
\, ... that a gentlo coast bn i ae 
dots not blow, the valley border- 
ing on the ocean, the town of 
Santa Ana being only nine 
miles from Newport, tho landing-place lor our 
steamer from San Francisco. Improved lai 
cording to location and improvements, are held al 
from 5300 to 51,000 per acre; unimproved lands, 
suitable for orchards and vineyards, (depending 
also on location and facilities for irrigation) , from 

160 per acre. These Bgures arc bigb, 

by any means, as compared with lands dev. t< d to 

.. pnrpoaeBiu Franco, Spain, and Its 
,i, Florida, where 53,000 au acre has be. n fre- 
quently paid for lands covered with orange 
, ma that, too, In s oountry whioh has 
poor soil, a climate not oompanbli to ours, aud 
subject to some of those awful visitations ol i 

,,, which wen.ade mentl ' ■ To sum up. 

the above are some of ii wo offal bome 

seokers in the Santu Ana valley. 

ii wi K\< Tl RBS. 

j nc , . . o shows thai the numb, r of 

1 ''- In t! 

, v.-,,,,, : ■ the tul ol oapital In- 

mployod, inoluding ohildron and | 

""•'■"<" "' """V:"',u!r "'n'"' 13,093; total am' < paid 


,i„ larpl i. whl. kltberio boon adotr n value .., , 

to tho plaoo. With improved draUiago, the vines will 

uiidoubt. .1 1 y thrive w. II. 

I In i ,,■ b wl 





So. 3*0 Snnsome St., Halleck Bulldln K . 


Terms 8!i per Annum . 



When you hnrr reixl this paper preserve II 
ami lend It lo your .■.■■■■ h i..., ... or k.ihI II to 
■oiiii- (Mend in ii.. (Eastern, Western or South- 
ern States, Canada, England and < i- 

neuiiii Borope, svliovrUJ vol ne the Informa- 
tion It contains, «n<I mlffht lie likely tocome 

or send ■ ■■ • ■ 1 1 1 _-. n i . in.ln.i farmers to 

settle in < u I i 1... .. ,.,. 


First Pose.— San Diego County. 
Second Page. — Ban Diego County, Coutinu-i). — 
. Fsrmlna Diversified FsrmlER— 1 

rsmento Oountj \ Ni n inni and simile Tree. 
- The Li U coin Pottery.— Cost of Hop Culmre. -Stor- 
age !{•:■-, : 

Third Poire.— Will the Fruit Market be overdone?— 
Aotelopi Valley, Tehama Count] —A Bleb Agricul- 
tural Section. 

Fourth Page.— Vali I Farm Lands in Son Luis 

Obisp i Subdivision of I u Btoi ktoo 

snd the San Josquin.— Grspes nnd Ilaiaine 

nia's Future. — OopneX in Cslsvi KB dainty 

Firth p»i;e. \ New currunt.— Fruits for Canning.— 

Where to Find Bomi - 
Sixth Page. -lug It., naiiziis— Arrival of Government 

psrn -Thi Btate Gulvi rslty —Fruit Lauds.— Farming 

Lands in i IslSVi rsfl I lonntj . 

Seventh Page, i ars in California RalRln 

Making.— Redwood Lumber.— Real Estate in South- 
ern California.— Santa Ana Vuii.N and Its Advantages 

Eighth Pajre.— Our Msnufacturii 
crease in Vitleultun —A N> w Mining Bchome.— Tho 
Revival ol Industry in the Mountain Counties.— St. 
Helena Wini - -Thirtj Thou 

Ninth Page.— What Shall we do with I >ur Boys?— 
Our Bhipplufl Interests.— The Calico Mini • — Angors 
Goats.— Suiiiun r In the i tOUDtry. 

Tenth Pujre. — Best Grapes for Wine. — A Good 
Chance to Invest -Greenville Mining Districl i'iu- 

mas County. - Bri-lit Prospects Ahead for Bolouo 
County. — Mining Matters 
Eleventh Page. -San Gat.ri. I Miksi,,„._ \v,„, .,,„| 

Temperance.— Do Something -Vino Qrsftlug, 

Tweirth Page.— The Foothill Country -Alvsrado 
AUmodaCounty.— Culttireol Hops.— 1 seful ■■ 

Thirteeniii Page.- \ Woolen nil] -This Ores) 
and Glorious Country -An Eugllsb Vlewol I alitor 
ma. — FsTmers 1 Profit* - small Furins ami Hanoi 

Fourteenth Pujre -The Food Supply of Europe.— 
\ ni' sultan in Los Angeles County.— Humboldt Rail- 
roads — Anothi r Petri 

Sixteenth Page. Jany Advan- 

tages.— The "West Bidi G pernor Stanford's Vine- 
yard. —The Raisin Grape. —The Northwest .-Mr. 
Coop, r - OUva Int n 

Tho growth of otir manufacturing industries, 
notwithstanding their great importance, ap- 
to uttraot less ntteution tbau almost any 
of our lending interests. It is highly probable 
that not more than a few, among our own citi- 
1 ii-. are aware of the degree of development to 
which they have already attained, while even 
among those at a distance, who take an in- 
terest iu the affairs of California, our olaims 
as a manufacturing seat are hardly recoguized. 
A tubular statement was recently published 
showing that tho manufacturing establish- 
ments in the State employ over thirty thousand 
persons; and that, during the last year, the 
united value of their products amounted to 
over $100,000,000. When we compare thiB 
statement of things with that which existed it 
few years ago, the extraordinary advance w 
have made will be, at once, apparent. It is 
not exaggerating to say, that within the brief 
period of five years, the number of manufactor- 
ies has more than doubled, the number of 
laborers employed quadrupled, and the value 
of the products manufactured shows a pro- 
portionate increase. Such results are indica- 
tive of the achievements we may reasonably 
look for in the future, with our increasing 
wealth. With a soil and climate suited to the 
production of the raw material for nearly all 
(be important staple industries, and a geo- 
graphical positiou which naturally commands 
a trndiug field of colossal proportions, the 
prospects of our State's future greatness, as a 
manufacturing center, are amply assured. 

To those who still persist iu lookiug on Cal- 
ifornia as merely a mining camp, the fact 
must appear somewhut astonishing that the 
value of her manufactured products, in a sin- 
gli j Bar, is nearly equul to the bullion yield of 
the entire territory west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. We can not refrain, however, from poy- 
iug the mining iuttrest, in this connection, a 
passing tribute. It is an industry of which 
we are ull proud. Its products have been the 
chief means tif stimulating and sustaining onr 
other great prodnolive resources. Its mission 
in tins respect has not, we trust, reached its 
climax, and it is certain, from U 
"f tin 'past, Hint iu priiportimi as nor nun. -ml mil man- 
ufacturing interests will extend and flourish; 
till they reaoh a point al winch their farther 
progress will be independent of local oou- 


The firm of Messrs. Geo. C. Young & Co., in 
Petalnma, does a general real estate business. 
They have facilities for furui6biug to immi- 
grants desirable small tracts of land. BUitable 
for all kinds of fruits, vines, etc. They will 
sell such lauds as cheap as they can be pur- 
chased from the owneis themselves. Title in 
all cases perfect, and terms mude easy. On 
application they will furnish printed lists with 
descriptions. They have the finest vegetabli 
and grain lands to be found in the Btate, 


Great attention is paid to irrigating lands in 
Eresno county. Numerous ditches take thl 
waters of King's river for miles, over the drj 
plains. It is atated the lateBl canal pro- 
jected is to l>.- 27 miles lung, and is to carry a 
flow i qua] t-i 1,600 oubio ft el pi i sec ind. The 
total cost of the canal will beaboul $90,000. 
It will enable very many land-owi 

their otherwise comparative!] valueless 
laud, and will, by enhancing the value .,f 
furms, add to the taxable valuation "i the 
county some (23,000,000 

■»»™^ »___^> 


ilifornl ., sre finding 
out thai this Is a paying bo linei . and 

I nail j leaving fannin • foi itook-raising, 
'l hi hi i nt i f u l rally! 

agricultural districts arc well adapted foi the it in ii. DORADO. 

w, learn that there baa bi i □ a dl wovi n ol 
a thi ubovi cam i d i ouutj 
The i" 1 si r'l" i i oipn ■ ■ the hi Hi I thai more 
thorough pro pi i ting ■•■. 111 dovi lop Ii d 


Governor Perkins, in his message to the 
Legislature, estimates the present value of 60.- 

000 acres in new vineyards at 915,000,000 
That is at the average rate of $250 per acre. 
It is not too high a valuation. These new 
vimyards are almost exclusively planted En 
the best foreign varieties of grapes, and, when 
seven years bid, will yield for wine, at u mod- 
erate price, not less than $60 an a. re. Tho 
total acreage in vineyard on Jrtne 30th, 1881, 
was 75, Ml acres; on June 80th, 1882, it had 
risen to 101,031 acres, an increase of 25,890 
acres, or over 31 per cent, m oue year. No 
"' lj ' 1 oountry oonneoted with the cultivation 

01 Ho soil shows so large an u,, i 

Only about a den,,),, , lg o, the vim 
of California whs insignificant, and viniculture 

was confined almost exclusively t,, the o itioe 

of Los Angeles, Sonoma, Napa, Saoramento 
and Ban Joaquin, Now, we Lave, at least, 
160,000 acres in vineyards, most of winch has 
bi en planted in thi I •,. allure Isthe 

staple industry io Los Angeles, Bonoma, Napa. 
Saoramento, Ban Bernardino, Santa Barbai i, 
EI Dorado, Calaveras, Tuolumne, FrcBno, anl 
is rapidly increasing in Contra Costa, Santa 
CrojB, Monterey, Stanislaus, Mariposa, Mi reed, 

s "' • x*olo, Tehama, Lake, Mendocino and 

Bntto n is oonfldentlj believed thai the ael 
returns from the vines abroad] planted, four 

VI Bl I hence, will be iinul\ $8,000,000. 


Mining Bei ma to have taken a new start 
tbronghout the entire mineral range of the 
State, Capitalists are more and mori 
theii attention to this industry, in every 
mining district there seemB to be a pi 

feeling of renewed conthh n n • th, p, ■,,. 

pie. and a strong disposition man if i iti d to i \- 
tend mining operations. New quartz lades, 
of promising riohni bs, havi n ci ntlj bi en din 
oovered in various localities in Calaveras, 
Amador, MaripoHa and other counties. The 
old blue gravel tunnel mines of Sierra are 
now yielding largely. The mines in Plumas, 
Shasta, Siskiyou and other old mining lections 
are reported to be paying very line, <Jj 
to their enterprising owners In Ban Bernar- 
dino and other sections of Southern California 
new developments are being constantly ruadi 
in the recently discovered mining districts. 
The mining interests of the State are as yet 
only in their infancy. 

The revival of industry in the mountain 
counties is not, by any means, coufiued to 
mining alone. The farming and fruit growing 
interests present equally strong eviderj 
renewed life. Settlers are obtaining titles to 
the land, and, in the course of a few years, B 
fixed population, with all the comforts of per- 
manent homes gathered aronnd them, will take 
the places vacated by wandering minei 
through the gold sections of the State, in the 
Sierras, there are innumerable basins, 01 Bin ill 
valleys, of rich agricultural land, which can 
now be taken up by anyone who may wish to 
ji til. down and found a home. Our State is 
now being penetrated by railroads m all direc- 
tions, which are opening up new and product- 
ive sections of country. Towns, and even 
oities, have sprung up within Ihe last i. n 
years very rapidly, in some sections. Farming 
lands and town property are rapidly ap] 
ing all along the lines of these roads. Ami 
right here we wish to state, particularly, that 
the railroad has exerted a most powerful influ- 
ence in raising California to a position which 
she now occupies, as a prosper, in 
Btati ii there is anything t > which the peo- 
ple of Ob in indi bti d to mor< than 
another, for the prosperity, general activity, 
and progress she now enjoys, it ie her railroad 

A NEW minim; ->< ill ill 

Il is stated thai a iiiimli, i of Wealthy New 

xorkers have organized a company, with a 
capital of $20,000,000, lo tunnel audi i the 
mountains ,,• u Orovllle, Butte county, and for 
gravel Ing. The head offloos "i the com- 
pany are ni Buffalo, New Vork. Ex-Cm 
man B ij V Pit roo Is pn Bidei ol tho com- 
pany, James Do Graff i« Troasun r, and N. A. 
ii a, i ,. ..i Orovllle, 1 1 General Manager and 
Buperintondi ol Thi re Ib belicvod to I n 

gold inch i thfl Sll ua Nevada im, milium, Mian 

avei taki n out ol them 

st hi i.i \x wines. 

The following wine notes are taken from the 
St. Helena Star, of n cenl - 1 >t - 

The value of some of the choice kind-. .,f 
claret grapes may be seen in the fact thai Mr. 
Schefller sold from his Edge Hill cell 
1882, two thousand gallons of n blend oi 
Moiinede and Curignnn, fur o5 a gallon. 
This was '81 wine. The ae I been 

sold when six months' old, for 55 cents, and 
now, since New Y, irs, when it i 
months' old, iB held at 76 01 uts, and there is 
not enough to supply the demand at that. It 
is important to add that the purchasers arc a 
firm of the heaviest wine dealers in Los Au- 
geles county. There is a moral in this some- 
w here, fat Mill empi planti I m uiilv 

find it. 

It is a gratifying indication of the popular- 
it? of Si Helena uinis that a prominent n Bi 

dent of Los Angeles has just sent to Mr 

Soheffler for 160 gallons for Ins own use. A 
Fresno man has also lately Bent to thi 
cellar fur a Bttpplj 

G. O. Fountain has sold to Laohman a 
Jacobi, Sun Franoisoo, ins orop of 24,000 gal- 
lons Of wine, and is DOW -hippr 

Louis Sander i« hauling bis wine to Berin- 
ger Brothers, to whom he snhl In, ernp nl Jii,- 
nun gallons. 



A writer in the Oakland 77,7,., 

of the 30,000 people a , to visit this State ' 

"tie body, Bays: ' n 

mall parts of the United States thote U 
"'"•'■ ButflcienHy definite Information to 
thi assertion thai at least 16, I KnightsaJ 

haM ;1S " - N '"''"^ Will visit California f 

the triennial. The strain upon miiroad Bc 

''""" I»ti"»fi will be ho great that the transit 

muetbegin bytheflrst of Jun. and rontinn. 

till August 12th, when the Gi i Encampment 

meets. Every available Bleeping car on t De 
continent |„,s already been ' ugoged Some of 
tho Pullman palace cars have been secured to 
be side-tracked and used by their occnpanii 
during their stay. Fifty dollars ■ daj , „, u , 
reported as the puce. Box cars ,. r ,. (ll i„. Iittt ,, 
np to answ. r, when all the more comfortabli 
ones are exhausted. The next great effort Al n 
1 - to i.inl sleeping accommodations in Ssn 
Oskland, and other places within 
reach of the metropolis. A generous bospit- 
ahty will be demanded of every household hay. 
ing a sp„r, bed and an extra place at hi, 
board. Thousands of people who want to see 
California before they die, will take advantage 
passage from the Missouri river to 
Francisco. But they must be Knights 
Templai i om m mderies of the East 

faithfully to qualifj Royal Arch- 
masons to participate in the great transit In 
a little time the Committee will have the exact 
figures, but enough is now known to warrant 
ertion thai 26,000 oi 80,000 people will 
be here to see us and test our hospitality, 
toh people, too; the very select of the 
worthy, if ,e,t th- wealthy, of the land-peo- 
ple it will be an honor and a pleasure to meet 
ond to know and entertain. For such we have 
no doubt of a generous reception by all onr 
as, The result of such a visit will be the 
ion of hundreds and thousands of these 
sight-seoru to the permanent population of 
the coast. Our advantages must be known to 
be appreciated. The visit will make them 


California is now the foremost sheep-breed- 

itft in the Union. The census statistic* 

1 Bhow a grand total of 42,381,289 sheep 

in all the States and Territories, California'! 

being I 152 349, or nearly one-tenth. 

The uext highest State i B Ohio, with 3,902,000 

New Mexico Lad 2,088,832, and Michigan. 

be Pa . i tic States aud Territories 

Btand credited us follows Californi i, I 153,- 

06 3 11 i Washington, 291,1 

Colorado, 748.- 

122; An/mi a, 76,652 total, S 512 380 


California, En the oulture of grapes, sugar, 

tobacco, raisins, olives, fruit, flax, llOpfi m 

monufaotorii b, in mini -, in oommi rce, In foi 
ests, in ship i, mi in,--, can furnish emploj nl 

''"' 10,000,000 "I pOOpIe, and can iiniiiilmii 

them iu oomfort, II thi j will labor. 1 1 
says a writer, who is well informed on tie Bub 
joot, a twenty oi fortj ai ri pieoe ol land foi 
adustrions workingman that has entei 

1 •' I Il" Kid. in BtotOB "i 

Europe t loupj It, and Bupport, In a fori 

and Indi pendenoi . for i vi ryone thai is willing 
I" toll. 

Oaliforniana Bhould feolo pride In a publica- 
tion ulu, I. iii doing BO iniieli foi Hie State aa 
tins journal is, aid Bond II to thl I] Ml Dd I 

C. N. Feltou assnreg the I - Kipress 

that the oil prospects in the above district, lo- 
cal. ,1 iu Los Angeles county, nr. 
aging. His company expects to double the 
quantity of oil uow taken, in a few months. 
I'll- present yield of the wells is 400 barreM 
ii is estimated that it would reqnira 
at least a yield of 1,500 barrels to supply thi 
oil consumption of the Pacific Coast, aud Mr 
Fi Iton's company alone expects to reach tbi> 
0.1 in the course of a few y< 


We learu. from the Los a.ngi lea p ipi rs, that 
some large capitalists have audi r consideration 
the matter oi constructing vast reservoirs, e" 
the upper waters of the streams used for irriga- 
lion in that oonnty, by doming cauyom 
through whnh they find their waj to the 
plains. If tins is doni , II is belii vi d thai thi 
v. ii. i can be so saved and utilized, that th«* 
will be enough to irrigate all the arable land in 
that count \ 


ii is siat. .1 thai iii immenae timbei for 
i Btethoua tnda ol lumbi rmi a, i ban onl I i 
. i in find , mpli | 
w. bonoBtlj believi th il Oalifnrni i to-daj^' 
i"i.i ■ more advantagi a i" all olas i 
ii ib and the i r, than anj othoi Stall '" 

thl I i.i. ii \ in in, W Hli i -niall sin" "' 

mom \, cm live hen obi ip. i aud bi tti r, " ||1 ' 
mui i, i ■■ work, wbi re be cultivate- the s '''' 
than in auj othei place thai we knovt oi 

Bnbtarlbo for tho u»souuos.s 



WHAT S I A 1.1, wk no WITH OCR 

[Written for tub RssooncM of Oiuronjru, by Timet 
0. Kemp.] 

This question bns been asked over nnd over 
again, for the past i'ii years, from one end of 
Hi, Bl iU to the other. 

Article upon article has been written upon 
the subject, but all to no purpose, and in tbe 
meantime the aggregate of boys has augmented 
at a rapid rate, while enforced idleness bos 
Bteadily Bwollen the ranks that are continually 
marching on, in tbe direction of tbe County 
.Tail. Industrial School, House of Correction, 
nnd each of tbe Sta'.e prisons. 

The fathers and mothers of California have 
been favored by the Great Creator, in a manner 
thai baa ii" pi ■ cedent in history. 

Never before did any people have such grand 
opportunities, or be the possessors of so mag- 
oifioenl .1 heritage. 

It has 1 iiif 11 settled, foregone conclusion, 

that this State is to be one of tho most populous 
and opulent that has ever been known; while 
the city of San Francisco will eventually be- 
come the great monetary aud commercial cen- 
tre of the world; with the civilizations of 
America and Europe at her back, and that of 
Australia and the two nations of Japan and 
China on her front, from which will radiate, 
in every direction, tin most valuable produc- 
tion! of intellectual, agricultural and meohan- 
ical labor. 

There is room enongh here for every boy to 
have a farm, adapted to the culture of the great 
specialties, silk culture, etc., which can not be 
1 toi lied in any other region, and of which 
California conld have almost an absolute mo- 

Every intelligent being born into thi9 world 
has imperative obligations to perform. We 
were not placed here to consult our own par- 
ticular tastes and desires, but on the contrary, 
to perform stern duties, whatever they may be, 
each in his own day aud generation. 

Oar ancestors thoroughly understood this, 
when for the sake of a mighty principle, they 
gave up every comfort of country, home and 
family, crossed the track'ess ocean and. amid 
snow and ice, landed on Plymouth Bock in 
the dead of winter, with but one Friend in all 
the universe, and nought but the leaden sky 
above their heads. 

The decendants of that immortal band un- 
derstood it equally as well, when an hundred 
and forty-six years later they faced the best 
troops of Europe, and freely poured out the 
most precious blood that ever flowed in human 
veins, that their decendants might enjoy the 
great principles of civil liberty a nd live under 
the beBt form of human government ever de- 
vised by the mind of man. 

Since then, an hundred years have come and 
gone, and we of California are surrounded by 
every comfort and luxury that the most fastid- 
ious could desire. The fairest land God ever 
made. An atmosphere as pure aud bright as 
the gems of Golconda. A climate, tbe most 
superb that ever was, aud a soil, the like of 
which was never known. 

ides all these priceless blessings, we have 
a complete monopoly, as I before stated, of 
certain products, which the rest of the world 
can not do withont, the demand in fact baing 
80 great that with all our resources streched to 
the utmost tenison, we shall still be unable to 
wholly supply it. 

Aud yet, under such circumstances as these, 
the fathers and mothers of California help- 
lessly sit down, and, in tones of the most ab- 
jeel despondency, cry out, What shall we do 
with our hoys? 

1 ot this uupardonable, base ingratitude? 
And are we not proving ourselves fearfnlly 
recreant to the sacred trust bequeathed, and 
noble example set us by the Pilgrim Fathers, 
mothers, and heroes of the Revolution, whose 
decendants we claim to be ? 

I would ask the parents of the boys in Cali- 
fornia, what the I., st soil in all the world is for 
if Dot to be cultivated. What too does 350 
days of each year, that a man can work in 
his shut sleeves, and 200 of sucees -1. 

1 1 not to work m the open air, and 

Has not the Cr« itoi plainly said to the pi 0- 
pl< of this Stale, 1 have given you 'or a heri- 
tage the Eden of the world. As m tbe com- 
mcnc-iiji hi, 1 plai • d youi first parents in Para- 
now have I given you California, that 
b( become tbe mo il pro pel 
ous peoph that ever existed. 

How have the parents of this State r , 1 

to this ? 

They have negleoted to till the magnificent 
soil, and are, m most eases, so partial to city 
life, that tiny are unwilling to make the imper- 
ative sacrifice, for the sake of their hoys, thus 
permitting them to grow up in idleness, while 
the sensible immigrant from other climes comes 
here, acquires the loud, and with il all the 
golden opportuuitn sand heretofore mile ird-of 


This insane devotion lo city life, and blind 
worship of dress and style, is the principal 
oursi ol modern civilization; and, on account 
of it, our boys aud girls are yearly becoming 
1 more aseless, and, in another gener- 
ation, their ruin will be complete. 

I know this is stroug language, but where, I 
would Osk, is the man or woinau who does DOl 
feel, in their heart of hearts, that it is strict, 
honest truth. 

Save we nol degenerated fearfully since 

1620, and is it not time to cut loose from this 
terrible bondage, once more assert our mau- 
hood, and prove true to our God, our ances- 
tors, our children, and ourselves? 

There is no necessity for the parents ol Cali- 
fornia to ask the question "what shall we do 
with our boys?" People East might do it, but 
we — of this State — " never." Teach your son 
that a good trade is a thing of the past, 
all trades being divided and sub-divided, much 
of the work being done by machiuery, aud 
even at best is simply the ability to do a thing, 
provided some one else will hire him to do it, 
placing him always in the position of au appli- 
cant, when it should be his aim to become 
a genuiu> 

That everyone of the learned professions are 
crowded to suffocation, that a clerkship is not 
only the worst ship a man ever embarked on, 
but, as business is now conducted, actually one 
of the hardest positions in the community. 
Teai b him further that, in twenty years, this 
State will be divided into innumerable orchard? 
and vineyards, each of which will be an earthly- 
Paradise. That the owners of them will be the 
most independent class that ever lived, and 
finally, that the one sole aim and purpose ef a 
California boy should be to become a vilicul- 
turist and fruit-raiser. 

I consider it the sacred duty of every parent 
in this State, who has a boy, to make any and 
every sacrifice, in order that he should learn 
and follow those pursuits, just as if tin n- whs 
actually nothing else whatever for him to do. 

My reason for this is that then- can possibly 
be no other business so good for him, he, 
under these most fortunate circumstances, be- 
coming a king and monopolist by Divine 

Iu order to carry out this idea, the parents 
of the boy, or boys, must be willing, if neces- 
sary, to give up city life, and go live upon a 
piece of land, aud put Up with any and every 
sort of inconvenience, until their trees and 
vines bare, become old enough to give them a 
support. I consider that no parent has a right 
to consult his or her taste on the matter, and 
say they can not leave these comforts, and go 
and isolate themselves upon a farm. 

Duty to their children demands it, and if 
not equal to the occasion, they are unworthy 
the names of Americans. This is right where 
the shoe pinches, aud is the one great oh 
above all others. 

" Why, 1 never heard of such a thin 
one lady, " I had sooner live on a lingli mi il 
a day in the city than tbe fat ol the laud on a 
farm. No sir, I would rot before I would do 
it." And so the boys must hang around, work 
in pickle factories, be kicked about from pillar 
to post, aud fiually grow up miserable wretched 
beings; and reader, just as sure as I am v> riting 
these lines, I have giveu you the true can le ol 
much of the enforced Idleness among the 
youths of this and other Ouliforuian cities. 
This is what's the matter, the fault lying 
wholly with the parents themselves, the words 
fashion and style being at the bottom of it. 
Qod has given us the incomparable soil, una- 
ible climate, magnificent advantages, 
and has finallj orowned ail with iin- en lusivi 
monopoly of tin- prod ml . , lull heoaUBeHe has 
not added tbe BidewalkB ol Kearny and U 

iii.i gi oeral pleusun a ol oitj life, all 

,, 1, ,,|, ai d On ki usible immigrant from 

, , 1 1 , , 1 olimos onntinues to te, and will oon- 

tinm , antil doI one oil tar j aore ol this fan- 
heritage shall r< main anoccupi* d 
When thai day niim b, thi question, 

shall wi do with our i"'.'. "' "'ii bi an 

emphatically, they and their children having 
beoomi the - rvants ind dradges of the own- 
ers of the soil. 

Style and fashion are very proper for those 
who have ample meaus to live up to tin n re- 

For a rich woman to p IJ fort} dollars for ft 
1 tel is just « bat 1 ■ m edi r] to help the mil- 
liner along; but, to the mind of the writi r, foi 
a family of small means, who live ofl thi 
of the father, a good cow would bi 
better investment; and thi five 01 sis hundred 
dollarsthut has bei a Baved up to buy the wife s 
sealskin sacque, as a Christmas present, would 
purchase and plant ti □ ai n 3 of good fruit 

land, and si art a! [l QSl One boj 00 thi hi 

i i princely wealth. 

The writer very respectfully subm 
foregoing to the perusal and consideration of 
den of The Besoubi i ■•-. fully belii ring 
that it ia one solution, at all events,, of the 
great question, "What shall we do with Our 

OUR SHIPPING imi.uisTs. 

There is one pleasing fact connected with the 
shipping interests ol Humboldt county, and 
that is that a large portion ol thi 
structed at the yards on om bay are owned by 
enterprisiug men who have their homes there. 
Men who, with limited capital at iheir com- 
mand, are giving considerable thought to this 
matter, and are manifesting a willingness to 
invest in that direction. At tbe present time, 
no less than some 2:1 vessels, large and small, 
are employed in carrying away the products of 
this county. This uumbi 1 ol vi -sels represents 
an amouut of capital close on to 11,000,000, 
aud may, perhaps, exceed that sum. \ 
portion ol this money belongs to non-residents, 
mauy of whom reside in San Francisco. The 
resources ol tbe county are exteusive and 
varied, and each year adds largel] to the amount 
of products to be shipped away, not only to 
markets in our own State, but to those iu for- 
eign lands. Capital invested in providing tho 
meansby which these products shall In , 
conveyed to market cannot fail to bring to its 

owner, or owners, g i inten -i on the amounts 

invested. Tins being the oase, why should not 
our own citizens own and of the 

vessels engaged in causing fri ight from Hum- 
boldt county? They should own these vessels, 
and iu small shares, being well distributed 
among the people. This would result in hav- 
ing tbe property taxed here, adding greatly to 
tho prosperity and welfare of the county. San 
Francisco now receives quite a handsome sum 
from taxes on the vessels engaged iu thi oar- 
n jog trade of this county, all of which can and 
will In- saved to our own county when its 
i -iti/.i ns build and own these vessi is. Bin ie 
Eureka has become a port of entry, it is to be 
hoped tbe enrollment list will swell up and 
compare favorably with Eastern towns of like 
importance. — Humboldt 


In its last issue, the Print, published in the 
.i Calico, Sin Bernardino county, says 
The outlook of our mines, at present, is yerj 
bright. All the principal min 

I, and a good mauy claims an 
prospected, with good results, i.8 work pro- 
gresses, tho forces of men employed in tin 

mil. i - are increased, and vi ry fev< idlers can be 
seeu on the streets. It is the intention of 
some of the companies, il the amount of ore 
now taken out yields as nri II as they i \pect, to 
build mills for their own 086, and we have 
every reason to expect that there will be at least 
half a dozou mills m operation in tins rioinity 
this slimmer. The richness of the ore iu some 
of the mines is wonderful. Large quantities 
of ore thai will average hundreds ol dollars to 
the ton are ready for the Oriental mill, when it 
operations. Sherman's mill is running 
day and night, on an amouut of bullion quite 
satisfactory to [te owm I i, A aumbi r of board- 
ing and lodging-houses bavi been put op ol 
the prinoipal mini b, good roads have been 
opened to most ol them, a great many othi r 
improvements have been made, and thi mines 
ire bi Ing put in good working order, with the 
, pi 1 1 a mm ol doing s large amount ol work 
this Bummi r 

QTJAIITZ mining. 

Quartz minii ■■ Butte, Bit - 

othi t i intain countii b, is aotivo, and the 

prospects me gonorullj favorable foi n good 
yield m the futun 

\\«.nic \ GOATS. 

H. T. Hatch, whose much is north of Wil- 
lits. is the owner of quite a large band of 
graded Angora goats, ranging in grade from 
half to fifteen-sixteenths, and is more than 
pleased with his venture. More goats can be 
kept on the same range than sheep, and the 
expense of taking care of them is less, whilr 
ting come but once a year 
The demand for mohair is constantly iucreas- 
this country, promising to far exceed the 
supply of the world in a very few years, and 
the price paid* is always sufficient to pay a 
good, round sum on the mvestmcnt. In this 
connection, it will not be amiss to present the 
following extract, taken from the Breeders' 
relative to the growing demand for 
mobaii i 

"During a recent walk through the largest 
woolen null m the neighborhood of Philadel- 
phia, the writer was surprised to find a large 
pile of bales filled with mohair. Upon m- 
quiry, the fact was elicited thai already con- 
siderable linn hinery is running on fabrics 
composed of mohair, the majority of which is 
imported. This fact is especially interesting 
to those who have heard of the absence of a 
market for mohair quoted as an argument 
I the profitable culture of Angora goats 
in the 1 nit, a" States This hair, though going 
into several other fabrics, is principally ein- 
ployed in the manufacture of plushes, for cov- 
ering the seats of railroad ears— an indoatry 
just now attempted in tins country The pro- 
prietor of the mill above referred to, admitted 
tin superiority ol the American mohair, and 
izi d his conclusions bycomporing sam- 
ples of foreign and domestic product. With a 
fair market for their fleeces — as reliable as that 
of wool — within ready reach, there seems no 
reason why the culture of Angora goats should 
nol take its place beside thai of the hitherto 
more popular farm animals. Iu fact, in many- 
localities, goats can be handled without at all 
interfering with other stock — as they prefer 
those hilly and arid localities, inaccessible to 
most other animals. The time for sneering at 
efl'orts in the direction of introducing the An- 
gora goat in the United States seems to have 
gone by forevi r. ' — Mendocino Disp 



(Narrow G riptive 

"List of H H l 

i Irounds, wit It n urn - ind Post -I Iffice oddi ■ 

i along the hue of it 

inoludii \ Cruz. These 

on for free distribution, and we oall thi attention 

ol I 

1 ii a rummei holiday 
The Santa Ci are unrivalled for 

e impei mi I I 

ami s.mta I'm- are glorious places for excursion- 

I o P " un Ii c ii iw manage nt 

ol i 'apt. Cantus, ami Park, bj Julius 

\\ ildi mouth, i nic gr ida Thesi 

oriptivo ol the rood, timi 
tables, rates of fares, i tc , can be obtained at all of 
the Company's offices, or at 222 Montgomery 
it P agoi Station, l< 
mth lido, s.oi From isco Ul offic. 
connected bj teli graph and express. For special 
excui Mon rati - and contracts, apply to R Id 
Garratt, I i \ . ut, a| 

the ' lenerol < Iffici 


The Santa Cruz 8enti •' thus speaks of it- 
county: "We have -rand s eenery, several 
rivers, a beautilul hay, the biggest oeeau iu the 
world, great forests, B welling* ales, high mount- 
ains, hills purple with clustering grapes, fields 
golden with ripening graiu, thickets full of 
whirring birds ami bounding deer, roads run- 
ning in every directum, a hundred places of 
interest, ereeks alive with Bpeokled beauties, an 
arm of the ocean inhabited by the monsters of 
the deep, and a oitj that Adam and Eve would 
cuter, were it possible for them again to be 
driven rrom the garden ol Edi d." 


Tho correspondent of tho Mirysvillo i. 
says: Tliero is a rush, among capitalists, to sccuro 

tmilier lands. Imiuii Mt-iidnci-m lo tin i">ie h mn line 

every nawspapoi is literally filled with "Timbor 

Land Not ." iu<aw ler that these valuable 

lands bave nol been taken before this lata day. The 
■ooner the Government land In the State, whether 

timber, fan i; 01 grazing posses undei private 

ownership, tbe better II trill be for all o id. 

iiH j will i"' Improved and begin to paj 1 1 
the arjpporl ol the state. 




111 si UKAPU* Fllll WIN I-.. 

At Iho luHt mct'tiug of the Bantu Clara County 
Viii.iiluiial Sum i\, tho Oihcuvbiod ou "the best 
rartetlea of grapes for wiue" wu opened bj L. D, 
Combe, with tbfl Fullowiog paper, whiob will bo 
read with interest by all viueyardlsts: 

Ii is ijmi my purpose to give bere extended re- 
marks upon the different desirable varieties of 
grapaa,bul only to point oul those th*l have proved 
to bo especially adapted Io the soil and climate of 
portions of this valley that are known to produce a 

high class of wine. First, foremost an 

would namo the two that are almost exclusively 
used iu the production of Burgundy, the Plousurd 
and the Pent Piuot. As far as tried, their viold 
has proved satisfactory, and the quality of I he wine 
unsurpassed; second, for the production of the best 
Bordeaux wine, we bave tbe Cabomet, winch, us we 
know, forms tbe basis Of the famous Mtd..c wine. 
It seems to have a preference for a soil rather 
moist. Tho Chance Noir produces an I SCI III Ql 
wiue, different from the two first named. It grows 
well here, but, liko many other valuable vai ll til -. 
is rather a shy bearer. For the BoussilOD wino we 

h.ivi - i>i.- M ii.H -M.iviiii'ii brings •-; i Drops Id any soil, 

the Orenache, iucliued to produce much wood, 
prefers, consequently, the light soil, the Charbon- 
neau doing well almost anywhere. The two varie- 
ties last mentioned would make an excellent wino, 
if mixed iu,. For white wine there are four 
distinct varieties, eaoh one produolng an entirely 
different type of wiue. Tho Sanrignonne and Col- 
ombar, of tbe same family, give us the true Suu- 
terne. The dlffereut varieties of Bit Blings produce 
our imitation of Rhine wines. Tho Folle Blanche 
is essentially a brandy grape, but its wino maybe 
used in blending with either white or red. Tho 
Chasselas, of which a number of varieties are 
raised, will give, when treated propesly, a fair 
quality of wine. All these varieties are known to 
do remarkably well in tins valley; the iU-isling re- 
quiring loug pruuing, and the Chasselas doing 
much better when grafted on more vigorous block. 
In conclusion, I would suggest that parties who 
wish to plant of tbe most varieties, and are unable 
to pp. cure cuttings lit present, should set out seme 
of the tbrifly growers, like the Mi<*iou, Rose de 
Perue, and Verdul, for stocks, and in two or threo 
years grafts may be obtained, ami thus much valu- 
able lime is gained in the establishment of valuable 
vineyards. As a proof that much may bo done, in 
one season, in tbe way of grafling. ar.d almost 
wholly with unskilled labor, wo will state that Mr. 
Brings, of DaviBville, onct- grafted 28.000 vines, in 
oue sea»on, at Wintersville, with very good suc- 
cess — Sun Jose ilrrcujtt. 


We have often referred to the fact thai it would 
pay some of our Hollistcr capitalists to erect s 
number of cheap good dwelling-houses lor 
rent, aud we do so ngaiu in tbo hope that some of 
our moneyed men mil take advantage of the op- 
portunity, not only to muke a profitable invest- 
ment for himself, but to convey a substantial bene- 
fit to a large number of families who aro now oc- 
cupying inferior, uncomfortable and unhealthy 
houses, simply because they can not procure any 
others. For over two years there has bl I D I 
dearth of dwelling-houses iu this town-, at Mm pri g- 
ent time tbe demand greatly exceeds the supply. 
and where we find one dwelling for rent u. Bod 
half a dozen families who want it, in older to get 
away from the miserable little coops in which they 
aro compelled to live, on account of the 
decent houses. There are munj families here who 
aro cither too poor, or for some other reason, do 
not desire to buy properly and build dwellings of 
their own, but who are willing and able to pay a 
good rental for comfortable, well-built houses. 
Heme we lay that the man who puts up iu this 
town a small number oi next, well-appointed tene- 
ments, will have no trouble to find lenenlB, and 
will receive a handsome return fur his investment. 
— San lleiuto Adcnnce. 

mas COUNTY. 

The Greenville Bulletin, ofJan.lOtb, lunsspealsa 
of some of the mines In thai district On Monday 
evening a clean-up was made at the Orescent mine 
after a four days' run with four stamps , ami the 
result was $4,000 worth of bullion. The on bodj 
opens ont better rvory day, 'Iho Taylor-Plumas 
null ih almost completed , little more Hi in la log 
the water pipe remains to be done The Green 
Mountain nulls 110 both running steadily, and 
have been yielding better during tbi pxsi week or 

two. The uin e mini i are lootti d In the for t a 

trlangl . tbe On at nl bi log dovi a on the Qel at 
ii,, fool "i (be mountain, the Taylor-Plum 

rdi northwest ami tlioOroon Mountain abonl 
600 yard* northwest ami up the mountain. The 
miln lode u consequently tipped at 
depth in the Orosoent mlno than In either ol thi 
other*, and ll Is tbe unlfoi mi (L iro thai 

i.i,, ,,,,. lartobei ..- -i ptb Inoroi n -. 
win he win. both the otboi i I i prosi nl 

workings of tfa ntxlnxt tueli groatosl 

,j, ,,ii, an lereral hundred !■■■<■ abovo even tho 
snrfjuM ground ol fclu I n i- 1 mlno. 


There is no doubt that Northern Solano is enter- 
ing into an era of prosperity that has never before 
been equalled in her history. It is but tbe legiti- 
mate result of the natural elements of strength 
ami wealth that sooner or later make their influ- 
ence felt. She is rich iu hope, and big with prom- 
ise. Nature has showered advantages upon her 
with a lavish hand, and she is rapidly settling up 
With a class of people that have tho brain, the 
nerve ami the capital to develop her almost inex- 
haiiBliblo resources. Considered from a sanitary 
standpoint, she has no equal in tbe State, as the 
State Board of Health conclusively shows. Ab a 
wheat-producing Beotiou she stands at the head. 
She sends tho earliest and best varieties of fruit 
and vegetables to tho market. Her wino grapes 
aro universally pronounced tho best that are sent 
to the Sun Fraucisco markot. She is tho very heart 
of a rich belt extending through Solano and Yolo, 
that produces tho very best raisins now cured in 
California. Indeed, in this particular, she claims 
pro-eminence over all other vilicultural counties. 
She is soon to be provided with a system of irriga- 
tion will ol. viui.- all dangers that arise from a 
drouth. Tho water company recently organized 
possesses tbe material for good and effective work. 
Th.y will doubtless run a ditch along the ridge juBt 
east of Dixon, and all that vast tract of land lying 
between us and the Sacramento river can easily be 
furnished with an abundance of water. knottier 
ditob will also be run along the bank of tho dry 
slough that ruus through the ranches of Messrs. 
Summers. Merryfleld, McCune, and Oaruetl, and 
this is of such an elevation that water can easily be 
distributed over tbe entire belt lying between us 
and the foothills. This will render every foot of 
land in this vicinity, available lor grain, fruit, vege- 
tables or for grazing purpose, as it has already been 
fully demonstrated that by meaos of irrigation, 
. w ii adobe lands can be made to produce largo 
crops of alfalfa.— Dixon Tribune. 


The Stockton Independent says: The owner 
of a patent cunning apparatus for putting up 
fruit and vegetables, has been in Stockton, 
trying to interest people iu the establish- 
ment of a cannery here. Wherever can- 
neries have been established in this State, they 
have been successful. Canning is the only 
profitable way in which fruit and vegetables 
cun be preserved in large quantities. It is a 
Staple industry, and can be m-ide to pay wher- 
ever there are large quantities of fruit. There 
is no doubt but that a canning enterprise 
would pay here if undertaken und managed on 
burii prs principles. 


There is the expectation thai there will bo moro 

activity in quartz miuiug in this district tho com- 
ing summer than there was reason to expect a few 
mouths ago. Some of thoprospeotlng mines which 
have beeu suspended during the muter mouths will 
resumo operations while thero are rumors, tor 
which there i« somo basis, of ouo or more old 
mini I starting up. Thero are also several bonding 
operations of good properties in course of m golis. 
Hon. with the view of putting them into new and 
stronger bunds, so that it may be said that there is 
00 Idleness or indifference us to tho opening or 
development of the quartz resources of tho dis- 
trict. Then is no Bi Id In iti Caliiarnia that offers 
moro encouragement for legitimate quart/, mining 
thuu this. This character of mining has been a 
successful business hero for more than 30 years, 
during which tune many millions of dollars have. 
beeu extracted, aud yet there are many veins that 
have only been superficially worked— to the depth 
of one to 300 feet. There is a wealth iu the quartz 
veins of the district that Justifies the outlay of a 
large capital and the efforts and labor of enterpris- 
ing men. Although much Work has been donein 
the way of exploration, it is merel] the beginning 
of what Is yet to bo accomplished in this old and 
reliable gold-bearing region. — (Trass Valley Union, 




Fire and Marine Insurance 



Telegraph Institute 



F. R. CLARKE. Principal. 

* '' r '" '■' ,: i: ' . reria. v 

ii Open Sa Jm 1 * 
Inn tbr. nghoul tl . h raltlon is i,/« ,, "^ 
ball nsuatrates. Excellent '- jjg" * 

Full it,..., ..... Court., Full Normal Coq ri . 
Review <,,ur"! 

v i" • ;,. 

' ,vl "k-'..,,h, 

academic > am -■-, 

1 oi Joi H-.Ai,, contalninj! run n.ni_. 

Capital, paid in full,- $200,1 

Assets, Dec. 31, 1881, $377,457.82 

Losses Paid Since Company was Or- 
ganized nearly, $800,000. 

JOHN O. WISE President 

CHAS. A. LATO.N Necretary 

No. 405 California Street, S. F. 


The Leading Merchant Tailor 


Store and Manufjctory: 


Awarded the First Premium 


At Portland, Oregon. 


French, German and English Cloths 

Samples with Self- measurement Sent Frc. 

Peruvian Bitters. 







M mil. 




Iti audi of New York), 


816 and 818 


( Hi din llj in i Hi - ill© public to visit his new 
■tore, where they will see the largest and 

eholCelt -!.■• I. nf I ii glial) :inil I i_- ii ipi - 

. i.ilii.- iii U .... I . ii- for tin- Spring Sooton. 
Give as a rail. 


Examine our New Styles, Prices jmil Qual- 
ity. Civility t.. nil. Xo trouble to show 
goods. Lightest anil Largest Tailoring Es- 
tablishment on the coast. Satisfaction 
guarunlin-il. Slore light) .1 by Electricity. 




'I'll,- irolden thr< green, 

£stbl tie colon lil. lid. .1 in I.. tWBi ii. 
Tin- silver tliri'iiils mind In with brown- 
All colurs in wool as soft as down. 


Pants from $ 5 00 

Suits from 20 00 

Overcoats from 15 00 

Dress Coats from 20 00 

Genuine 6x Beaver Suits 

from 60 OO 

Black Doeskin Pants from 7 OO 

White Vests from 3 00 

Fancy Vests from G OO 

English « in ils for Iluutiug Suits 


With Instructions for Self-measurement 

with our Gazette of New Fashions, 


NICOLL., The Tailor, 

Men's Furnishing' Depart- 

JAlso^nvltes attention to bis New Furnishing 

I'. I. .1 .1... ni I- the l.i i -■ -i stock of the lines! 

I • make 


NICOLL, The Tailor, 
Ready-made Department, 

ii»,.i large -i". U ol Men's, Boys* and Youth* 1 


or ii,. \. 

-.i i 

• iiii ns i Improved Styles, 

anufuclure and wurrnnied 
Nulls from f 1ft. Boys' Halts, 

shrunk. Men'. 
liven oats, UisI 

MPBCIAIi ATTENTION paid t«> imir.ui 

from Hi.- . ..iiiilr> . 

HICOLL, The Tailor, 


IkjU^rlx-ot Street, 




Near St. Helena, Napa County, California. 


— AXD- 

Brands of Eed and 
White Wines. 


Burgundy, Bordeaux and 
Rhine Wines. 


Orders Received and 
Promptly Attended to by 



San Francisco, - - California. 



The Handsomest Dining-room in the World. 

WM. F. HARRISON, Manager. 



Santa Cm Guow (tor. 

CO "' r: . 8 

Pacific Eifle and! stol Powder, =e 


Hi i. lit Glaze, iii Iron and Wooden 





FUSE, Etc. 


No. 230 California Street, 


(Uf-?C\ v " ,,k '■''••••- »' I". nn l.v II,.- Inilui-trl.iiiH. 

JS I S. iii -i business con bi toro Ilia publlo, capital 
Sr ■ "™ not needed ffo will start you Urn,* 

i ■■in., wsnti .i • n rywbi re to wort foi us. N..w 

ih the tlmo v isn wort Id ipan llmi . or glvn rour 

whole tlmo toll ii,, , bualnou will pay 
id« • mi i.iii i ke i di i 

i'..slly ."i HI mi. I I. in,-. 

Mono) msdi t, ■» ill] and honorably, Address 

Tuus U Co., AuyiniU. Maine. 


In Harper's Magatlm . ire ilud the following re- 
ference to San Usbriel Mission: 

In Iho plain just under the edge of the moun- 
tains, Ilea Die old village and old mission church 
of Ban Gabriel. The mission dales from 1701. It 
was founded, like nil other missions of California., 
by friars sent out from the college of San Fernando 
lyof Mexico. I well recollected the eccle- 
siastical buildings of tin ■.■..• ■ rnando. 
Tin y Btand y. t on the principal sireel which was 
the scene of Oor tee's streat from the 
city, aud are marked, I belioTe, bj an inscription 
commemorating the site of the famous Leap of 
Alvarado. The buildings founded from this pic- 
turesque sourco aro thoroughly worthy of it. The 
same massive ness, the same taste lor bright color, 
the same quaint rococo details, including the pe- 
oollar battlement, wind, was a kind of Spanish born 
of dominion. At this one six green old bronze bells 
hang in ns many niches together. The fern-like 
shadows of a line of pepper treis print themselves 
in the sunshine against the lime stained white wall. 
No more than the church now remains, the great 
ngriculturnl establishments connected with these 
missions having been swept away years before the 
American occupation by ediot ol the Mexii 
ernnient. Home bits of broken aqueduct, and a 
few orange trees above a hundred years old, in what 
was once the missing garden, are the only vestiges 
Of former prosperity, The interior nfthecharch 
contaius a few batter. .1 religious paintingB, 
always of the wors» lype of thl Ii kind, It is doubt- 
ful if the luxury of good pictures was ever supi r- 
ndded in these estnbllshments to the excel lint ar- 
chitecture, for which there seems to hare 
nafiral instinct. 

The village is piquantly foreign. Its single slreet 
is composed entirely of white adobe bouses. One 
of them, with n tumbling rid tihd roof, Is so full 
of holes that it looks as if it bad I itn shelled. All 
the signs ore in Spanish Here i- the Zapatero, or 
shoemaker, and here is the Panderia, or bakery. 
Tho south walls are hung with a drapery of red 
peppers drying in the son to prepare tho favorite 
condiment. Tho population aro a humble class, 
who gain their livelihood for the im ■• l | art by .1 1\ 
lab ir on the surrounding estates. They nre not too 
poor, however, to retain their taste for festivity 
Still. On the occasion of some notable wedding 
among them tbey will mauage to mount on horse- 
back, and surronndiug a bridal carriage driven 
postilion fashion, return from the ceremony, at the 
old mission whooping and tiring pistols in the oir 
in the most gallant and hilarious fashion. 


During the session of the State Agricultural Con 
vention, recently bi Id in Ibis oily, Charles \. w. t- 
more delivered a lecturo "On Viticulture in it" 
Relations to Temperance." From it wo quote tho 
following extrnct : " I wish that we could have the 
clergy of Ban Francisco and Sacramento with as 
to-night, that they might be impressed with our 
personnel ; that wo are nota lot of sou and intem- 
perate men. When I Oral bi cami inti n Bted in tho 
subject of viticulture, I asked scientific and medi- 
cal men why it was that the people of France, who 
aro the most universal wine-drinkers on the face 
of tho earth, aro the most progressive, economical 
and law-abiding citizens tho world cau produce. 
I found no immediate answer to my inquiries. 
The French drink tnorewino than wo do, but were 
unable to give any explanation why that fact ac- 
counted, if it did at all, for the BU] r industiy 

of their people. II wdb not until I got to London 
that I found an answer to my question. There I 
burned that the greatest foe to temperance was not 
the wines and brandies of France aud California, 
but the heavy and unfermented beers of England 
and the adulterated liquors. Statistics prove be- 
yond the possibility of question thai whi re wb t Is 
supplied t" the masses pure and cheap, morality 
and health average high. It is a conclusion ad- 
mitted by themoat advanced political economists 
of tho day that Iho presence of a pure, cheap wine 
acts as an exclusion of an ascertained quantity of 
poisonous. ile-iio\ in^ -|, 11 ii nous liquors sold under 
various names. Just in the proportion an < 
nia advances us a wine-growing and wine-drinking 
Miuie. so will its prosperity and rational temper- 
ance advance. In the exact proportion that the 
poor are given a healthful substitute foi wbiskj In 
pure wines, will morality and temperance extend." 


A gontletnau who has receully visited the 
southern portion of 1 1 « . - State informs us thai 
then- are evidences of thrift in almost cviiy 

BBOtlon, Fresno City, whiob woj recently 

visited by u disastrous conflagration, is rapidly 

recovering from the effeota thereof and will 
soon be entirely restored. Further south Ihi re 
in a considerable demand forfruit and vine- 
yard lands, and high prioes are demanded, 
The Irrigation problem is being gradually 
solved, am i tho equable ollmate is causiug a 
rapid Bettlomenl ol the oouutrj by imuiigrante. 
— Sacramento Bee. 


The Colusa Sun, a few weeks ngo, gave the 
following most excellenl advice to a certain 
oIose of men to be found in and around every 
town, of any ,j ze: 

We see every day men idling around who 
will tell us ihut they can lin.l nothing to do, 
bnl ii. re is always something forwilling baods 
to do, We kuow a poor man. with a large 

family, who took up a claim he side of the 

hill tins Bide of B.-ar vulb-y. It was considered 
worthless, but he went to chopping wood, aud, 
with three horses, hauling out on the plains, 
nnd to Williams, to Bell; ond, when he oould 
not find a market near home, be brought it to 
OolUBO. This looked like, bringing coals to 
Newcastle, but a paid him better than 
around, growling at nothing to do. He would 
sell ins wood here, and buy watermelon 

thai would find sale in 
the other direoti m. This man's nan, 
F. Goodire. He has done more than this. He 
has planted grape vines on tho side hill 
demonstrated that they grow luxuriantly there 
without irrigation; that, iu fact, the foot-hills 
a county considered worthless, are fine 
vineyard lands. If a man can't pick up a job 
by whiob be can make five dollars a day, let him 
tackle one at which he can make one dollar. A 
man is always happier at work than he is in 
• he has no time to brood 
ovei his lll-lnek. Tin- idea is, instead of wait- 
ing for something to turn up. take hold, nnd 
turn up something. 


The following valuable suggestions we take from 
an article in a late issue of the Santa Barbara 

The plauting and grafting of grape vines this 
year in Iho northern vineyards of the Slate, is 
marked for a universal demand for noted and rare 
foreign varieties. Many of the oldest and best 
vineyards in Sacramento, Napa, San Joaquin and 
Santa Olara counties, are exteusively grafting on 
the old stocks, using the finest and most valuable 
cuttings procurable from French, Spanish, and 
German vineyards. Different grape localities on 
Ibis Coast will soon be noted, not so much for the 
quantity as tho superior quality, of wine and table 
grapes, and Southern California should not be be- 
hind younger vine districts in either respect. Dif- 
ferent varieties do not flourish equally in tho same 
soil, and, after ascertaining whi ther i vineyard is 
best adapted to raisins, or table grapes, or to red, 
dry, or sweet wines, a specialty should he made of 
those varieties. Until this subject is studied with 

" are sud labor than it bus ui received, our 

grape-growers can not know the full capacities of 
urn railed soils. The most famous Europesn vine- 
yards, some consisting of only a fi w acres, bavo at- 
tained their world-wide celebrity llirOUgh their 
perfect adaptability of variety ol vim- to BOil, in 
Borne instances the effect changing at a distance of 
a few rods. This is tho season for n fl Olion, and 
it would bo wise for viueyardisls to exer.ise judg- 
ment in improving, as lar as possible, the tone, 
flavor, quality and richness of present bearing 
vines, before planting new ones. 


El'C., ETC. 

In answer to many inquiries which the editor is 

i ring in regard to the price of land, 

nature of soil, etc., in Butte county, the Omville 

Mfrcury gays .- Prices of land vary from S2 50 to 

$50. Nature of soil, from black adobe muck to 

ted and gravelly, with intervening sandy tracts. 

Water in many places from running btieams; 

there aro numerous living springs in tho foothills 

ami mountains, and where neither of these occur 

ih. re .in din i" b construct) ii tor mining purposes 

tliut can now Supply an abundance of water lor n 1 1- 
gating and so situated as to make it possible to 
irrigate nearly eveiy acre of land in tins nclion of 
counti y. Tin- temperature ranges from 25 degrees 

in winter to 110 degrees In summer above zeio — 
seldom going as low as the former. Oranges hi giu 
t.. rlpi n in November, and are all In slopping con- 
dition by the end of December, We have no data 
on band wherebj we can state i osilivi ly what the 
aiiiiii ,1 rainfall is, but approximately, will say the 
Is about thirty inohes. There are always 
rains enough to mature crops of grain In this lo- 
cality. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


In its oomments on tbi lati wine-growers 
convention the J/i i ■ hant, of this city, 

Wi'h A country equal iu area, ami climate 

to France, we may look forward, though it will 
not be realized in oui time, that California, 
instead of raising 10,000,000 or 12,000,000 

gallons of the most wholes e beverage the 

world knows, will yield, as Franoedid before 
the phylloxera ruined one-half her vineyards, 
l.uUO.OUO.UUU gallons of wiuo. 

I 2 



The DOtnpfepsn throughout tlio State, published 
m the rloiolt] Ol she foothills are directing special 
attention tu these locnliii' - fol the growth of the 

i frmt tree*. rjntil within the p 
years these uplands wen BDtln Ij unnoticed for the 
purposes "( ooltlvation, Bal now thai axperimenl 
has proved their great value, they are attracting 
special attention, The Quo vlewB, rich soil, de- 
lightful climate and excellent water rosouroea are 
pushing th"in rapidly to the front as choice spot* 
ror the moat oharming bomea. In the upper and 
(l ntml portions of the State the foothill lauds aro 
still eheap. but here in Loa Angeles count] the) 
have reached higher figures, aud the choicest lo- 
calities are now in tho possession of parties 
who propose to make improvements of a high 
order. Already several imposing structures aro 
mounted upon the plateaus at the base of the 
Sierra Mudre mountains, u lul' i I' w of tho more 
ambitious have Beleoted projecting Bpure for their 
residences. The foothills of this county, suitable 
for the most inviting homes, extend over oue 
hundred miles, and if improvements coutinue at 
the preaent rate of advancement, a very few yearB 
will find them all occupied with a succession of 
charming homes that cannot be excelled on the 
American continent. There is a fine stretch of 
foothills, extending along tho Cahuenga range, a 
distance of about twenty miles, between Los An- 
geles and Santa Monica. Then along the Sierr> 
Madre we have an imposing plateau of some fifty 
mil,-, reaching from Pasadena toOajon Pas8,ovi r- 
looking the splendid valleys of San Gabriel and 
Pomona. A project is now a foot to build a narrow 
gauge railroad from this city to Pasadena, which 
will no donbt be extended along these foothills on 
the most practicable line to accommodate the Urge 
population that will settle upon these lauds. As 
the narrow-gauge will contribute materially to en- 
hance the value of the lands and hasten their occu- 
pancy, the work or building it will perhaps begin 
at an early day. and it will no doubt finally extend 
as far as San Bernardino. Thers isauother stretch 
of foothills overlooking the rich lowiands of 
Downey, Orange, Anaheim ami Santa Ana. If the 
water should prove ample they will also be quickly 
occupied. There are mauy other foothill sections, 
on a smallerscale, that are excoediugly inviting, 
all of which will catch the eye of parties who de- 
sire picturesque homes. In the meantime, the rich 
valleys and plains, with their fatness, are being 
rapidly occupied. In fact, it is only the bleak 
mountain tops and a few ulliuli swamps that are 
not attracting special attention. Lob Angeles 
connty, with its unparalleled advantages of climate, 
soil, wide ranges of productive capacity, and supe- 
rior rail and water communications With the out- 
side world, is now enjoying a steady, healthy march 
of improvement; and the time is near at hand 
when the whole country will present a grand pana- 
rama of mosi inviting homes. But they who shall 
hBve effected a lodgment in the foothills are to be 
especially felicitated on their good fortune. They 
will have all the benefits of the low lands, with 

the additional advanUg, >a 1 4 daily looking out up 

one of the grandest combinations of nature and art 
that ever set theeye of a i t in " ti ie Irenzy roll- 
ing," or added a new cunning to the pencil of an 
artist.— L" 


Captain W. G. Phelps has a grape-vine that is 
now believed to i„ the largeal In the United States, 
and perhaps the largest in the world. In 1876 the 
large vine that woa famous in Southern California 
was cut down and exhibited at the Centennial Ex- 
position. It measured fourteen Inches in diameter. 
This vine of Captain PhelphB 1 is twenty-five years 
olc" and is thirteen inches in diameter. It is of tho 
Mission variety, and it his Dover received the ben- 
efits of irrigation. It stands near his house, south 
Of 8t<" i « miles, and it covers about 

4,000 square feet of ground. If it had been per- 
mitted to run where it wished II would have cov- 
ered a very much largi r area, l"t it was found nec- 
essary to cut it back in order to suvo the roof of 
the liouae. Tie- largeal crop thai it grew was two 

or ilin I 'en, aftC lling " ton and a 

hall bj actual weight, tho remainder was estimated 
tt two tone and a half. Oapb\to Phelps hoi the 
vn, , photographed a few da) i will semi 

-i i,,r publication, u« an evldt noi ol 
ti,, tdapi ibilltj oi II,, ioil iiei olimate of this part 
-,f California to the growth of the grape. 

A PltOSIM lints TOWN. 

ii i Hays, with ooneid' 

erabli gatUfootion, thai ""i" of tin- buainess 
, rJ ,.,, |,, in a position to i now, 

Informed " tbal tbrei rears ago abonl 

■ .,i ti,, propi rty ol Loa iog< Ie 

nlj woa nodi i a go I a nigh i it< ol 

[nt. r< I '■ ' ' lb' morl lo not amount 

,,, i ,, Q tj ,.. , ai '■' . acbili tbi rate ol Internal 
jbi pi i oi nt, with 
n , oil. di i il i" i " "I. iii fact, 
,,,,, I., I,,,. i tbinki tbi proportj oi tbi 

,,i | 8, "" CD 

1,1 asarlj oil bo lifted a< anj time." 


A correspondent of Ihe Rural Press, in 
sp, ukino of tho Hoil of this rich and, live 
locality, bbjb 

Uvarndo Hi a few milea aboul Bouth-eUBt 
from ii lywurde, Che Burrounding country in 
low und level, being bul a fewfeet nbove the 
sea-level. The soil is a rich, deep, Bandy loam, 
well adapted to fruit and vegetables, and holds 
moisture remarkably well. Pine artosianwoter 
is found at B depth of 7<i to 100 feet, which, in 
some instances, is used for irrigation, although 
the soil is of Buob a character as to soaroely 

1 ii, yet the inoreased production justifies 

its use where it can be hud at small expense. 

Large tracts of land in thiB part of the 
oounty, for miles around are devoted to beet 
culture. This is owing to the commendable 
enterprise of the Staudard Sugar Manufactur- 
ing Co., located al Alvorado, which has oreati d 
B market for sugar beets at prices that made it 
a profitable crop for the farmer — so much so 
that other crops are comparatively neglected. 
Au industry ol this kind is of great advantage 
to the farmer and to the country generally, and 
should receive support and eiieiniiii:;' iiieiit. 
Manufactures of all kinds are the great need of 
the country at present. Every enterprise that 
converts our raw material into articles of our 
own consumption, right at our own doors, 
saves freights, employs labor, aud keeps money 
in the couutry. 


Tehama county produces few, if any, hops. 
Still, there are some of the finost hop lauds in 
the Sacramento river bottoms that there are 
anywhere in the State. The high price of hops 
will, uo doubt, iuduee many men to engage in 
the business during the coming season — that is 
to say, mauy men will plaut out extensive hop 
yards; the area of hop-growing lands will 
prnl, ably bi doubled m trebled, and by the linn 
the vines couimeace bearing, hops will godowu 
to five or teu ceuts, as they were about five 
go, when a Dumber of men were ruined 
financially by hop-raisir.g. It is a notorious 
fact, that whenever any agricultural industry 
in California begins to pay the pi mincers a 
good, round price, men engage iu the 6ome 
business, to such au extt-ut, that the artnl,- 
produced drop down so low in price, beoause 
ol the great surplus, that failures in thai lioeol 
business arc the inevitable result, v7e do not 
make this statement to discourage hop-grow- 
ing, but to put men on their guard, that hop- 
growing may not be overdone, as ii wfl 
years ago. It is a legitimate business, ami. if 
men will embark iu it carefully, as in other 
business, then it will pay haudsumely, from 
year to year, tin good years making ami ndfi foi 
the bud ones, wheu hops are low. — Ret 

i-sl.l I I. MINERALS. 

A writer, in the holiday Chron(ch ol this 
eiiy, thus speaks of California's useful min- 

Her hills aud mountains supply metals aud 
miuerals of all kinds iu the greatest abundance 
We have mines of silver, gold, uickel aud 
quicksilver. Wo have some of the rich, i di 
posits of iron on the eontineut. We me am- 
ply supplied with copper and lead, while tbi n 
are numerous deposits ol tin as v i undevel- 
oped, llurdly one of the minor metals knoVi Q 
to BOienCe can be no illume, 1 Unit has not In en 
found somewhere within the limits of the 
State. As yet We are without true eoal, but 

■ ■I it i ■■.!■ i jusl I,, yond out qoi 1 i> 
eru and southern borders, and there ih little 
doubt it will be found in the Coast Bangi 01 

in the Sierras convenient to San Prai 

and not fat distant limn the not, deposits 
which are ju-t bolng rendered available. 

n<z>nTor»'s E3xmE!is.-A. o.a.:r.t. 


Never before in the blatory Of quart/ i Dg In 

this Hcelion hurt tho quartz intoreuls BJBUmOd I 
morn promising outlook than at the presunl time, 

Tin i iborol quarts locations, as ihown bj tho 

■ I' gri at ' 'luring the paal yoar than al 

.hi | 001 II ipOndmg olio |,,| i. Hum a ih eii'li . 

Many ol Hi, II loCfltlODi b*V0 dOVOlopt 'I It d 

M, from 110 lollOO per ton. Aslito hooapoolodln 
all mining enterprises, Bomo "f the dovolopmonts 
have proved wo, itii, „„, i, nt the largo proportion ol 
ladgei dlsoovi ii d liavi , bj mill tests, mi n tl 

d thO . .p. elation,, ,,|' Hie pn 

jMHiiiieii tie in in i rooting boiatlng works and r< log 

to on,. ii ■ t| i. place thi Ii mines upon a flivi. 

,i, ,„i paying bull.- Nevada VranMoHpt. 

six i»iii. , . ,,i Styles 
Neat. Willi Pole, slmfl 



,.r Cfl 

,i «m> i.. Oni-I now in us... i.;,,, Riiiii 

Opr Top, >l n n iifa, I lir. ,1 I, j ih. 

*.'. si „,,| 

I very 

RTJTHKltloitU VfiltK I'LTUItAL W O R K s, , 


Price from fOO to 8150, HENRY HORTOP, Patentee. 




Organizod 1864. 

JANUARY '*>- : ' 

IF* I I*. IE O IN" 3L. Y . 

PKINi'IIMI. nil [I 

No. 216 Sansome Street, San Fran- 

Oapital, P»i'l "P. Gold, - - - $300,000 00 

Premiums since organization, $4,155 239 10 

Losses, *" wganization, - - $1,859,286 64 

Assets, Jau. 1, 1883, - - - $717.156 63 
Surplus 'or Policy Holders, - - 710.860 63 
Reinsurance Reserve, - - - 172,898 50 
Net Surplus Over Everything. - 237,962 13 

oiii. BRSi 
J. P. HOUGHTON.. r >sldenl 

J. Ij. N. KHEPARD V lie Pitfalilenl. 

(•has it. sunn Secretary 
R. ii. mm. ii. i ' ■! Iffent, 

U I'. 6Bvvrir.lL. I. I 

1 7 and 19 Fremont street, 

AGENTH FOB <'. 1«. PA1 I — 


Planing Knives, Currier Knives. Saw 

Mandrols. and Saws of Every 

Description Made to Order. 


M T. I" 

M. T. BREWER & CO., 

No*. 30 and 32 J Street, 

Commission MERCHANTS «s U'HOLK. 
Mli .1.1.1, !,■ Id Foreign nnil n itloGre*n 

un.l I lull., ProdUi IlltS, Hm.l. u 

ind Plowi rBosd i in .1 :ni ..,i.i S9 

.1 -It s,., ,,., • ,. I 

DCOT" ' '"' ' 

KPN I Inn Mm ill. '. mill, tlillii: nil: -|.l\ 1,11,1 Hllll- 

■ ■■iW ■ lime Ii live bi I I to . rtnq i " |fll) 

a wool in y.nii nun i 

i', i|.n .1 do! ri (ji i V/i will mi 

'il'.li M'll . \. rj I I Mull. in., mill, lln' I.. rim. I . 

.till, mull., in. mm I, in, |, and I'". I HI" null., 

II. lid I I . it I . 1,1 Willi II Mm 

■ i iko re „t nay all Ilia write roi uartl 

u it m i.i I, t i'h ., Portland) Ifoloo 


i of a ff» 

dollars only? Appli | will ioform jog 



H yon 
Bball bi glad loo munlcati trltta you mni endeavor 


Do yon Dd a con- 

iwall oar 
ird< r 


id It p>TI 
you WCll 

to us Bj -" doing, you can aavi expento, time, 

and tbi ti 


.. rtlfiDK 

oeai ir.ii 
K rtlon u 


lowelli BlablU m secure 

.•re? If 

is, and will r r '" "f rou e^naUy 


.hi It for 
a i ipen- 



■ exactly wbal 

, r,.i see IT 
ii tion. 


wltb ie- Waalr 

• ihe d»J 


If jou waul tl 


I be glad 
r not 



mil. boll 

: iiogui . which will i" aenliw"' 




524 Saeramonto Street, San Fronoiaoo. 

nil., ban, mni returns mtdo m from > ■■ 
■ Ight Imuni. can be forwardod to this afflot froin •">' i' ,rl 

ml. in. i ' I i. 111111- "in. In lu ili <> 

Hl.lii. Illillllier. 

Careful inalj ■ » ,,, ' r '' 

Indus txlal produi U ate afiot - 1 umlni d and 

on oboulosJ •■'•! Bolsllnniies 

■I .- 

■iHAP pool li in on U»o lookoul W 

If lOt i| im •,„„,. woaltbyi - wCodo no' 

.rov. ii,. ii oppot mi ii n n Ii »orlj 

■ii. .-,. i. I W< » ' 


ii and all i 

i .. , Portland, auuia 





O F 


Nos.3'22aud 321 California Street. 

and 302 and 304 Sau- 

some Street. 

San Francisco. 

Aifents lor Tlxe 
Dwelling House l>iid<>nvriterg...Netv York, 

$2,400,741 OG. 

Glrard F. * M. Ins. Co Philadelphia, 

$1,1 01,31 3 26. 

La Confiunce Ins. Co Paris, France 

• §6,679,505. 

New Orleans Ins. Aas'n New Orleans, 


si i.imI.i ic I Klre on,,,. London, England. 


SL Paul P. <fc M. Ins. Co. ..St. Paul, Minn., 

§837,893 13. 

The Fire Ins. Ass'n (Limited). London, Bug,, 

§1,312,673 11. 

Teuloniu Ins. Co \,.„ Orleans, 

§1 01,753 71. 

IVatertown Ins. Co n'alerluivn, N, Y., 

§1,006,656 23. 


The London and Provincial Murine Insur. 
ance Company London, 


La Fonclere Marine ln». Co Paris, 


Capital Represented. . . $27,650,527 



special Agents und Adjusters. 

F. P. BACON, Pres. C. L. POUTS, Si i . 

Globe Iron W.orks Co. 



and FORGE. 

Manufacturers and Repairers of all Kinds of 


Hoisting and 

Mining Machinery, 


Portable, Stationary and 
Marine Engines. 


Which does away with Cumbrous Pomp 
Bods, v Bob, and Balance Bobs, operating 
-MO..N, „,ii i„ ihafls or Inollnesi admitting 
•1* deflection Into distant workings. < Iren 
Iar.rurni.ix.,1 r...., upon application. 



HPXH i \ i/i-i i:w. 


222 and 224 Fremont St., 

Between Howard und KoUoio 

& MANN, 


Druggists and Manufac- 
turing (Jhemists, 

''""'fc» ,.,. lf >x ( ^^ J,,.,.,,,,.,, 

Tollel Soups, loon. ,.,„, MafJ 

" ''«■ Hah Oils, Pomade*, i ,... 

Powde »' Cosmetics, Hpongea, 

Pntonl M.-di, i.,..-. i ,, ,.,, 


Palace Drug; store, 

PAI. \< I ! I [OTBL, 
685 Market Street, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 



Church und Slrambmil BELLS untl GOtVGs 
BRAS'. CASTINGS -f all kinds, 

Hooker's i'„...„- 


•^The beBt and muti> 
durable lu ubc Also 
s variety of other 



FAIlMING purposes 

Root's Blast 15 1 o w e r h , 

Tor Ventilating MIdi-h and for Smelting Works. 


Wot Mining Purposes. 


nrponxrB of 





Tlie California Lloyds 




Established in 18ol). 


Paid-Up Capital, 



Time and again we bnve given facte nnd 
figures showing conclusively the benefits and 
l "'""'~ '" '" derived "<•"< a woolen mill in I hi 
BantaAna valley, and we intend to persistently 

""' ; P r °Jeol upon the attention of those 

■ profitable inveBttnent for theit 1 hm 

convinced that, Boonet or Inter, we .ball uDU 
parties willing to inaugurate that entorprist 
Ther. is an abundance of water powei 

'n.ui our tow,,, to tun, a do,,,.,, nulls 

'"-' / ea ' ■'• bulesoi wool, ol ana, 

ul 1.236,869 pounds, were shipped from 
ibis seotion by railroad and iteamer, muob 
wore than enough to run a mill here during 
the whole year. It needs no orgumenl 
nnoe intelligent p.-rsonB that such an enter- 
prise Will pay. It is only necessary to cite in- 
Btanoes where Buch mills have paid good re- 
turns to investors. The null al Ban J 
notable example. Stock in this m.ll is and 
has been at a premium for a Ion- lime. 
Another instance is that of the aahlac 
gon) mill, where from 100,000 pounds oi wool 
were made of the value of S4U.0UO to 
J50.000 last year. The Oregon City woolen 
mill, last year, purchased 1,000.000 pounds of 
wool, manufactured it. and paid their em- 
ployees $75,000. Rarely has there been a 
'•"'"'" '■' this line oi enterprise. The estab- 
lishment of such an industry in om 
means mouey in the pockets of those who in. 
vesl in its Btock, and a benefit to the people 
this towu. by the building up of a prospi rous 
community in thi neighborhood of the mills, 
as has been th« case al Ban Jose, There has 
ft ( been any diifi uity of disposing of 
the produota oi woolen mills established in 
■ nir Slate. Iudeod. their products have not 
only found a ready market al home, bul ordi rs 
have been constantly received from abroad. 
All hail the day when the Santa Ana woolen 
mill shall be established - Santa Ana Herald 


With her crop of G.000,000 bales of cotton to- 
ward GOO.000,000 bushels of wheat, and over 1,500,- 
000.000 buebels of corn, we may look upon our 
enormous and astonishing imports as uotalarmiog. 
The owners of American railway property have a 
right to expect particularly happy results, aud those 
Who reel discouraged at the comparative slowness 
of onr export markets may possess their souls in 
peace. As Europe must take our surplus, we need 
not be iu a hurry to send our new cotton an 1 our 
foodstuffs abroad, and we need not send anything 
on which we have not made a good profit. The 
future is decidedly in our favor. Our farmers have 
and will have an abundance of everything; our 
meohanics and laborers will have cheap food; our 
a are busy aud will so continue; our trans- 
portation companies begin the best season on rec- 
r,:, onr merchants and tradesmen will have bi n, r 
buyers and more customers than during the last 
twelvemonths; and our fiaanoial Institutions will 
be busy and prosperous.— Bolton Advertiser. 


At. Englishman, who recently visited our 
Stat,-, writes as follows to the London 

at <i . 

For my own part, I 1 to oonceive no region 
"""'' toritiuR to thi Beltler than the 1 ■ 

of B into rn California, where bountiful 
nature appears at though Bhe oould uot do 
onough to blesB the toil of hi r children. 

In that maguificenl vulley which runs from 
north to Bouth of the Golden Stab . 
vurii iy oi 1 Umate 1- to be obtained, and the 
man who liki a a modi rati ,1,1 CIIU 

Bull himself by buying land in thi ippi 1 pari 
of the Sacramento valley, where winter is 
marked by frost and occasionally snow; while 
he who prefers Bemi-tropioal warmth will find 
" "' "'" south 3an Joaquin valley. 

Both will find that for long mom 

" work in BUCh unchanging sui 
M tne 3 OMcelj dream of beneath the gray 
Bkies oi Britain. 

ii almost seems, however, as if the whole of 

California was destined for cultivation, so ad- 

mirably are both -ml and climate adapted to 

■Hi of all manner of fruits and cereals. 

When I think of the toil I 1, , 
I" l " i ' (| "" ' ] ' Bring 1 v« 1. a oorm r of a highland 
farm, (to yield a miserable crop of oats which 
might, a 1 liki Ij as not, b 1 , ,,,., n in 

Ootober), it sounds too g I to be true to 

1 1, which needs no 
clearing of brushwood or druwiug of stumps; 
no costly buildings, no barns, uo storing, even 
of fodder. 


The Grass Valley Tidings soys that there are 
many hundred acres of land in the lower pari 
of rTi vada county, where grapes can !"■ profita- 
bly grown. Wine, raisins, aud grapes are in 
demand all over the world, and no couutry 
cau produce them equal to California. The 
Tidings adds, in speuking of the lands m its 
vi inity suitable for such purposes, that they 
eun he had at very low prices Some of that 
land is owned by the Central Pacific Railroad 
Company, and such can bo bought 011 most 

1 le terms. The "oul oi doors" part of 
this county, which is oapable of 
in connection with grape culture, is verj 

sive, ami awaits ouly proper effort to muke 
fortuni a foi those who will put iu the work. 

PRINCIPAL on 11 1 
Nob. i'G and 118 California Si. 

Agencies ii all the Principal Oities of the 
United States. 

<.. ronii sBD. I N. v. uii 11.1 , 

President. I Vice-President. 

JAMBA D. BATJUn Bi oratory 

Q r I \l:M 11 II' . . i„ Dl nl Sgl Dl 
UB0E0S7 buULN burvojor 


The Oakland ZViouiU says: Mr. Mason, for- 
merly n painter >■( Ban Franoisoo and Oakland, 
a few years sinoe purohased, al a low figure, 

ten acres of hillside land in San Pablo town 
ship, and liirnei] Ins attention to the ciiltnie of 

raising grapsB Sis vineyard oame first into 
full bearing the past season, the yield being 
over 50 tons of grapes, producing twelve tons 
of exoellenl raisine \1\ Us on'a net return 

for the year's labor and attention, was 

$2,000, Au experienoi l whi it-grower, whose 
success has been uniformly fair, declares thai 
10 ions 111 n jrji , „ r , pri fi rabla to •' |i11 bi res in 
wh< at, both for profit and 01 rtaintj ol orop. 
What splendid opportunities bavo tbe young 
men of California I Bettor far thau those 

Offered by the learned professions. 


u take th e following from the Kern County 

Every farmer in Kern county who owns 
land and ban industriously employed bis time, 

l season beyond all reasonable 
expectation Mauj havo made the cost of 

their farms I )„,• ,„ U1| Jji Slo.kton. sold his 

(arm lasl Bpring forf-t, , aud the purchaser 

realized $9, 1 foi the alfalfa seed on it, Mr 

S. Jewett has a section of laud ou the north 
side of th,. river, one-half of which he has 
planted to alfalfa, He cat the clover three 
times last season, which averaged two ions per 
acre for each cutting, makiug six tons per 
1 of cutting, stacking und haul- 
mo to th, depot upou contract, amounts to 
five dollars per ton, and the price paid at the 
'I' pot is ten dollars per ton, in car-lond lots, 
This leaves net five dollors pei ton and thirty 

dollars per ac hi si as in Thi -<• are not 

mere estimates, They are aotual facts, and 
are by no m< mal in the valley. 

The demaud for Liy is increasing, and must 
oome. The Atlantic 
and Pacific railroad will be finished to the 
Colorado early this year, aud this valley will 
be tho base of supply foi the whole distance. 
Good alfalfa lauds are sold here for from $15 
to $25 per ane, and the first crop will pay for 


"Then way," says one of our 

exohanges, " of pi--iuotiug and securing the 
L,'ciieral interest ami prosperity of California 
thau by settling small farmers upon her rich 
lands, and building homes. When the time 

that pleasant farm-housea shall dot our 

landscapes everywhere; when there are fewer 
estates. Btretohing like empty empires over 
miles aud miles of our best and most fertile 
soil, when more laud 1- tilled, and new In- 
dustries spring up, as they naturally will with 
the influx ol population, Hon we shall begin 
to realize the vast possibilities of this seotion, 
1 l si the fulfillment of some of our best 
hopes." No till- 1 words were ever spoken or 
published, and we regrel thai we are now un- 
able to credit them to then proper source. 
Slowly, but surely, the sentiment that laud 
monopoly and the mainti iiauci Ol great 

ranches are an injury to the State, and delay- 
ing tbe developmenl of its resources, is gain- 
ing ground among the people, -Sacramenta 

/;, . 

vu.ri: OF BLAOH sand. 

U 'untain Dem d soya The- bines, mig- 

n l.thal It found In abundance Iu thi 

ingl Of our gold nines, in, bj a new process, Util- 
ised Hi" manufacture ol oaal ati 1 1 din ol from 
tho sand. Blgut pounds ol sand yield five pounua 

ofstei l. Tho shit; Hint |a left It valuable as 1 

foi fin -proof .roofing The ln> »\ predict ihat 

their discovery in uVstiiicil <vn|utioui I he a too 

trade ou this Coast. 


run resources of California. 




Umler Ibis bending a writer in the Snutii 

Aim Herald, fnrniabea that excellent paper 
with i ho following article: 

When ft whole group of niitiona is increoniug 
in population nud decreasing in production i 1 
beoonies ft fierious question how to Bopjply Iho 
people with rood. Thin is (ho proaeut position 
of Europe. The populntiou of Europe is, on 
an average, increasing 3,000,ouu annually. The 
present grain and meat production of all the 
European countries fall short of the present 
production of these articles about 703,000 tons 
of meat aud 343.000,000 bushels, or 8,500,000 
tons, of grain. This deficit represents the 
annum i of I he present average imports of these 
two articles from other oountriea. This de- 
ficit is equal to about one-twelfth of the whole 
production. Iu other words, Europe Bupplies 
her own people with food eleven mouths in the 
year, nud buys enough to carry them through 
the other month. Iu the face of this fact it is 
kuowu that tin- men I pri>du<-ti>>n and grain pro- 
duction are decreasing instead of increasing. 
England represents the greatest deficit com- 
pared to her population, but the fact that all 
Europe is falling behind, aud cau uot BUpply 
the people with food show) that England can 
not dppend on a surplus from Russia, Hun- 
gary, Holland or Deumark to make up her 
deficit, and must therefore go to another cou- 
tiueut for it. She must come to America for a 
large share of her meat and grain over what 
sin- produces herself. While England is fail- 
ing iu agriculture 6he is increasing her com- 
merce, aud is doing the carrying trade for the 
continent. Iu this way she may not be ouly 
holding her own in wealth, but actually in- 
creasing it. England built last year more 
Yfss-ls lhau ever before iu one year— the new 
tonnage being, iu round numbers, 1.000,000 
tons. Thus while the United .States will make 
mouey off of Europe by her agriculture, Eug- 
land will make money off of Europe by curv- 
ing our agricultural products to ths Etiropeau 


The inauguration of railroad enterprises in this 
COUDt; h already attracting tho attention of capi- 
taliMte who aro in search of a profitable field for in- 
vestment; aud now that a now era is dawning upon 
this county, bringing Its extraordinary resources 
prominently before the public, there is no denying 
the fact that Humboldt will, at an early day. be 
connected with tin- main railroad linesof the Paoiflo 
Coast. Speaking upon this Bubjeot, In "Inch every 
properly-owner In Iho county is interested, the 
editor of the San Francisco Ohronlcle, of recent 
date, says: 

The northern counties of the State are about to 
enter upon a career of rapid progress. The Central 
Pacific is being built to the Oregon line, and branch 
roads will bo built to tap the surrounding country 
along tho main route. Another event of much im- 
portance to the north-western portion of the State 
recently occurred. Two railroads have been pro- 
jected from Humooldt hay, to run southward to 
tho Eel and Van Duzen rivers. One of these roods, 
of the Btondar-1 guago, which is already incorpo- 
rated, will make Eureka its northern terminus for 
the present, but ultimately it is designed to exteud 
it northward to connect with the Oregon road now 
being built from Ruseburg. Tho other road is a 
narrow-guage, aud will Btort from tho southern end 
of Humboldt bay, extending to the dense timber 
forests on the Eel uud Van Duzen rivers. Both 
these roads will traverse rich agricultural tieldB, 
and will, without doubt, bring into market a largo 
tract of arable land which at present is inaccessible. 
Other things will also contribute to the growth of 
Humboldt couuty. Humboldt bay has recently 
been made a port of entry, and the facilities for 
Bbippingare btiug extended. Thsse things assure 
Northwestern California a rapid development.— 
Humboldt Telephone. 


L. J. Rose, Commissioner of Los Angeles 
Viticultural District, in the course of a recenl 
communication to the 8enii-Troplcal Call/or- 
num. says: 

I would estimate that there fire 9,000 acres 
of vines now in this county. Of these 6,000 
acres were in bearing last year, yielding say 
60 000,000 pounds of grapes. This would 
give at least 4 000.000 gallons of wine if nil hnd 
been made into white and red wine. It has, 
however, been made largely into sweet wiues 
and brandy, sny 300,000 gallons brandy; 500,- 
000 gallons of port, angelica, sherry aud mus- 
catel; 2,000,000 gallons of white aud red wiues. 
Further experience has confirmed the former 
opiuion that this couuty can make light bodied 
table wines, both white and red, aud of any 
degree of spirit strength wished for. 

Owiug to the better understanding, more ex- 
perience, in the making of wine, and new 
varieties of grapes adapted to specialties, there 
is a continued improvement iu the quality of 
our wines. Lauds can be procured hero at 
reasonable prices, in fact, very low prices as 
compared with other sections of our Stale, and 
our shipping facilities will compare favorably, 
both in cost or facilities, to any other portion 
of the Slate; whereas the climate is unsur- 
passed anywhere for the whole year, for al- 
though we have, perhaps, a more uniform 
warmth throughout the year, yet the mean 
temperature does not exceed that of Napa for 
the summer. 


Information has reached us of the finding of a 
new ■■Petrified ForeBt" about half a mile this side 
of the orignal collection of curiosities bearing that 
name, which this latter discovery, according to re- 
port, fully equals if it does not exceed in the per- 
leclion aud variety of its petrifications. It is upon 
the ranch of Mr. Yv". T. Hudson, and was discov- 
ered by his nephew while out deer hunting, the 
chase leading him over a section of his uncle's 
land which, owing doubtless to tho extremely 
rugged nature of the ground, had apparently never 
before been explored. His attention woa first 
arrested by the sight of a large pine stump, some 
three and a half feet in diameter and six feet high, 
which, while it had rotaiued all the appearance of 
wood, was nevertheless turned completely to stone. 
Further investigation revealed the (act that all 
around the ground was thickly strewn with petri- 
fication, trees two feet aud more in diameter lying 
upon the ground entirely perfect as to limb and 
bark, but changed to solid stone. In some ■ f the 
logs are cavities, evidently originally hollowed out 
by fire, since they contain ashes. Only an aero aud 
a half of land had been gone over at the time our 
informant left, and it is not known how large an 
extent of country the newly-dhcovered ••Forest" 
covers. It is said that Mr. Hudson, proprietor of 
the land thereabouts, is as pleased with the dis- 
covery as if it had been a gold mine.— Sonoma 


The Visalm Di Ua Mates that among those making 
the very best of raiflins, in tho Mussel Slough 
country, is Mr. Peter Scazlglllni, whose placo i- 
half a mil- north Of O.angeville. From about two 
and one-hall acreaol white Muscat vines, he sold, 
laat fc-aaon, about six and one-half tons Ol table 
grapes from this vineyard, at ono and 
cents per per pound, amounting to S200. Ho has 
K lM oared 260 boxes of excellent raiains, twenty 
to tin box. This shows a yield in money 
value of WOO, or an average Of nearly $300 per aoro 


The Amador Vltpatclt says that B blast was put 

i„ ;,, the old Bpanlsh mine, near the Mohelumno 
,,.,, now owned bj w. a. Nevds & Co., ■ few 
days ago. and from three pans full of dirt and rook 

iru thrown out, thi coal llttl 

wax realized. The blast leema to have ttraek a 

pocket of extraordinary riohnoM. 


During a ride from Martinez to Concord, Contra 
Costa county, recently, tho editor ol the Antioch 
Ledger, sayt: 

We were forcibly impressed with the evidences 
of thrift that are visible in tho way of permanent 
improvements— such as lino dwelling houses, or- 
chards, vineyards, neat and substantial fences, etc. 
Even Pacheco seems to feel tho wave of prosperity, 
and some of its old and decayed buildings have 
been repaired so as to present u much better ap- 
pearance, and aro again occupied. In Concord 
building is also going on. A fine store and hall 
structuro is just being bard-finished, and the new 
Presbyterian church is approaching completion. 
The improvements indicated show thai the people 
of this county, as well as elsowhere in the Slate, 
are realizing that they come hero to mako their 
farms aud surroundings homelike. 


The following is from the Ontario Fruit Grower, 
San Bernardino county: 

It takes time to establish and build up a now 
settlement. On tho first of December, the Ontario 
traol was as yot not ready for Bale. Sinco that lime 
reaof land, and several town lots have been 
gold tor an aggregate of SG8.B2G, and many aro fctlll 
looking <<vi r tho trtOt and getting ready to pur- 
chase. A hotter start has UOVOI been I njoyoi. bo- 
fore by any new enterprise in this country, and 
those who settle here Deed not fear but that they 
will have plenty of neighbors from the start. Not 
only tbiSi but they win have the advantages ol a 
railroad station, Btores, post-ofUoo, expresa ofJloo. 
lH1 ,i in b few months, a tlrst-oiass sahool in t large 
Quo building that would bo oredltable to an old 

Winter Arrangement. 

Commencing Sunday, Oct. 22nd, 1882, 
And until further notice, Passenger Trains will leave 
from and arrive nt 81111 Francisco Passenger Depot 
(Townsend St.. between Sd and 1th Bticcts) as follows: 

t 6:60 a. M 
8:30 A. M 
in, 10 a. M 
3:30 P M 
4:30 P. M 
15:30 P. M 

fl-JO A. M. 
10:<0 A. M. 
• 330 P.M. 


..San Mateo, Redwood,. 
and Menlo Park 

I (1:10 A. It. 
■■ 05 « If. 
in M i U. 
:i 81 p. 11. 

I G ill re M 

I 0O2 P M 

.Santa Clara. San .Tnso and. 
..Principal Way Stations.. 

10:10 a. M. I 

• 3:80 p.m. 

( .Gilroy.Pajaro.Canlroville. I 
and Monterey I 

9 Oil a. M. 

1IMIV *. M. 

:i :it p. u, 
0.-O2 p. M. 

'10.02 A. M 

0-09 P. It. 

I .Hollta jju? m id Tres Plnoa. | | 0*2 p. M. 

io-'o a. m.| { y-^s r: 1 .^:} I ""»■» • 

•Sundays excepted. 

ISruiiiays only (8portmcn'a 

BIbrc connections arc made with the 10:40 s. U Train,|.t Peacadero Stnyes via Sun Mateo, wlile], oon- 
neel with 8:30 A. M. Train. 


Sold on Saturdays and Sunday mornings— good to re- 
turn Monday — 

To San Clara or San Jose *- ™> 

To Monterey or Santa Cmz 

Also to principal points between Snn Frauclsco and 

Ticket Offices.— Passenger Depot, TownBend street' 
and No 2 New Montgomery street, Palace Hotel. 

Superintendent. Asat. Pass, k Tkt. Agt. 

a?"8. P Atlantic Express Train via Los Angeles, Yu- 
ma, etc.. leav.-s Suu Francisco daily via Ouklan.l I • rry, 
foot of Market street, at 3U A. M. 





Connecting at Yokohama with Steamers for Shnnghae. 

Will sail from San Francisco 

ARABIC Thursday, January 18. 

OCEANIC Tie .-.lay, .1 11 11 nary :in. 

COPTIC Saturday. February 10 

GAELIC Tuesday. Mnr.-I. 6 

BELGIC Saturduy. March 1" 

The Steamship Oaeiic from Ban Francisco Mm 1, Bth, 
also the Steamship Belgii ol Marcti 17th, will con- 
tinue on from Hongkong, oia, Sues, t" Llvi rpi 

Bilor accommodations and quick lime for Tour- 
Istsenronte •• Around tiie World 

Excursion Tickets to Yokohama anil Re- 
turn at Reduced Rates. 

Cabin plans on exhibition and pannage ill 
Bale otC. P. R. R Co. '» Generul Olllces, Room 
74, Corner Fourth and Townsend Streets. 

Freight Agent, al the PaOlflC Mall Steamship Com- 
pany's Wharf, or at No. »u» Market street, Dnloe 


Gen'l Passenger Agent 




Paid Up Oaoital $3,000,000 

Reserve lU. S. Bonds) 3,600 000 

Agency at Now York 0» Wall Street 

Agency at Virginia, Nevada. 


in,)., and ee.Ha ExohauRo and Tolcgropblo Transfers 

Tlila Hank lum Special Fiiollltloa for Deal* 
Ing In million. 

SAN FRANCISCO, California, 










Union Pacific Railway 





Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 



Galveston, Harrisbnrg and San 
Antonio Railroad, 


Leave San Francisco Dally, 

Making prompt connection with the several Rallwij 
Llnea la the Eastern States, for all the Cities of thf 


With the several Steamer Lines to, Pranoe, 


Silver Palace Sleeping Coaches, 

SOOOIItl to None, in tho World. 

Are run dally between BAN Fl 

ViuiK, and latei LUb P ilnti I 

Oars Ijj day, and Sleepli 

1,,, comforl mi, i i onvi nil nee lo iuo Pas* ugi ' "' n.t 
omblnlng tno eloganco ol « prlvato >" rl " r " , 
nil iceommodatlona pertaining t" a wi n 
chamber, win, eomfotrtble eouehes, 1 1< an '" 
\ oompoti ni Portor lecompanloa each Oar, '" • |UDU 
to tho wants ol out Patrons. ... 

OhUdren under Twolvo yoara of ago, unir rawi 
Til, i. ■■ Fi,v fi an ol ■ b.Ptoi 
.mi pound! <.f Bagffn«« per "•" '."'V V •- 
rree. 50 pound* of Bajrffttjr* i' ,r l '" ir r 
ji'iifiT, free. 


at nit: 


Pool <>r Markel Street, *.... i""" l ' M ' 

WhcrepauitiDfft, eoKAi 

routes i " |i oping oei aooommod ii 

a.n, TOWK1 ■ T - " aOODMA». 

q, a.suporlulondont, Oon. Pan » riekeiw 






741, 743 AND 745 MARKET ST., - SAN FRANCISCO. 




Potoui IsHUcd Aug. 12, 1»7U. Rc-lMUCd Aug. 1". 1881. 

For the Prevention and Removal of 



f. ..i nratoi tali i 

i puttlni i 


llllOUINll i ■ ■ d 

tYiitir II 


; ! li|^j 

! :•— \ [ * ExhoiiKt Steam 

-^-'jMa • Outlet to Pnmp. 

Rents the water to boiling point. Prees n from nil chemical Imnorlflvt. 8«tn from 
30 to SO percent ..r tvntec ■ >> condensation, Prevent* tbe formation <>r -> air, and .uvrj 
fully »S percent. In !■•• i 

Purtlier part Ionian with full loncrlptlvo circular and price lUt can l>e obtained 
lit the olllct- of the 



Descriptive Catalogue Sent on Application. 
Mumiiii. r»ry, Columbia Foundry, 133 and 135 Beule Street 


J. D. CULP. 

8. K. ■moUNTON. 

J. D. CULP & CO., 




"Wliolesale and H.ota,il Dealers in 



And Importers of 

I* E -A. F" TOIB-A.OOO- 

No. 16 Front Street, 

The »« GIRLS" 
are a Four and 
Three -quarter 
Inch Cigar. 
Made from Pure 

Chamber, Parlor, Library and Dining 

« .. NO DRUGS. 



Book and Library Case Wardrobes, Ladies' Writing Desks, Turkish 

Easy and Lounging Chairs, Etc. — Hotels and Private 

Residences Furnished.— Designs Furnished 

and Estimates Given. 


741, 743 and 745 Market Street, - - - San Francisco. 





Send for a 
Sample Or- 
der, and 
Give our 

44 GIRLS " 

a Trial. 


Manufactured toy 


J. D. CULP & CO., 

No. 16 Front Street, - • - SAN FRANCISCO. 






i tvOBB, 

\ irrlter, In tbi IValnul Crcol onuntj I 

Indrpm ' Ibal pipe: with the following 

i ud ■•■ bl] ■ i' 
dowed Btati . 

-,.i itrgi si Btati '" iii. i dIod, 

H '' Dl II I 

|l DRlb IB 

,,i , : I -I i'« area, 

aboul i s 000 " r ii, Hi i 

I I tWO-BHll-n-lllllI ' 

H„ \, . ;!;,,,. I Stlll< I, III Willi ll IM Ull lll'll'll till SI., I, 

i.. wllli ii popuUtlon -I 1,800.000 ll l« 
more thau than twlci u large u tbe gn si Btati s ol 

\. n ii i Ponn rlvanla togothcr, wblob support a 

pnpulatl i to 10.000 000 II la largi t than tbe 

Ibroe agrli ultural Btatci ol tllli Ol I Hii 

sourl, within whoso boundarlos ovei r ,000,000 ol Inbab- 
iiiniis Uvo oomfortably, and have an abnndanoo of 

rooi span . and wblob Btati s still Invito Immlgra 

Hon within id. ii b i i' i 

Oaiifomiii baa »" ruuob soa coast as tbo Now I ngland 
siut. Bi Now York. Delaware, Nov Jorsi 

, -. [a ii bi ii. r harbor than any on 
the Atlantic Const, and the Ban Dlugo I 

Tim nnmbei ol iltural lands, Ini lading 

tui. and foothill landa, as glvon bj tbo United Btatea 
Bnrveyor Ooneral, la larger than tbatof tbi twomosl 
prosperous ami populous Btatea In tbi l in. n n. v, 
York and Pennaylvanla, 

The number of a. -r.~ i. f timber land oxoaeds that ol 
Minnesota anil WiscoiibIu together, or Hint of ull the 
New I D 

Tho mining region ofj California covers nearly as 

much territory as the mountains within hti I lorai 

ami embraoea u country aa largi as nfli higan and Penn- 
aylvanla, vrhloh two -i ' for copper, iron 
ami coal. The mountali 

more gold tiion nnv otbi r i ounti \ In thi world, and ire 
rich in silver, lead, copper, Iron, qnlckellvet, and other 
metals, in faot, the variety "i precious and base 
metals is quite as great U thai I I Ruropi or Asia, 

The cilioate of California is as balmy as that of 
Italy. Tin -.ii as deep aud rich as thai ol Franci 
Tho climate and aoll will produce a .■■■ 
products than any otln r ..n. i ■■ • 1 1 1 1 . ;. 1 division In the 

The storms nr. leas frequent and seven thai 

Spain. Portugal or Japan. Tho surface ol tli inlrj 

is not below tbe bsb*Ii vol, and n quiring thi ■ xpeoso of 
maintaining hundreds of miles of diking, uud im- 
mense levees, as does ll. I lum 01 tbi lower purl of 

The natural wonders are as marvelous snd as great 
in number and variety ns those of tho Alps and M 

With tin's,, varieties, equalities, advantages and su- 
periorities, California invites population from all the 
civiliztd world; aud people from any clime maj find 
a congenial home, similar, ;n many respects, to thi 
one they left behind. 

It is evident the future Ol California will be a grand 
one— at present it is but an Infant in population and 
wealth, and its capabilities are almost unlimited in 
number and value to the human race. 

The following figures show its superiority in BlCO, 
std its Inferiority in population,, compared wltbaomi 
ot the greatest, rioheat, happiest, and most prosperous 
nations on tbe earth: 

S.| Mil. I OP 

California OSS, II 

' 8.U Salvador 

Guatemala 14.778 1,180,000 

Wales 7. : >" l.MiiMiuii 

Cuba 19,883 1,400,000 

1,71.1 IK, , 

Chih 100,000 

Ceylon 26,000 2,000/100 

Switzerland 18.000 

■ . . ,.i ; 800,000 

Portugal I 100 01 rj 

Ireland : " 

Spain i ' '•.'.'ifl.OOO 

Euglaud OOlOOO 

Prussia ... 135 000 M.7B0 000 

ItaU 000 


Syria and Pall Itini I I 


From parties living Mat Hill's Ferry, In BI 

.-..only, WO I. urn lln.l BTOpS In ' 
well, Tl 

elghl mill - ah I 

u mill -, to a pi Ini ol [hi mill I bi low 

Hiiu r. try 

v. i . i • on tbi bottom, and Is n n foni to 

... ,.,i. i i n. | bavi plenty ol wati i foi pui 

I on, mi. i, us it requires onl) oni »i ttlng 

.,. amply n paid foi thi tzonbli 

.•...ii on 'i al *as itoppi d 

i to allow tin ■■ pany 

I Inn. I,. lull 01 

n,,. proi bli b bavi b< on Irrigati d, tbi n 

iui to rii. i npanj anything thi j 

may asi Infoi I tbal tbi i anal can bo 

ilong thi rootbllli to ■ dial 

. thai i'i' "iv ol wati i • in bo 

bad to Irrigati tbo whole oountrj Tbo wal n 

ii i led In 

tl i.i no loom ■■ d n . nil i" 

h, in. is feasible 
from tbi 
i. pmlnu ol ib. oanal to! - aboul an 

mlu i, it a* mi thai thi W< il BIdo, In oui i oui 

.. in. i.. n. in ..I ini Ii an irovi mi Dl 

I llODfl H" Ii I I >BJ 

llBXI ond u bull pi . .o tl fOl 'I" PI 

11 '■■' d loom to 

Dl '•"' 



in speaking "i thi : I rlneyard In tho 

world ..wo. .1 bj nan, the Tehama Tocnn, pub- 

lUhi d in Bod Dluff, says. 
Vina Is a rallioad station wltba tow hundred Inbab- 

in "i • ;,.i stations ii mainlj 

i Influi in o i" two in. is Hint Is 
.,ii. .ii, mi. i thai 'i 

i~ ilj owni 'i i" ■ t-Oovornor Btanford, the railroad 

magnate, who Is determined to Bpare do m > to 

iniike thai -hi blossom Into full produotlveni s 

tbo few owners ol land In that section, who 

Moid ir Stanford's Inllui dco will n oelvo thi Ir 

reward, for they will profll bj thi enorgy and enter 

Hi. miii I,,,,. \ i, n years ago tho railroad 

i H"' main v r( ol 

mi. Qi iio grant, This Inoludi .1 some ol thi moBl pro 
dm live land thai over laid out doors, and cost the 
purchaser upwards ol (200,000 Since that Important 
{in i. in. . , iii. railroad magnate has given thai section a 

might) i n. Hi bought the Gi rko grant on a Bpeou- 

lni imi bus made the most ol bis bsrgaln. We are 

r.-iiiibiy Informed that Governor Btanford bas rlslted 
Vina but twlco since be made ins pur. bas.- i. 
visited the place al all, Ins agent hud 1,(100 acres or 
land In vinos. In tho meantime an elaborated Irrlgat- 
eme, with main and counter ditches, had been 
provided; and dow thi whole trad oan be freelyirrb 
in the ci Ii i. mi. .i wati ra ol Deei on eli Twli e, 

tiii; l(\l>l\ UltAPIC. 
A writer In the dally Sxanttier, Who btl bad a good 
,i, „i oi . ipi in m .■ iii grapi onll Q.maklng, 


W, bnve llllberlo limed Ulnl advised lb, |i. 

grapes by all who bavi suitable lands In tbi 

Moving tbal tboy will, if largi I) i oltlvati d, do mm h to 

tbfl wi lillb and prOBpi rltj of 'ill ■ 

i . , ■ 1 1. 1 1 y would wo advise ib. planting of tbo* 

viirii Hen found sultabli foi i s, Dux 

Ingtho nt session ol tbo Stab Vltloultural Socloty, 

in Dashawsj Ball, Mr.Wol n i tostato 

tinit « in. i.i i.e ma. i. ii i ..i Ins, and thai wa may 

yet si" iii" wines oi this siat" i porti d In boxos. This 
statomont was probablj th much surprise 

by many of Ihoso presont, ^'i Mi Wei <• mlgbl 

truly havi- made a mini re advanced and positive 

siiiiriui nt. for the business ol making wli 
roiHiuB Ib now fur beyond the exporlmi Dtal Bl 
line bocome a regular commercial Industry, In tbe re- 
port by United Btatos Consul I tbo lm- 

. ijgins urn i /imi. Ourrants al tbi porl ol Mai 
seibs are glvi n 

000.000 pounds. Of these ih. i ml I 

000 kilograms, or about 02,000,000 pounds, u 
down us used In tho preparation ol raisin wlm ffi 
in. ii escribes the procoas of soaking ralalna in water 
until ib. v bnve again Ihr. appeal 
ii ii.. usual i 


sin v. iiioi Stanford poi 1 this rich Inheritance 

bus ins i Improvomenta have rapidly 

.1 M 1,1 be 1 1 II. I 1. 1,11,1. I 

i hi »iii bavi i 

This will make the largesl vineyard owned byanj 

man in thi world tad II i- laid tbal tbe railroad 

magnate bai n oloob d ooni bul tbo bi Bl raristli s, so 

that It Is likely tbal bis vineyard will nol onlj bi thi 

i in world, owned by ono man. 

rkabli tbal Q bould aoloot so 

favored a aei tlon bj proa | p i bi Boll Is tbi 

tbal ' OUll I I" tbe sun, and I 

ooptlbli ol Irrigation ir , living stn am i i wati i 

Ouroorroaj outwent through thowlne vaults, mid 

• a w 14,000 galloi «ii" . mode from tbi old vino. 

Mud Bi was falrlj muddli d with tbi bl i< .i Btook 

I,, root "' ovary tnrn, This only domonstratos that 
this mogul!) . ni rani h will no) only bi o ipi i ti d to 
rati . in., raisins and il tbal tbo flnust 

itocl will bi provldod for. \ traol ol 000 aoroa baa 
boon planted to alfalfa (all Irrigated] wblob Indloatos 
Unit Btanford Intends to bavo » flrsl i lass ram h to fall 

i iu , i, on should tho luiii , 1, nun too 

iii'i.i Mr Bmltl h rlnti ad* this ontlre po 

mi. 1 II" In. I (low l .Innlnid In,., v In led It bill 

, ni ii. satisfaction, a 
lot ol dovi i. ul 1. 1 1 ii i [i bavi boon built, wblob wo bavo no 
room i" rol i 1 this tlmd Dul noli nl II 

i oi pn pai in.' ■ i aalon al 

i ond I.. „ prlnoli tj when It 

folloWl d, I Uttll m I want, d 

Tb ly .1. I. 0l in wine made in tbi S 

color, or. i ll N Ill d bj 

ariiiieiai coloring, i tho local authorities an vorj 

watobl ul and i irol ul to pn vi al I bi u 

coloring niai rials, learealy a wooli i ling witboul 

hi inn Wlni bOlUS • on. le in in d, as ml n 1 1 en, led . :,,. 

int.. the s. a. " eh., raisin m nimi largoly used In 

Its DBl mill slate," says the OoDSIll, "that la to lay .With 

out being colored by artificial ans, by almplj mixing 

It with rod wines that an so deoj 10I01 thai tbi ad 

junction ol a cortiln quantity ol rod wlno roallj Im- 
proves both m nil i-M nis uiIh industry Ib now thriv. 
lug, ami. when boiiostly followod, Is undoubtodly 
beni-iii-iai to tho Induatryol tho oountrj In wblob tho 
wlno bas bo io so gouoral aa to bo almost 

ibh " This ami mm h i e liil'oriuat Is 

oontalm d In thi n poi I dati fl i mbei 20, 

lHHi. Tbh. demand In i-i io foi ralalna Ii icoounl 

of doatruotlon ol tho Vp di b 
ii ni, bj ' ho pb] lloiors 

ii will be bi on tbal oui only trouble n in bi I 
raisins grown and oured Tbo marketa of the world 

will take uii thai .mi be prod i i*. n ii iosI .in. i-i-oiiiiiitii nisi will inn. n> ,.,.i,n. I,, attach 
tbo raisin buslnossj and, aaldo from this use foi thorn 
tbo demand for oooklng ind tabli uses Ib llllmltablo, 
Prudonoo and philanthropy^ allko Tdomaml thai out 

pooplo should try in ovorj way I n tbi produo 

tlon oi mti altb b) tbo paton il in ol oui Ini 

tbal . mploymonl and sub ilat di ■ in '■ < and foi tbo 

population now crowding i u ajl , JU 

I ,., ,,„,!.,. i that "hi •'". makea two bl^,' ^ 

v ii here bul on, grOW [, n- v In unly , |, , i ^ 

,.., to tbi rao B - Ii I '" ,..f„ ,",',' '' 

n in b value fro 

was foi mi rly, m andi r bi , dJu.,,! " 

inii" .i i i.i,. tbrei ,. i. .. ',', |th raisin thla u , 

i ips wblob an 
|800 i" r in i, ii do doubl requires extra en * 

•'•■a cm, 
. and on tbal account tni 
Ii Hi. i I small means, if we 


ib.. wi.i. i cultivation of this kind ol grape w, 
ii ■' i tbal wi bavi done some g i to thi 


Ilowlng Interesting col iy (between a 

I I Mnilboi ii, • dil'. i and pr..| 
11. '. |. ill. 1. 1. In .1 al D 

tsllve ol i bo Denvoi \>n , ,,, ni,,i i„ ( ^,' . ' ' 


••it's a big country, Ii n'l 11 " 

Bi Bobi "i -',,,, .... | |, , „,, ,, i„ ri)f( j f 

two months' tour oi thi Moi i, , ' 

i omplaw ni smlli . uol unm with pity, and pertui 

b mi i. . mpl 

o saj ' Wi 11, >.... i Hhouid mj it k 

rather i . 

drainage ol tin ra an area of «s, 

OOOSqUan miloS. That doesn't look very big, dot»|i'i 

No it doesn'l Idea of the ensH 

..1 tin Null 

; In yonr atlaa and learn that it uiujo 

than all of the New England Btatea, New York.Fni, 

aylvanl i Indiana, Illinois and ioj, 

That's "..mpnai. 

Montana, Oregon and Washington 

r thfeosj. 
and is more susceptible of rlea 

habitation 11,., n BVOH tbll kl 

Why, il . r than thotttf 

000 people; cir ■ 

"--about 25,uOO.0OO tut* 
than we now have In all the I Did d Btati - Tuerruu 
limit to thi greatnee 'n..b thiscoaoirj 

i«o ptn 

f, and am 

to print. I can meatlM 

• u a general idea of \li 

. in. ni ..r that i onntry in that short pertai- 

and that, too ' tof bad dtvoti 

On tblB trip I • n mllCS and miles of farms along tb 
Columbia river, on lami which, when i vaatbtnlii 
years ig ilea. It s 

surprising to mi bow that far-ofl country uiadt iij 
i-i„. leswbii I, sto.,,1 in the wajsnaw 
iiisurmounlnbb In the orsl l compD» 

inknown, ami not nil correctly ku'-wn. AdW 

tO tblS was the .1 llll.ii 1 1 > which the Settler had in tott- 
ing il I mucn to tempt a man totrrrtl 

uun no* 
said wa irn him. or cold enough l> 

, finttril 

liui in i I tbi Ii lU] : fs,OD0b«U 

nettled . i in tbfl post year ' 


Janta Barbara I following Into* 

Ing st,.' rnlng the operation- of Hiwl 


On a re., nt trip t" Blw I, Mr Cooper's farm.rwd" 

mill I WOSt of Santa Barbara, a general surprise avaW 
„- ii I irdoubtthal Slr.Osep* 

farm Of 2.IW0 acr. s. u th( fi :.-loid»* 

tun r> ■ 

e. bOt *» H 

pond ball a day on nicbafira. |_ 

DdS of tree. Ol ■ 

him Ii. ei I. al^. ami 

blooded il roanj parts o'"- 

i de. Tb" 

in- .dive ..r. hard, of about 60 acres, all the u 
health] . ndhutv* 1 

the arsa> troos having a full bam I tbe l*^ 

. i t, i, ri U Old tl Ihem luetan''- 1 

ul ollvi s apli ■ On I ' • B4rta,i 

hatful totbon* 



with i» tl 

• i. wbli b ii" | stan I Ib w-| isti 

„,. rrultli ■ and wortblcss, and neai thi tiKtit-bou»" 

■• ii i -ni i. n years 

dog ni i ip Into 

d. sin., in", iround Banta Barbara won 

aol ii ii i" wort lodoatroj 

ii, . ii, . , mi. i bo i" n"« i. warded with I ! 

, ,..,. h in, iiu- --ii bll '.""'l' le 
oil mill < 

will i luoo aboul four gallons ol oil, « 

dollan I gallon, 01 twi utj dollars to tl»< « 

i' ii >. „.'. 'hi. I mm I, i I" tl" " 

iopoi bas publ 
OOlumns h Ihod ol di allu : with tl 

till' olive, I. hi. 1. ..Mile. II Is ,U,In 

ii wagon to iiu- u ■ strong -i mi., 

to] i hi ■ troi -. .iii.i finds thai • 

i | in a .1 ,> I way, ,1, i leave tin m "■' 


nun largo plau, and In Ihc I iulwlaui 

I., i. wblob laeapsl 

■ -.. »iM bo run da} and night for • " 

a llim, until hi I I -i till ) ' IhtuI 

I . H I, 


Editor anil Proprietor. 



I Office — ««(» Nwiomt si.. II,. II.. u Ha l.lli.-. 

Entered at the P. 0. San Francisco. 


Six Months, $1.25-Postage Paid. 



in width. Ii i~ dnuned from tho north by tho 
Sacramento, the largeel rivoi in the si. a,-, anil 
From Hi- south by the San Joaquin, the Ion eal 
rivoi in i lalifornia, which, aftor meoting and unit- 
ing hi iin 'Mil' i "i ii.. i. .i-iii. in..., i, through the 
1 "'-t Range i- the Pacini . At the |um tion of 
these two great rivers lies San Joaquin county, 
which is bounded on the north by Sacramonto, on 
thoeasl by Amador, Calaveras and Stanislaus; on 
the south bj Stanislaus, and on the wesl bj 
Alameda and Contra Costa counties; having 
an area "t 928.000 acres <>i 7 acres 

Mokolumne and the Stanislaus rivers j the San 

Joaquin with a il I sufficient, in certain 

i" render them navigable foi a considerable dis- 
tance, and furnish a supply of watei adequate to 
the irrigation of the lands lying between them, em- 
bracing the richest section of the county. The Boil 
of the river bottom of the San Joaquin, Stanis- 
laus, Calaveras .iTi.i Mokolumne riven is a rich 
sandy loam, well adapted to the growth of sweet 
potatoes, hopB, corn, pi anul i, flax, hi mp, juti . 
ramie, ohicor) . melons, and small Fruits, vegetable! 
and all inannei of f orops, | lui in 

the fact, that f mil and vegetables mature oarliei 
than ' Isewhoro. The bottoms along the othei 
streams, traversing the county, and the islands of 
the San Joaquin river, are oni continuous garden, 
iblea, "f all kinds, an- 
nually Wo Find that San Joaquin county occu- 
pies "i f the moHf favorable and important 

positions "f any locolitj in the State, on account 
of its accessibility to the various markets >.f th.< 
world j its navigable streams; its excellent railroad 
Facilities; its large area of tillable soil of the most 
produi ii one-foorth "f which consists 



The Great Grain Depot of Cal- 


Her Manufactories and Business En- 

Othxr Town 

ml viiinicen Described. 

|iiy Dm TravoUog Ay.. ol ol Tfa ft) 
1 veil known, i« divided by two 

in.. nut. imi . ■. i/ i In 

i n the wi it, run- 

frmii uortli i tli 

1 ol ii tains lies tho 

I' Illlllln nl I 

.i kltliou ;h, n .'II', . 


WD mill in Ii n Hi hi. I from DO to 00 mill a 

..I this is owned and assetsed, thus leaving only 
61,813 acn ol ■ i ti land, whioh is rivoi bed and 
some brokon land in the northeastern and south- 
western portions of the count) San Joaquin is 
..I,, "i the wealthiest counties in the State, the 

J i ail proportj in i in ' ounl | being 

929,048,221; value of personal property, nearlj 

96,000,000 more; thi rati ofta ationi -i 30, being 

the loweal En tho State, The con u of 1880 gives 

I ..linn ,i population ol 2 1,873, « hich ho In 

i i in i he lasl i in ■ a 

'■"I would give this 1 1 82,000 peopli 

.a the presont time. San Joaquin i« 

Wnt.-.. .1 

By the Son Joaquin river, « hioh | 

Hi,- 1 ni ir. length "i 1 1"- count] ,from th I rth, 

preading into ti ihanneli a few miles above 

in it- . -iiil.i... . I (VO "I ll" 

in the State No -inn f any 

importance i nb i il From I ho wi il . bul on thi oasl 
,,i, i.i. , within ii" Limits <>f the aounty, the 

raously without Irrigation. While the county 

u g the in if in the Stab is a wheat- 
growing county, tin- yield "f wheaf ranges from 
lid", n i" fori v bushi l poi acre, and in i kc< pt- 
ional localities as high as 60 and 60 bushels have 
been produood Although the grain-growing in- 

I'u -i predoi at< ovoi all othi i - itoi k-raising 

foi in- no inconsiderable p iri of ii" 1 Indu il 
thecountj [mprovod Fini -bred l"" les, oattli ihi i p 
and ■» mi . h ln'li have boon imported From other 
countries, have given tin live Btcs k ol this m etion 

pread reputation Poi thi pasf fi 
mans ol H" '" i l| " Stab h kvi bi i n 

bred ni tin county Dairying and the raising <>f 

inn- oattloan o irriod on I mc ■ • ti nt, whili shi i p 

husbandrj i I important industry I 

uf tin' growing Lndu if I thi count] Is tho pro- 
duction of gardi n and othei vegetables, melons 
and iinii Foi tho Ban Frnnol larkots The 

alluvial l.anl,- "I Hi" San .l..."|iiln rfVOI •" ' POOU 

i.aiis Favorable foi this, pur] on V "" ml "' 

uf alluvial swamp and overflow lands, capable of 

r.-.'laiiial an, I i-nllu iition, anil alreadly largely 



\ .. , furnish our readers with a splendid bird's 
,m view of tho city, we shall devote a large share 
cif our article to ill" manufactni inpj and commercial 
• o) ti,, .. one "i ' ' ilifornia - a mmorcia] 
oentera Stockton is tho county seat of San Joa- 
quin county, and is locab d al 1 1 ■ « - head ol Stockton 
channel, on ii"- lino ol tin Central Pai iin- 

road, 01 miles from San Fran bj rail, and ll" 

mill a bj wab r, This channel is n widi ""l deep 
arm of tli" San Joaquin rivei whioh i^ navigable 

f,,, voagl |a o| nun tons oapaoity TI tj oxb ad 

ovoi "i area of four square mill i, and is laid oul 

in regular blocks "f 800 i M ■ 

porated in I860 Ii itrooU an wide, and tho 

principal s are macAdamizod; iomo ol thorn 

fined » itli bi autiful shade brei ' ho i, toi ol 
ii • buildings ih generally verj lubatantisj and 


I ,„, \ thi rtion bi in buill olraosl i n- 

tu. u of brioli V vstom ol Rtrool railroads 

ilford ii is act ■■ lation bol ween i ai ioui pari 

,,i tho i lifcj Btoekton i - ooncodod to bo 'l il 

important grain markol of tho Paoifio I loo t, oul 
. ,i, ,,i Ban Franoi k o Hoi i onvoniont location 
n i.,i , i, advantage ol b] hi i ontorpri in 

m hi -. n ho b ivi i itabliahod fooilitii ■ foi 

, i , . . , ■ and rapid handling, tow jo and bi 

of gram iqualod bj anj oitj on thi I 'o ial Tlio 

warehouses ol Btoekton arc buill ol brick, and are 
m ,|,. i,,.,. proof, n„ wity boing over 
100,000 tonB, Tho di op, navigable ohannol, radi 
itinjj from tho rivoi to different points in tho city, 
jive a pi in. m water front of manj miles in ex- 
tent, ui Ii n ' nol i isod oIbi w hero in the 

Bl it. Substantial wharves have boen buill al 
public expense, hw in an i pri [ati li o th ol 
■ ,.:•■ i% n mill , and, as tho demands of traffic ro 
quire, H" \ are oonstantly being extended [n 
faoilitii ■ foi transportation, Btoekton is unusuall) . 

Radiate from this center in all directions, north, 

.smith, oast, and west, o icting with tho entire 

San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys, with the 

mountain oountry on the oast, with San Francisco 

..n the southwest, and with tho Eastern Bt 

in. th th-' Central ami Southern Pacific Eailroadf 


California Rteam Navltratlon Company 
I- running a dailj Line of steamers between Stock- 
ton and and San Francisco; bi ridi - thi ti thi re are 
innumerable craft plying between here and thi 
metropolis, cai i j in | thousands of tons "f groin to 
San Francisco, and returning with coal, 
lumber, and merchandise. 

The public roads leading out of tho city 
are being rapidlj unproved, and an 

erally in g I condition, excepting in 

very rainy seasons, There are, however, 
four turnpikes leading in different direc- 
tions, which have been gravelled and are 
kept in good condition, and afford pleas- 
ant ilri\ es at all season* nf tin- year, anil 
another is projected which will undoubt- 
edly be completed within the next bu 

Xhi manufacturing industries of Stock- 
ton are Becond only to San Francisco. 
This being a central location, convenionl 
to the great Mount Diablo coal Bi Ids, 

fuel ina\ he ■ li-li \ i red cheaply h\ » atei 

communication; in fact, the facilities for 
freighting fuel material of nil kinds, 
either by water or rail, an nol excelled 
by any locality on the Coasl Stockton 
has made rapid strides in her manufactur- 
ing during the last live yearn. 
Flour Mills 

Nothing could better illustrate the 
Bteadj and substantial growth of Stock- 
ton's industries than the pi 
in the production "f flour. What 
patient industry and economical man- 
agement can accomplish is signally »h"« 
in the grand results achieved b) Mi 
spin v & Co., proprietors of the Btoek- 
ton City Mills. The first venture'in 
grain-milUng was a small barley mill, 
conducted by the late Austin Sperry, and Mr. 
Baldwin, in 1852. This was befon thi adaptabil- 
ity of the soil and climate of tie 
the San Joaquin and adjacent foothills to the pro 
duction of a mporior quality of wheal was known, 

n tl ght of. rjttli did the pooplo, thi n 

. for gold, dream thai in i fi h 
itei h heat would become the chief staple 

• of ili untry, oi th it thi greal wheat- 

produi ing i ctions of the world would find in 

Calif a compi titoi thai would oxcito wondei 

1 1 grain i enter on the globe, 

The little barli ) mill of Sperrj S Co al fii il 

received its upplj ol p on from l hili, and mibse- 

quently small lots i from Salinas, 

... and othi i poinl in thi bay oountios 

. ii,. j com ludod tu onlargo tho mill, and 

put in one run ol -t foi making Horn Thi fli il 

mill,. i ie, He oompan) ws obi id (nun 

.,1 the baj i ntiei In 1854 the] i 

i ,, .. ,i the mill i" a capai it) ol 100 barrols of flour 
i,i.,.ii,.,ii. , n! ,i in | thi ir business, thoy 

, re ct< d, in thi fall of 1855, a brioli wan I w 

adjoining thi mill ; tho ware! itill ■ tandlng 

M „ monumonl ol thi ii oarlj ontorpriso, The 
.mil wo i again i nbu •■ I in U K) il whii h bum 
M, Baldwin n tired, and Ma m. B. w Bperry 

,,,1,1 \i. ■ nidi i Burl otl boi "i" i »ted with 

tin 'i" n | in thi I u Vtthal thm 

,. ,1 j .,i lie mill v.., i [noroD ind to I 10 bai 

, i ..i floui ovorj "i I Durin 

n„ mill pro luocd II from tho Di ' 

i ,,,,. hi Joaquii inty, alt] gh mosl dI 

tl„ ... hi ial used Ih the mill up to 1868 h i I ghl 

., djp and Pi to 

In I860 the in in bought the property known as 
tho Franklin Mill (tho sito upon « hioh the present 

mill Btands), which was th ghlj remodeled and 

uon in.e linn ii \ Bubstituted for tho old, and 
I,.,, ii | in. reased to 100 barrols of flow pi i daj 
Tho Franklin Mill was erected bj Timothj Paige 
.uhI others, and operated foi n briel period, bul 
through lark of experience in the business and 
othi i ' ause i, tho ontorpi iso was d failure. 

Tin oapacii j of tho mill was inoreased from 

i to tunc until 1874, when the dailj producl 

was 500 barrels, In 1874 Ales lei Burkettsold 

oul hi interesl to lustin and S, W Sperry, and 
during tin' .sum. yeai tho mill was again remod- 
eled; whai is I » n as tho " New Process of Mill 

ing adopted, and tho capw itj of tho mills 
increased In I'.lHi barrels every 'J I hours. In this 

way the mill was run up to April 2d, 1882, when 
it was destroyed bj lire, a oalamitj which cast a 
oloud of gloom ami iivdnosB over the entire com- 
ni ii ii i' j . 

\i tin juncture a briel period elapsed before it 
wn known whai course S. V7. Sperry, upon whom 

devolved tl utiri managemeni of the business, 

intended to pursue, The spirit of anxious inquiry 
throughout the entire citj and countj « 
bi ' al re il bj tin i uncemenl thai the establish- 
ment was to I"' rebuilt upon an enlarged and im- 
pi m ..I plan. From tho vorj outset "f their career 
in Stookton, Mes n Sperrj & Co. had challenged 
men in all branohos of business to excel them in 
honorable dealing had thrown down the guantlet 
to rivala in the production "f flour of superior qual- 
ity, and had shown pluck and perseverance in 

I, nil, hie.; Up an industry, which liad grown not 

,,iil\ into a means of Bocuringto themselves a pri- 

laid in mortal and eemi nt, Thi mo I orutinizing 

Bupi 1 1 1 tion wa i ■■• n i od in tho ■■ Ii ol ol thi 

building material, and none but tho bi I usod 

Tin stairwaj to all tho fl in tho mill building 

i- |.i iced in tho north asl i ni i I thi tructuro 

i,, nn h .i waj 1 1 not to interfere with tho milling 
operations. Thediffi ronl di partmi nt arc dividod 

ii | wall . th pn n [0 'I igh whii 11 arc 

provided with heai y iron d ioi i, bj whioh oa< Ii di 
|..,, me ni i in bo i" i lily and offoctuall) i olati d 

from il thors in tho evonl ol fire, Thi i ntin 

brick and carpenter work wo i dono by tho day's 
work, under Mi Bpei e pel on 'i upoi 1 1 ilon 

Tl,,- i... the largest and mo I i omplote flour mill 
,,n ih,. Pacific i 'OS i li • ■ 'i'." il j i • 1,000 bai rola 
i„. r jay. In point ol Boliditj and trength il is 
. ,i, to e thai ii 1 1 ii-' urpo isod bj any mill 

.li ii, tun in tho I 'ml" I 81 '<' "'-' ithi ' i il m 

passed in tho quality ol il • productions. 

The excellence of the Hi atti itod bj the 

popular domand for it both al home and abroad 

\..t alone is il mi i il re< of nized 'i fhoul tho 

extent of the I'-" ite, - Ti rril is, but its 

superiority has 1 n admitti d in tho i ihiof comraer- 

,i.,l empoi mins east of 'in Ro b | Mountains a 
well as in Europe and Lbui [I ha dn n Ij round 
its way into the bent of tho groat Mi 

valley; h.i- fed lie I n j n OUthj "I ( •" •' Brit- 
ain and France, and it is leldom i 
its doparture from the Golden Gate to tho Flowery 
Kingdom without carrying a wa] morooi '■■ 
from Stockton Citj Mills 
The capital invi ted is 1500,000; amount paid 
■niilii r nf imn 
employed, 46; amount paid for labor du 
I past year, tl6,IHX), and v. dm of product during 


vote fortune, bul virtually partook of the charac- 
t, i of o public benefaction in the way of provi ling 
the means of livelihood to many Famili 
greatly adding to the commerce and wealth of tho 
city, >iei it can bo readily understood that their 
, .,,1. in (ion '" n ai tabliah the mill upon i 
plot* in plan as architectural and mechanical -kill 
could di ie "i universal 

l| loll. 

Th.- firm consists of B W Sperry and Mi 

Austin Bperry, widow of the late Austin Sperry, 
t in foi im i part nor, h hos< inton si she i et una, S 
\V S|, the i In i |iint and manager, is as 

i - 1 . ■ i bj two of his sons, Georgi B and Austin B. 
Bporrj Tho San Francisi ffico is in charge of 

\i, .in,., BCogg and Mr James W. Sperry, 

moth i ion of 8 W, Bpoi i j 

The new mill stands on tho sito of the one rc- 

oontlj destroyed bj fire, and in an imposing and 
ubstantial truoturi [I was orocti I al i 

1200,000. Th. i. i lv tho width of the Btreet 

bi i weon il and I ho n atei front , from h huh point 

thoro is unbrokon watoi unication with Ban 

Transportation by railroad oan !"• hud 

I,, the north front of tin- building, Tin- lall.i Is 

,in |dod into threi department < tho first tho mill 

propor, which i I0i 100 fi ol and Bvo I is high; 

ti,, I contains tho oli aning mnohino and the 

pookin i n '" |IMI '• • ' ""' "'" » '"' "'* high; 

and tho third tho warohou io dop irl I 1 1 r ■ 100 

i. , i and I wo il high, The foundation wall ■ 

.,,,. |. H , i u|„,ii a solid foundation ol oonoroto two 

and a half foot thlok, Tho wallB ol tho main 

building arc :111 inoho i thick foi n hoi [hi of two 

ml drop "ii ' briok i" thickness for 

l.|,e. oiler Urn I ih. Inn I. i ne 

the same period, §375,000. The engine bj whioh 
the machimrs i- propelled is 150-horse power, 

Crown 'ii l Company. 

This company was organized in tho summoi ol 
1882, with .. oapil d of (300,000, divided ii 
sh H. ■ of s|imi r.e-h The directoi - are 3 

Welsh, Robert Balfour, Robert B Abraham 

Schwabacher and Bigmund Bchwabachor. Tho 
company purchased a site for tho mill oloso to tho 
watoi front, on n uth lido ol Btoi kton i h I 

and mi tin we-l (tide ol Title -In. I Tin u,ln, 

ground covered by tho building is 200x100 fool 
Th. mill propoi is 00x80 feet and five tories high. 

Tin i ii. -un i and tho spa< o i"i tho boilo 

cupv '.'lixi'iO feet iii the (Iiu. •■( corner. The de- 
partment alloti id to groin ' il aning maohinerj is 
:(iix".ii feet, and adjoining lbi« is tho pai I 
pari ne ni . 30x50 feel Thi latti i dopai I monl an 
three Btories high \ » ai i imn io, two I 
height ami 110x201 feet, adjoins tho mill on tho 
west, side. The Stockton .\- • lopporopolis R 
1. 1 ' ilong i in soul h "idi- ol i ho building, and on 
tho north side a bulkhead and wharl have boon 
constructed on tho wator front tho ontiro lonj th ol 
tho building Flour oan bo convoyed on slides 
'in. 1 1 from i ho pookin • dopai I mi nl to toami i i oi 
sailing orafl on tho nortb sido, or to tho railroad 
tho south sido, \ moro ollgiblo site for n 

flow in • mill could not I btainod in I ho intoi ioi 

of i .iii i- -in it 'I he oapaoitj ol tho mill is 1,000 
bai n Is i"i day, Tho woi k ol building ho I 

forwarded with all | liblo OXpoditiOH, and lln- 

wholo hi i boon undoi I ho supervision "i J u 

W 1 1 h, I ■ iq , ■ "i i ho Incoi poi atoi i Tho « all i 

Btandupon b oonoroto foundal , and tho antiro 

suporstruoturo In nf tho mosl lubstantia] ehuraotor. 

1 ! ibli ihmi ni i . ■•' i '. important .ei,|jt„, 
si.„ kton' n Sling indui ii | 

Lane's Mills, 
Lane' flow and fi ed mills, on Weber nv,., 

hi 'i in 1804, by thi | 

who h.i i ontinuoui I3 opt rated thi m Th 
Invi tod I iboul >0,000; andthe 1 
hands employed, ton, Lost veai tl 

paid i"i l iboi , and tho 1 um paid I 

Iii 1 -i''Hri 

uring th" sum- 1 1 amounted to 8145000 

Tin engine whioh propols the machinery 1-' iu 

imi 10 power. Tim miii ,„. f 

miineui in 1 ii ni ion 1, and a rood) mai kot han 

bi on "i» 11 for all tin flow and I 
it has been oblo to produco, ITie flour is unnif 
1. 1 edin qualil ( 

Barl-y MlUs. 

fn 1883 Messrs. Campbell and bang (thi latteri 
prai tical mill 1 1 tablished the Barley Milh on 
Hunter Btrei 1 The capital investerl i« 

■ number of hands employed, eighl 

paid labor in 1882, 12,650; iral i ,., 

590,000 Th.- mills are op 

powi 1 Tin articli prodi 

ground bai loy, 1 01 n oal . • orn n 

tlour. I lurin : the veai the mills grow 

' ''arl.y, 200 ' ind 100 tons of 

Btoekton Wheel Company. 

Another important addition has been n 
Stockton's manufacturing industries The Stock- 
ton Wheel Compan] md operated br 
Holt Brothi 1-. 27 and 29 Beale • 

I are im- 

of and wholesale dealers in oil idnda oi 

h.n I'.v I lumber, wagon and carriage material 

and hardware. Tin- company purpose 
tnanufai turiug the genuine 
pat nt n hi snl-hub wheels 

(from the lightest to the heaviest), alto 
bodies and gearing for all I 
vehicles, They will keep on li.milagen- 
era) supply of material, and have now »t 
tie factory, and on the way, materisl fn 
6,000 et of hi <: i.OOO bodies and 
Tin- Iniilding in light, airy and 
commodious, and is furnished with ill 
the latest-improved ma him 1 j . which a 
di mil by a 40-1 - i-Dgine, 

The] are determined t.. maki the btst 
goods in this line that can be obtained 
The body and gearing department is in 
of one of the most thorough and 

1 petent body makers in thi I 

st it. 1 Stockton for the 

erection of tho I ictorj on .1 it of the 

dry, warm climate, and its central locs- 
tion. It is absolutely essential in mat 

•. Ie 1 1 that «ill stand thi h : 
of this St ite, that the stock is thorunghlj 
l before being used. No iron 
work »ill bo done at all, aa has been 

• I by man] Mesai - Ho I 
havi invi sted hen upw ard - of t> 
and ' tpeel to give constant employmml 
1 11 Tin f n tor 1- in tin 
hand 1 ol j oung, 1 at 1 prisii - mi n, «h" 

aevei fail to 1 bj y through, - mfully, 

whatever thi 

Paper Manufactory. 
The paper mill, owned by the Califor- 
nia Paper Company, in this city, wm 
Aral run bj 1: B. Lane, in 1 thefirst 

and still remains the onlj paper mill in tl 
of th. 31 ocebees 

doublod, ind il is to-day •» flourishi 
Tho machinery, which was first op 
il.., ii- and feed mill, on w • ' "■- '' 

moved to a now building en cted on thi 
■ m rmon channel, especially foi thomanufacton 
ol papoi . m 1878, and tho capital now ii 
-I The mill affords constant • mj 
for 105 hands, and thi sum ol 
montldj foi wagi - Durii ,KI "'" 

paid foi ra« materi J Thi pro 

ipOl . 111 nulla, and -li.i" H mppil 

,: oi ti,,- in, tropolitan [ourn ds, ondanumbsi 
,,i tho intorioi dailj and woeklj new ijmp 
, paper ol Btoekton inanufm tn 

Tl ngim usod in opoi iting tin mai him rj i« ■'"' 

1 powoi Thi 'mm. iof thoCalifornin P*V 

1 lompanj is on n 1 1 basis, and tho 1 

of ih. n in iimi.n im j assured, 

'I'll.. Paolflo TiinniT)'. 

Situatod al tho Intoi lootion ol Bl D 

Is an, V\ ' in 1 a Co pn 

» 1 1 itabliahod In 186 I, and has 1 1 

constant opi 1 ition - dial timo Thi 

i.ii- 100,000, and 50 men 1- thi 

mployod During 1889 tho unount "' 
mono] oxpondod for ttm material roaohi d th" •""' 

■ 000 I'h" oi„ Ii . producod •'•' ■ l '"' ,h 

n| olo loathor, hum ■ leathor, Bkirtin 
leathor, Idpc, ill iklna, and alum li ithoi ' 

i. iod mi ih" p. "im 

Ial thoi lohoi in iiiiuiim. 

■I.. Hi- Tn ih" T j I 

iimn oalamltli 1 [I has booo^thxeo timoi bul 


down, the last mh-i..iIi lurring in 1874. Im- 

1,1. ,h ii. i\ -Hiv, 1 din • ichdi is it< 1 il n is rebuilt in 
i„ii, 1 shape than h fan , and now tlio building 

lil to tin ind I ibli pa 1 

.111,1 enterprisin pii il ol [| ownoi Thi marki 1 

for ill- product of the institul 

out Calii ■>. Oregon, Washington Territory, 

1 t.Ji, Ten is, and Mi tsourf, Wvn thi 1 lui I 

tni t iin- pi, -hi amount, the firm would find 

jala tor it all. 
Stockton \Vooi»>n ninin. 
In 1870 M'--' - l, >" ', 1'. I >ou 1,1 j 8 1 

1 '■'■' I 10,000 1:, 'I,, on 1 tion ■ >f ,1 woolen 
mill mi tin, smith bank of Mormon ohnnni I Thi 
mill began operations in I Ictobei of that 
during L871, w itli onlj one bo! of mm inn, 1 1 . there 
wen manufactured 6,000 pairs ,,1 blankote of su< 
I- riot qualitj In Si ptembi 1. 1871, thi 
.,1 ii., mill was doubled, and -ui — qui ntlj the 
products per week amounted to L62 pain of 
blankets, ami 1,700 yards of flannel, Thi mill 
was again enlarged, and is non what 1- known as 
,1 "two -' it " mill, with BOO -|, in, 11, -. it 1- now 
owned by William Doughty, of San Francisco, 
and is under the personal management of James 
on, .1 pi 1, 11, aj .111,1 skilled manufai tun 1 of 
large exptiiemn. Tin' capital nmv invested i- 

160,000, and the Bum paid fur wool in 1882 

amounted t" 132,000 The amount paid For labor 

'•KM), and tho value of tin- product 160,000. 

lliuim.' tin- Vi'ar tin -n- uviv 7. dim p;,ir> ,,| l,|,u,|,i I- 

.■ui'l In'i.lHHI v. inls of tlanin.'l manufactured. Tim 

owner contemplates a furthei enlargement ol tin 

-. of tin- mill at. an i-arlv date, when in- pro- 

' ' keep tho niailnm 1 \- m continual opera- 

li"». 'lav ami night. Tin- ..- I- | ■■ ■ ., { 1 1 1 ,•,,-,■ 

shipped in bulk to San Franoisco, ami 
tin ir rapid rise in popular favor attests 
tin- excellence "i their quality. 

Atfri' "'turni Machine shops. 

'I'll' manufacture "i agricultural im- 
plements gives employment t>, .. 
number of mechanics. Stockton takes 
thi lead on this 1 '.,;i-t in tin- industry . 
Thi I'- are five firms engaged in tin man- 
ufacture of agricultural implement 

as ' "ini'i I bead) rs ami thrashers, plows 

ni every description, derricks, fork-,, 
trucks. , 1, 

Matteson & Williamson's Work- are 
tin most extensive, thej bavin 

shed in 1852, when Stockton was a 
mere village of tents, Tin-' gentlemen 
now have a fini . thri e-story in iok block, 
7:,. inn feat, with a basement on Main 
where tiny are manufacturing 
tin 11 "Stockton Chief Beaderand their 
celebrated Stockton Reversible Plow, 

which 1- now ictensively used all over 

tin- Sacramento ami San Joaquin valleyB, 

thesi 1 bey manufacture an end- 

1' -- -. arii ty "f other plow -, hai row -. 

cultivators, Bteel road Bcrapers, ware- 

- - >a Its, derricks, f"i ks, 1 tc Tin y 

havi :, foundry, down by tin railroad, 

where they make all their own castings. 

Taken altogether, tin -•• an- anion-.' tin- 

implete agricultural woi ks on the 


Globe Iron Work-. 

John 1 lane's Globe Iron Works, at the 
ppper end "i Mam jtrei t, neai the tteam- 
poat landing, is also an old-established house, having 
instantly engaged in tin manufaol ureof iron 
ami bras .,! , mill, 

mining, and agricultural machinery since 1856, 

a has n. , ntlj opened an agril ultural -'"" 

In- bas a largi 
Inent of gang plows, single ami doubli plows, 
,n,i agricultural bnplemi ntsol evi rj di 

script I[i nig constant oiuplnyinent I" 

from :'.", I., 10 1 ihanics 

The Stockton Iron Worlu, 
1 ington, ll 8 Co., on I lalifoi ni 
|j , ngaged in an hiti otural work for 


tural implement . etc, Thej bavi an extra fine 
lot ol patterns for light pnllii . bangers, ihafting, 
i hey give employment to from Bfti 1 n to fifty 

The H. C. Shaw Plow Works. 

B mil '■•■■ ■ ',' 1 

■ ., 1. i,,n 1 rang Plow, "i wbi h 
tin n are now ovea 8,000 in use in ' talifornia, 

1., ,,11, 1 dip bi 
plows, and the Randolph headei 1, nil j and ingh 

dkj I > 

in thi ■ lini 1 1 

i" ' 1 in .1 in 1 . ! -i"i, Thli 

ted on id 1 >"> 

'I In agricultural works of George Lisscndeu, 
win. hu< bean established sin lannfao- 

taring plows, barrows, wagon-beds, road scrapers, 
and agricultural Implements "( rarious hinds. 
'>>.,, 1. 1 1 ii . Comblnsd Beader »"<■ 

Tlirii.l.- r. 

Tld* nisi inn will head, thresh and sack from 3B 
to 40 acres of grain in a mngi- day. This genii* 


men sold ten machines last year, which all gj v «. g 1 

MtisfaoHon, and this year is manufacturing them 

•xtensively. New, l.rg I , im0 dlons 

[shave been entei and Honors 

streets, ft h ore tho maoblue I- being manufactured 

'"' 'he trade, The f-.n ,,, ,,„„,„, 8Om0 of 

the proofs of the work of this ,,. « labor-saving 

Haw ii-'i-i , Ouuvobhu 

Mn. Dakii 1 ii,,, -hi, 

I'ln i-omln 

thrasher wo 



1, ,, ., , , ■"" o.iiim r nun uinihlnr 

' ' >"" ass proved to be lust the machine 

R u ta K„ fi '. '■;, '', '" '"• "'"wttsii 

""i ' ''• -""' Infav 1 .1,1.1 

" ' " "' ' 1 10 w, oul 1 I, 1 acres in in rlavs 

' ' "' '■■ uorsesj on tulo 1 1, and r, bones ,- 

''"' , w * ■"" ""i th»Bhed somi barioj thai oiadi la 

buahoU per acre, w, would not bo will t our m 

•am. for 110,000- if m could not get another 
Yours Truly, E wi 1.1. & I 

f TtmLOOK, Stasislaoh Co, Cm. 
Ma.Daima.HotJ,, January am, 1B88. 

n, Cal. 
/v,.r.s„ w, l,,i, L .|,tauduscdonoof your combined 

neaaersan 1 thi isbi rs last soason.snd we are free 1 1 

run that no ,„„. 1 ■ oould equal it In w/curlng our 

W< eul sud thrashed 1,800 acres ol Brain lnM 

'"V" 1 "' : • Per sere, also with lew waste 

1 ocfor. on om rani b In one Reason. We 

;'"',""" x recommend th iblned barvester to our 

""" r - '•■ bolnn ii" best machlm they 

navi rorseounns thegraln .1. h. Hotohini 

Qranfrer's Union. 

The Granger's Union of San Joaquin valley wan 
established in 1871, with ils heudquartcrs in Stook- 
tun. The capital invested is S80.000. During 1882 
there were eight hands employed and the sum or 
$9,000 was paid for labor. The amount paid for 
merchandise, during tho year, waa $75,000, and 
the Bali B daring the same period aggregated S100,- 
000. The Union deals in builders' hardware, agri- 
oultoral implements, wagons, buggim, coal, iron 

"i meobanfos employed, and theii work i» giving 
tho very bi si satlsfaotfou. 

There ire several other tirms engaged In iliin 
branch of business, and the prodncl of th, 1 

11,1,1 " a « mnfaotnrers of Block ion find 

sale wherever its 1 icellenl oharacd 1 Is known. 
J. T. Ciukiiibothaiii is an importer and di alei in 

all kinds of carriage material, oak, anh 1 hJol ry 

wagon lumber, ami oarriuge bardwan ,■ 1 , rally. 
Pinning Mills -Sash, n, „ r . U1 ,,i Blind 
The business or manufacturing mi ul 
blinds, and doors, and the dressing of all kinds ol 
lumbi 1 ior building purposes, la followed by two 
Orms In Btookton. Bteam-power Is 1 
each, in this industry 89 bands are employed, and 
the capital invested is about $40,000, w.. 
000 was paid fur the material osed in the two nulls 
in 1882, and tho value of tho product was $99,000. 
The wages paid for labor aggregate $25,000. Tho 
business is rapidly increasing, and the Arms en- 
caged in this industry take a verj 
view of the outlook. Tbi 1 n ;ini dsi rj - 
the machinery, in one mill, is 15-korse powi r, and 
that in the other is 10-horse power. The demand 
for prepared material for uew farm dwellings 
Ihronghout San Joaquin and neighboring oountii - 
has kept both establishments running, to tin h ut- 
most capacity, during the past two summers, and 
si though tln-ro is quite a falling off in the domand 
for rustic, flooring, ceiling, 'planed material and 
scroll work for mechanical use daring the winter 
months, yet there is sufficient to keep the mills in 
operation most of the time. 

White & Thomas, proprietors of the long) 
tablished mill, have an extensive trade throughout 
the surrounding country, aud some of the products 

"' taring the year, and lbs 

In 1878 Messrs. Nash, Wright & Oo. commenced 
'ia, -or, of wheat-oleaners, 1 

*"< gram en.v.M.s. Thej .,.,,„ J ,000 k 

m tho In, 

T. O. Humphrey manufactures drapers, for head- 
ers end "mailing ,1 bines, . L . venU 

men dun 

Brewi , ,, - 

" ,l '" '' " "'■'■■'■ I this oify. producino 

I by D. 1: •tiien 


and steel. The business of the corporation nas 
varied from $75,000 to $225,000 per annum, and is 
undi 1 the supervision of the following named gen- 
tlemen who constitute the Board of Directors: An- 
drew Wolf. Ezra Fisko, W. D. Ashley. H. W 
Co well, W. L. OverhiBcr, B. F. Langford, James 
U i Charles Grujie and John N. Woods. H. 3. 
Sargent and W. T. Smith are tbo managers. 
Carriage and Wagon Murk. 
Of Stockton are abend of any city on the Coast, 
outside of San Francisco. M. P. Henderson, who 
bas been establish hero since 18C9, has a three-storj 
brick block on Main street, whore he is giving em- 
ployment to a large number of mechanics, build- 
ing siago-coaches, carriages, wagons anil buggies 
of every kind and style. His extensive establish- 
ment covers five lots. 

W. P. Miller has a similar establishment on tho 
corner of California and Channel Btreota. Mr. Mil- 
ler has been here in this business since 1852, and 
bus now a trade extending from Oregon to Mexico, 
and to the Islands, Arizona and Utah. His stage- 
. carriages and freight wagons are known 
all over the Const as the best in use. Mr. Miller is 
i, bis business by adding another brick 
building to bis large establishment. 

Joseph Hansel's inrriago and wagon works, on 
Hunter street near Miner's avenue, are also quite 
extensive. Mr. Hansel has been In the business 
since 1852, and iB tho patonteo of Hansel's buggy 
springs, which are acknowledged to bo tho neatest 
and most durable spring now in uso, and aro en- 
tirely different from theeliptlo spring, so common 

Lancell Sc Boeber, two enterprising young men, 
Dave r ,., , - a, lbs manufai tare of oarri- 

Bgee, wagons, and buggies. They have a imml,, i 

0/ tneir mill have been used in the completion of 
most of tho best buildings in Stockton, as w II as 
the other leading towns of the San Joaquin valley. 

Manufacture of Kuril 1 1 in.-. 

Stockton has two extensive manufactories of 
furniture where a good variety of articles in that 
line are produced. The Stockton Furniture Com- 
pany, now operated by Doane ,V Logau, com- 
menced business in 187-1, and havo manufaotured 
a large amount of furniture of almost ov- ry kind. 

These establishments produce elegant sets from 
mahogany, rosewood, walnut, laurel, etc., but 
make tho various articles from pine and other Cal- 
ifornia lumber to meet tho general domand. A. 
Easton and Messrs. Kennedy & Miller make uphol- 
stering a special branch of their business. Tim ag- 
gregate capital employed in tho entire business is 
not less than Jhii.iiOii; amount paid lor material, 
$45,000; and for labor, $50,000. The sales of furni- 
ture during 1882, aggregated over $300,000. 
Windmills, rn iiU«, Etc 

Tho capital invested in theso mechanical indus- 
trlea is about $30,000. Twenty-four men are em- 
ployed, and tho wages paid during 1882 aggregated 
$10,000; $75,000 is an approximate estimate of the 
valuo of tho produofs. There aro six firms en- 
gagl <l in the business— Smith Jk Wilson, successors 
to.i.s. Davlsj Abbott, Williams & Btowell, E. J. 
Marsters, O. M. Small and two smalh-r establish' 
imnt-. Smith & Wilson confiuo themselves to the 
windmill business exclusively, while Abbott, Wil- 
liam A BtOWSlI manufacture tanks as will as wind- 
mills. B. J. Minsters manufactures land-rollers, 
so If- feeders, elevators, derricks, nets, tanks and 
toOUghS, and is now putting in B twenlv-horse- 

powi 1 engine, planes, saws and other maob - 
the demands ol bis bnslm • v. Small 

constructs what is known as tho " Star Wind mill " 

Saddlvry ,..,.1 Harness. 

"" u,a, luring estnblish- 

° i n,8 '° S| "-' kl ""'»- invested 

being $70,000. The wage. p.,d by tl 

meats last year camow.thm a Iraoli f *20 000 

og employed in the buslni 
amount paid for man , 


"-bed in 1852, and that of Dan Blord 

as Cunningham, wis • -lald.-i,. ,1 ,i, e same 

'■■ 'be twooldesl In the city J H 

Andrews & Bon have also been in the business' 

many years, ami lav- a large ind oooslantly in- 
trade. This lirm makes a specialty of 
manufacturing collars which are In great demand. 
The annual sale, Inelnd. .....ny articles not mann- 

, """' r " 1 '' v "" """-■ »nd the w hole for the last 

^gated abo„t Thi 
paid byanj lirm for raw material was 880,875 by 
Mr. Dorranoo, *bo - mployed twi Ive men, and paid 

QWf| y«'» I«"°r Tb. -ad,.,, these goods 

extends all over the Pacific Coast, into Arizona 

Utah aud New Mexico. 

Boots and Shoes. 

The annual manufacture ol boots and 

shoes Bill probably nol 1 cceed an 

gate value ,,i M5.000. This, however, 

■'. by any means, include the entire 

boot-and-shoe trade, as there are five 

relusively engaged in the busines- 

all over tho central 

portion of the State. 

Manufacture of Tinware. 

Iii this industry there are about 50 
men constantly employed, and about 
870,000 Invested. There are five firms 
in the business, viz.: John Jackson, Fred 
A. Ruhl, James T. Mills. Robert Rowe, 
and tl,.. Wostlake Stove Company, C. M. 
Jackson manager. The wages paid m 
I about 530,000. and the Bale 
of home-manufactured articles closely ap- 
8150.000. The business em- 
braces the manufacture of pumps galvan- 
ized mm aheol iron, eino, lead aud brass 
worh Tbo demand for the product of 
tins industry "as unusually active in 

tal manufactured product of the 
oil j ol Btookton for the year 1882, as taken 
or N. M Oi r, Bi oretary of tho 
Btookton Board of Trade, < whose report we 
largely draw from.i. amouuted to £8,175,- 
000, whioh "ill be largely augmented the 
coming year, as the uevr mills will be in 
lull running. The itemieed valuo of 
manufactured products is about as fol- 

, Mill Products I'J.ono.oofi 

Paper. ..... Ji CXIO 

Carriages, Wagons, eti im 000 

1 '"" 1 --7r;,ooo 

Bash, D001 ji 11 1 ihi 

Windmills, Tanks. - -1- 7 , ooo 

Saddler/ ... ... 100,000 


I 81 ■ ■ 

Agricultural Iinpli aenl ... 1. o.OOO 

Tin, Iron Pipe, eti , | 

l-'iiriiilin-i- 250.000 

Beoj B0,| 

Ololhtng <o,o<si 

L00, 1 

Grain Trade. 
One of tho leading industries of Stooktou is the 
grain trade, which amounts to over 100,000 tons an- 

The present magnitude of the trade has not, how- 
ever, been scoured without encountering sharp 
competition, and, if Btookton continues to hold her 
position as thi most Important export market in 
hi Interior of the Btate, it "ill only bo because 
her oilizens are fully aware of the importance of 
that trade, and are willing to work logetln-r for its 
preservation. The time is past when the location 
oi tin- olty will be sufflolenl to bring business to its 
citizens without the exercise of Intelligent effort 
upon their part to compete with thoso who, by 
means of railroad connections, aro placed in coni- 
munioatlon with those customers of Btookton who 
formerly were obliged t" oorae hero, or pass through 
beri foi tho trausaotion of their business. While 
railroads are generally conceded to bo monopolies 

in the bnslm 1 transportation, thej an uol likely 

in ani Hi" formation of monopolies In general trade 
at points looah d upon Inh rior ronti 10I s ill * oon 
munlcatlon. Btookton still possesses great advan- 
tagesl luoting a large and profitable bual- 


0«a in tbe purcliaso mid Halo of the varied farm 
products of thi' surrounding country, but those ad- 
vantages will Uo euHiiy overcome by (be adoption, 
cu the part of tier oltlaens and city officers, of a 
Darrow-minded suioldal policy whioh will virtually 
tax that bastneu merely because of Hie looation of 
the olty upou a navigable channel lending to Buu 

The wheat trade of Stockton, which flrat beoame 
an important factor in promoting the city's proe- 
pi-nty in 18C8, baa of course fluctuated aa the pro- 
duction baa varied by the elTeota of drouth and un- 
favorable seasons, yot for overy prosperous year for 
the farmer for a period of fifteen years past, the 
receiving and handling of the crops ol the sur- 
roundiug country bus beeu the most important 
businoss of the oity. The receipts and shipment* 
of wheat have varied from 100,000 to 200,000 tons, 
and from the fact that this large amouot of grain 
has, during the seasou, been here sold and the 
money therefor put in circulation, an impetus has 
heen given to other branches of business whioh has 
been of incalculable advantage to all classes of citi- 
zens, and importaut aid to the growth and prosper- 
ty of the oity. The storage capacity afforded by 
the different warehouses of 8tooktan aggregate 
about 113.000 tons, as follows: 

Farmi ra' Co-operative Dnlon 45,000 tonB 

Miller's Warehouse 16,0110 •• 

Bum kton w 'arohoui 1 34,000 " 

Bagg'a Warehouse 1S.000 " 

Bperry's Warehouse b.000 " 

Miscellaueous 0,000 " 

The location or the warehouses, alongside uav- 
gable channels enables the wheat to be moved at 
any time during the year when the price is satisfac- 
tory to the seller. The rates of storage, one dollar 
per ton for the seabou, are very reasonable, and it 
it is a noticeable fact that on account of 
tbe amount of wheat attainable, and the 
critical observations made by the local 
dealers, a better price has been here ob- 
tained for that product during a period 
of ten years than could have been obtained 
at other points in tbe State to which this 
staple article has been shipped by the 

Should the completion of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad from this Coast to 
sea-ports on the Gulf of Mexico open a 
competing line for the transportation of 
wheat to the great markets of Europe, as 
is promised, and to a certain extent ex- 
pected, Stockton will occupy a still more 
favorable position for the transaction of 
business than she has heretofore done. 
She will have the advantage of a ter- 
minal station for exportation, and also one 
nearest to (he Eastern terminus of tbe 
road upon the Gulf of Mexico. Cars 
loaded with wheat at the warehouses of 
Stockton would be shipped to New Or- 
leans, or other Eastern markots, at mini- 
mum prices, and there is good reason for 
believing that eventually a considerable 
portion of the wheat produced in this 
region of country will find a market 
eitber in its normal state or as flour man- 
ufactured at the Stockton mills, in the 
market that must be established at New 
Orleans, or somo other point accessible 
upon the Gulf of Mexico, from which 
wheat and flour will be furnished to eup- 
ply the bread-purchasing States of the 
southern portiou of the Union and Europe. 

The total receipts in Stockton of the 
crop of 1882 were 100,732 tons. The orop was not 
as large in 1882 as it has been in previous years, 
and tbe competition among dealers and warehouse- 
men was greater than ever before. 8tockton, how- 
ever, received her full proportion of tbe business. 
The prices have also been more satisfactory to the 
producer than in some former years, and more bat 
consequently been sold. 

The principal dealers in grain at the present time 
are J. D. Peters, Stewart ,fc Smith, I. 8. Dostwiok 
Geo. Hart, H. E. Wright, Bperry A Co., R. B. Lane, 
the Stockton Milling Co., the Farmers' Co-operative 
Union, and the Stockton Warehouse. 
The Lumber Trade. 

The lumber trade in the agricultural portions of 
the San Joaquin valley is great, and although there 
are fine forests of pine, flr, spruce, cedar, etc., in 
the Sierra Nevada raugo bordering the valley upon 
the east, facilities for transporting lumber from 
tbe mountain regions to tbe valley have not yet 
been provided, aud consequently the larger portion 
of the supply for the valley towns Is brought to 
Stockton by water from the northern coast counties 
of California, and from Pugot Sound. Tho averoge 
sales of lumber in tin* i-iiy run from 25,000.000 to 
.•).",, (MlO, Him [n| |» r minimi, it being shipped fr.uu 
this oity by rail (O all portions of the valley. The 
total lumber trade will amount to over J.IOO.OOO per 
annum. A number of muling vessels and barges 
are constantly employed In bringing lumber to 

this oily from Han Francisco. 

Two firms, BImpaon A Gray und Moore A Smith, 

are engaged In tbe btuineaa, and both have large 

yards and carry extensive stinks of all kindl of 
lumber necessary !•> supply the extensive trudo. 
Fruit, VagelahlmM and •■'••«■•■ Prodaoe, 

While there Is mmli Imiil In tbfl vicinity nf 

Btockton well adapted to the production of fruit, 

less attention is paid to that industry than In some 
other portions ol tbe State, The market for fruit 
has been precarious, and only since the establish- 
ment of canneries for working up the surplus pro- 
duct of tbe orobarda liaa there 1 n any special en- 

couragi in. 1,1 for tho fanner to devote to fruit rais- 
ing land whioh would be profitable II onltlvated iu 
wheat. Largi 1 quantities of frolt are, however, re- 
ceived here, mid considerable exported to San 
Francisco. The shipments of various kinds of 
fruits Irom Btooklon to that market, fur 1882, ag- 
gregated about 8110 tons, valued at 880,000. Ship- 
ments were nisn made of ohoice pears, apricots and 
table grapeg to EaBterD markets. 

Large quantities of vegetables arc raised in the 
vicinity of Stockton, upon the reclaimed tule lands 
bordering the Han Joaquin river, and over 7,000 
tons of the products of tho gardens in these locali- 
ties were, last year, shipped to supply the Sau 
Francisco market. 

This trade has increased very rapidly during the 
last few years, and as the population of the State 
increases and tbe demand for products of tho soil 
of this character is increased, the area of land 
brought under a system of thorough cultivation in 
this locality will be greatly enlarged. It is already 
apparent that land adapted to tbe production of 
fruit, grspea, vegetables, etc., can be much hotter 
employed than in the culture of cereal crops, und 
consequently the lnrge tracts now used almost ex- 
clusively for wheat will soon be devoted to other 
purposes whioh will afford employment to a large 
number of persons snd yield profits in proportion 
to the labor bestowed, as certainly as it does as now 
cultivated and msnnged. The leading dealers in 
fruit, vegetables und farm prnduotsare C. V. Thomp- 
son, B. H. Brown, V. Galgiani and Elliott A Beighle. 

and tho clerks all busy. While wo were at San 
Jose, thi' citizens and capitalists were devising ways 
und means ol establishing vai ions manufacturing 
enterprises in their midst, and wo saw Mr. M. Hale, 
the father, oue oi the most active men in the enb 1 
prise, Mr. Hale [a a native ol the Blate of Ver- 
mont. A. and J. M., the two older druthers, 

Wen bom In New York, ami the younger droller,. 

in inu State of Michigan. Their trade this year 
will aggregate hall a million dollars. 
Edward Hickman 
IIuB been in this business 111 tins city for many 
years, and bus a large, commodious, and well- 
ui rangi • 1 "tori', with entrances upon both Main and 
iiimiiT streets, Him bnlldlng is two stones in 
height, aud both floors are occupied. W. J. Bedd- 
ing, Geo. Chalmers, und Ad v. Chalmers, besides 
several others, have flue stores, and carry large 
stocks of merchandise in their line. 

Rosenbaum A Crawford, leading dealers in gents' 
clothing and furnishing goods, carry a very lurge 
stock, and have secured au extensive trade through- 
out the whole region of country tributary to Stock- 
ton; there are several other hous-s doing a large 
business 111 this same line. 

The aggregate sales of the dealers in dry goods, 
olotbing, carpets, etc., in this olty, will amount to 
1550,000 annually. 

Groceries ami Provisions, 

Although there arc no houses in tins city ongaged 
in an exclusive jobbing trade In groceries and pro- 
visions, there are several houses which have an ex- 
teusivi Hade with interior dealers who are here 
supplied upon as favorable tei DOS us they could ob- 
tain Irom San Fraucisco jobbers. There are nu- 
merous dealers in this line of goods, of which the 


Commercial Douse*. 

Commercially, Stockton is well supplied with 
dry goods, clothing, hardware, grocery Jewelry 
and, in fact, all classes of stores. There are, per- 
haps, more Roods sold in the City of Stockton than 
any oily in the Slate, outside of San Francisco. 

And, by referring to the different commercial 
agencies, we find less failures reported than at any 
place on the coast; Miuh showing tho healthy state 
of finances ,,f tins vulley. Owing to tho superior 
facilities afforded oustomeis to choose from tho 
large and completo assortment of goods kept on 
hand, the trade, in all its different branohos. ex- 
tends throughout tbe surrounding country for a 
long distance, the inhabitants finding it to their 
interest to obtain all their supplies from hero, 
Among the leading houses, in tho various branohes. 
we mention tbo following: 

Dale it. .iii,. , ., at Co. 
Consist of Uvo brothers and a father. They own 
five stores, all in Central California, located at 
Sacramento, Btockton, BallnaS City, Man Jose, and 
Petaluma. Their first store was established In Han 
Jose, in 1876, ami the otd, r foin in '7m !t. Saving 
personally visited all of their stores, und having a 
thorough knowledge nf tho mercantile btUinCBS, we 
became acquainted wltb several members of tho 
firm. They buy and sell dlreotly for oasb. Ouoor 
two of the brothers am Bist, and do the buying. 

Their goods are bought direotly from the manufac- 
turers, thus saving the Jobbora 1 oommlssinns, 
Tbey buy for nub, and cash In ( 'ullfonuu means 30 
days. Thev pay down, thus saving from flVfl |0 ten 
per eent. Than, they bSVO snob uu extensive coun- 
try to supply Idut they usually tulio the entire lol ol 

a certain lino of goods, making another dlBO 

Anyone visiting either Of their stores will sco aU 
now goods, tho ouo prloo inarkod In plain figures, 


'' '"• OO, Olass, Wall !•„,„, 

'""" "" ''■••" I who maki deallL,, 

above mentioned goods a specialty. 

Bad 8« Br08 ' "' "'I' b large Block ol 

hangings, oto, r '*i*< 

Bootiuld .v Tevls, agents for the Continentaia, 

'' i"" v '"'•• luring the i««t 

inn:" bnlldlng sn ., 1, ln ■"•• 

■' 1 '■""'■ "' Tbelt esublishinentL ' 

depot tor supplies for the surrounding co ' 
ami the] ship largo quantities by rail to tboviftj 
towns of the Nan Jouquin valley, 


Btockton hasalways been 1 profitable points 

""• "- " f "' '< rho development of tbevny 

resources of the Ban Joaqnln vallej 
carried oil to ibi extent thus far attained wlihltl 
the use of large nniouiits of capital, and a,^ 
quently the business of banking sod loaning 
money has been profitable. 

At present there are five banks m Btockton tlU, 
an aggregate capital of $1,132,150 and uJ 

MB Ulng t.-S4, 371,886.13. As we puuli,h<i] 

Dfflolal bank dire, to all the bankint 

in the State, |n tbe January number « 
lob »iil be corrected everym 
months), giving fun detaili .,, tl[ ^ 

banks in the State, wi refer our readers to ay\ 
• in ' otory. 

Stockton Duslnes* College, 

w in. I, was 1 -1 ibli ago ^ 

1 reputation unporalli led 
the I 1 taught .1 full 

Just what any younj lady mot 

have, if thej won! I ,..., p^ 

1 R 
for td. waj he has built up thi 
tion ..I this pla- 1 ..1 learning I 
ton 1 

lished bj this gentleman. Thi J 
will be sent on apj 1 &&$ 

desired information ii 

The \ ., under th- 

dira tion ol thi Domi 

nld est ibliahed scl I. and 

ia .1 from the difforenl parti ol theStsb 
Nan rpapei ,, 

Stockton has three daily newspaper*, la 
1 nf, s morning 1 
semi-weekly edition; the Herald, a merab| 
paper, with a weekly edition; the, »u 
evening paper, with a weekly edition. 

The In Hi., oldest paper pok' 

lished in thecitv. baring l~ eo establiilal 
in 1861. It Is Republican in polities, ud 
has a general olroulation thi 

Surrounding country, liraataa 
A- Phelps 

The Herald, until 1 . 
• rening paper, was establish 

aud is now. anil gl in rally | 

advocate of Democratic principles. Is 
change to u morning paper has iDCrrittdil* 
olroulation and aphen of usefnlnesi. Tbt 
.t RngRlrt 
The if in ISSO.ial 

from U» 
commencement of its career. It il 
dependent in politics. Its publishers »« 
Colnon, Cosgmvo A Nunan. 
All these journals give their read*" 
in,, -1 ,.,,,, on,, nt are Southwortd A (irattan, fledges full reports of current events, and are general!.' 
* l '""'" Hammond, Moore ami Vardley, R. B. oiroulated throughout the Ban J 
Parker & Sou. L. Hansel, H. Q. Boisselier, and 
Chestnut & Moore. The aggregate sales of tbe 
various houses will aggregate 81,236,000 annually. 

Hardware. Iron, BtC 

In Bros, recently built u lino briok building 
(100a MM In ti ut the comer of Mam und American 
streets, where they have the largest stock of hard- 
ware, iron, stool, etc., in the vuld\ 

J. Hi Oondit&Oo. have a similar establishment, 
and aro having «n extenstve trade in the Ollivei 
Obilled Plow and othi r agricultural implements, 

ami hardware of all kinds. 

W. A. Dorr, ugent fur lluwdv liros., has an agri 
cultural warehouse, whoro all the- different kinds ot 
fanning Impll ments are sold. 

John Jucksou.OD Main street, keeps a large stock 
Of all classes of hurdware, JaOKJOn'S patent pumps 
gas, water aud steam fittings 

The West Lake Stove Company have the lamest 
stock of stoves, tin, copper and sheet Iron, etc. in 
tbo oity. 

!•'. \. Buhl, on Hunter street, deals extensive!] 

111 Rubl'S patent lift pumps, stoves tin mid Cup- 
per ware, pipe, etc. 

Bally, Badgley & Co., Importers of agrloultural 
Implo ni", bullrti rs ami osrpen tors' tools, are do- 
ing an extensive duHlncss Ml tin II I 

Drags, m, 1, 11, i,,,„, 1 ,,. 

There me SOVOn dmg StOTOS in the city, some nf 
which ure expensively I elegantly titled up ami 


11.11. .Moore ,v. Hun, a leading firm, are manu< 

faotun 1 proprietary artloles, winch business Is 

oonduoted In • nee with their regular trade 

In drug 1 i' Holdon, J [1 Williams, w. M. 
ulokman ami Wm. M, MoOurdy, oaoh have fine 
stores aud have a good tradu. 

in QaUerlea 

Stockton has some Of the tine-t art ami phot" 

graph galleries of any plane on the Pacific©** 
.1. Pitcher Spooner, the leading artist, has tukf" 
great interest iu showing Btockton to the > 
has kindly donated $800 worth of photograpblDf t* 

wardi si ouring oui bird's 1 ve ol the 1 iij 

Mi. Spooner belongs the oredll of securing U" 


Mr. B. P. Batohelder, another ol Btookton 
olsas artists, has the tt pul ition ol doing Anew 
■ s fevi othi rs ol the prof saion, >" ''•' 


Besides the various Lines ol business hereto! / 
mention* >i whioh are eon. d on in 
are Qi ms who deal 1 ipi olally In artioli - 
merated above, Ueasn Hart J Phrift and B»* 
mood U lly, besides their tradi 

1 1 11 1, d< al ■ tt iislvi |j in lino . plsster, eta. 

Briok, to supplj tho Jem nidi ol 

rounding 001 >. 1 inufaotund In 

in. and large qu mtil hipped iroui tw 

1 kyards ol thlsoountj to Ban Prancisoo. 

OUO In in das an oxtoi Ivi ti idi in 
lumber, wagon and oarriagn material, whl 
an 11 roral Arms doing an 1 Kb uslvs trads Id '"\ 
plying the oil] and surrounding oountrj ■ 
mi ai Pwo li ms, 1 l ■ •» 1 " 1 (}ri *'' i 

iod, ilaugbler twont] bet n - "" l ' : I 
i" 1 d >>. 

An . itenslve business is also done In thlseOB 
the pui obato ol poulti * and oggs fhi iblpou n 

the Han 1'iancn.e ul,.l I', b 1 MuStO 

llVO dl ll grOW in ■". is 11 d aide 

above mention! d at tloli -. ma make-' shipniM 
Baa FranoisoQ almost dally. 



Two Brmtura engaged in supplying the people 
of the oily with ice, which is obtained from the 
Sierra*, »uil sold at very reasonable rales. 

The aggregate bushiest of the city for the year 
oIohIti "i banking) Insurance, real estate, 
bio., will sxoaod 118,000 000, 

The total trade of ritocktou for 1882, in the 
various branches of busiucsa, here conducted, was 
about up follows: 

Wheal 98 100 

Wool • 175 000 

Bops 160.000 

II, i.- Hi oiiii 

I 236 000 
agricultural Implemi uta i; , 000 

Liquors ISO 1 00 

Pruii aud Vegetables, 

ii ,-. ii .M v Prodnots, etc ... t50 000 

i: iota and Bhoes . 70 000 

.1. in lerj ."in i 

Lnmbor , 500 000 

HBrd-wi»«l Inmber, etc. J I 

i ida aud Olothiog .. 550,000 

Drogs and Medicines. 50.000 

3tat!otn iv, eto .mi 

i Ooal 120.000 

Stoves and House Furnishing good* 200,000 

Paint*, Dili etc ... 200,000 

Furniture, Bedding, eto 150.000 

Millinery Q 1- 501 

Tobacc i, Cigars, etc inn, win 

I, mn . ''■ mi ni. eta 50 nun 

Freeh Mean 325 000 

Poultry, Eggs, etc. 100,000 

iti'iii Batata 
In Sao Joaquin county i* rapidly advancing in price. 
Having visited this place for several yeaiB in suc- 
cession, we see a marked change. There a number 
nl reliable real estate dealers in Stockton who gave 
us their opinions In regard to the lands of 
tin- ooonly, We »iii name the following gentle- 
men, who maj be relied npon: John Tolly, Alousn 
Rhodes. James M. McCarthy. James E. Morrlsroy, 
E. C. Arnold, and R. E., a searcher ol 
records. A number of these gentlemen buy btnl 
s, II i.irmmg lands. They estimate the price of 
laud fully ten per cent, higher than it waa one year 
■go, ranging in price from S25 to $150 per acre, ac- 
to location and improvements. 
City l.ota. 

The priei i if oity lotfl has nmteri .illy advanced 
dur>ng the last three years, and now range from 
1160 in the onter limits of the oity to 51,000 in the 
more central locations. L. M. Cutting, agent for 
the Weber estate, and also geueral dealer in real 
estate, has, during the last two years, done an 
extensive business in the sale of city property, and 
in that time many vacant lots have been purchased 
and improved by the erection of tine buildings 


Btockton is amply supplied with hotel accommo- 
dations. The Yo Semite, kept by James Covin, is 
the flrst-class house. 
The Commercial, the popular hotel of Stockton, 
ulered the best second-class house on the 
coast. Ii is kept by A. J. & J. E. Hahn, and is 
a Main and California Btreeta, in the buei- 
b i ni the oity. 
Tin Central is kept by John Henderson. All 

'Uses run busses to all trains and boats. 
Besides the above there, are a number of less pre- 
tentioua hotels, such as the Sun Joaquin, opposite 
Court House, kept by F. Stoetzer, the What Cheer, 
the Duited States, and several others. There are 
Several first-class restaurants and numerous board- 
ing and lodging houses, where good accommoda- 
tions can be obtained at reasonable rates. 

\e»v Building*. 

During the year 1882 100 dwellings were erected 
i ity lumtc ranging in cost from $800 to 
$8,000. Most of these houses were erected by per- 
sons who intend to occupy them and make this 
city their permanent residence, and the larger 
portion cost from $1,500 to $2,01)0. During 
the year several large buildings for busi- 
ness purposes m mil the aggregate cost 
of all the new buildiugs and improvements com- 
Dleti d during the put year will exceed $600,000. 

8ever»l large buildings are projected for Is-.:;. 

atji] mm,, rous dwellings are to be constructed, and 

tin prospect i- good that the improvements in this 

a will bo a« gnat for lH83as for the previous 



ion had a population of 10,287 in 1880, as 

Shown by the U. S. census. The enumeration was, 

' >. made at the season when a large number 

- were attending to mining and 

agricultural pursuits In the surrounding country. 

A rapid growth has been madi bi n idnring the lost 

two ■•• ir« rod the total population for '.ho winter 

month . i- 1 itlmaU d at iboul 15,000 within the i or 

limits, while the county immediately ad- 

i i iv i» becoming thickly populated, 

and on Its soutberlj boundary, especially, the land 
n laid "'it in blocks, In conformity with the 
| v.-y, and a good many dwellings have been 
Mn ri..u daring the la-t thn I 

The Probable Patnre or Stockton. 
Prom ihe i. riven, II will be epper- 

■ ,.-.i reader, tbai Block too is 

i « and growing oity, BOd that 

n promising, ax Is shown by 

the almosl anlimitod r in I - Ol Ihfl immense area 

Of ciunlry which rorronndi It, Of which Hi 


naturally the business center. The next largest 
town in the OOUnty is the village of 

Which lies twelve miles uorth from Slooklon. This 
place has sprung into existence since the construc- 
tion of the Central Pacific Itailroad, and it is now a 
beautiful village ol l.OOO inhabitant. Its citizens 
have exhibited a do, ree of enterpiise quite surpris- 
ing, to make it the busiest village of the Inn rior. 
Lodl built 25 new buildings in 1882, all of a muoh 
better class than those built heretofore. Green 
Brothers, merchants, have built a flue briok store 
and three new residences. A fine brick flouring 
mill was built in 1876, with live run of stone, wind, 
is one of the main features of the town. Lodi is 
situated in one of the finest wheat sections in the 
State, at the Junction of the Central Pacific and the 
San Joaquin & 8ierra (Narrow-Gauge ) Railroad*. 
The town is beautifully situated on either side 

take freight from here to Han ffnUJClsoo, This is 
one of the oldest places in the county. It contains 
a number of fine buildings and a flonring mill. A 
fine brick Masonic building (built by N. A. Corn- 
stock, of Lodi), has recently been complet. .1 I . 
H. Plummer keeps the Plummer House, the only 
hotel in the town. There aro several extensive 
carriage and wagon shops. Dr. H. Bent ley has an 
extensive store of general merchandise. Rutledge 
A McLarran also have quite a large stock of goods, 
such as are usually kept iu a country Btore. In 
this vicinity is excellent farming land, held at com- 
paratively high prices. 

Eight miles northeast from Lodi, up dii the high 
banks of the Mokelumno river, on the line of tin 
8. J. & 8. R. It., brings us to the village of 


Which lies in the center of a flue farming commu- 
nity. Lockford is more thriving now than for 

NEW MASONIC TEMPLE, Stockton, California. 

of the railroad, and it is laid out with wide streets, 
many of them handsomely shaded. The soil in this 
vicinity is a tine, -andy loam, well adapted for trees. 

Laud in the vlciuity of Lodi could bo bought in 
1870 at Irom six to ten dollars per acre, and to-day 
it brings Irom $75 to $80 per acre. Lodl has no 
poor country around it. 

The Weekly Valley Review, established some five 
years ago is published every Tuesday by Gertie 
de Force Cluff. The other is the Lodi Benlinel, 
which is issued every Saturday by Ellis A Mcljuuid. 
It was established la*t year, and now has a wide 
circulation in this part of the valley. 

many years past. It contains a population of 450. 
There are two general stores, and several carriage 
and wagon shops. 

B. L. Patiou has receutly built and furniahed a 
fiue. new, two-story hotel, the Live Oak. Auother 
new hotel is kept by It. Coon. 

Laud iu this vicinity is valued at from $30 to 
$150 per acre. 

Twelve miles east of Btockton we come to the 
village of 


Which is surrounded by the richest farming lands 
in the county. This seotion is beautified by scat- 


N. A.Comstock, an architect and builder, ereotcd 
a number of new buildings In aud around Lodi 
within the pBst year, many of which aro flue farm 
residences, which is suflicienl ovidenco ol the pros- 
perity of the place. 

T. A. Wilson keeps the Sargent House, a flrst- 
class hotel, immediately opposite the railroad depot. 

The Grangers' Business Association of Lodi has a 
large Block of goneral merchandise. 

0. O. Ivory and Green Brothers are the leading 
merchants in the place. 

T. Stoddard has a full supply of lumber and all 

classes of building material constantly on hand. 

Two and one-half miles northwest from Lodl Is 
the third tewu In the count) , that of 

Id ■uulifiilly situated on the hanks of the Mokelumno 

rod on tin' line of the n. j. ,v s. it. B, The 

mivigiihls to within three miles of the place. 
At the terminus of the narrow-gauge railroad boats 

tered oak trees, giving tho landscape the appear- 
ance of an old English park. Tho town contains 
about 1 'ih inhabitants. The surrounding COIlllln 

is considered the flnest wheat-producing seal I 

the county. Land is valued at from $50 to $80 per 

Sixteen miles from Stockton, on the line of tho 
Stockton and Copperopolis Itailroad, brings us to 

tho village of 

Which is surrounded by a noh farming conntrv. 
The farmers in tho vicinity aro nearly all engaged 
in raising wheat. The town contains about 2IH> 
pi ople, has two general stores, a good school, ami 
is a large grain shipping point. Ten miles soutii 
from Stookton brings ua to 

Tho Junction of the Central and Southern I'aollle 

Railroads. It contains a splendid hotel, whore all 

trains stop, allowing the passengers 25 uiiuliles (ol 

refreshments. This boose changed hand*, ahoa 
ono year ago, und is now kept bv Btaokpola .V Lin- 
coln, who keop the best eating house 00 Ihe road. 
The town contains about 300 people, who aro all 
directly and iudirectly connected with the railroad. 
About fifteen miles southeast of Latbrop we come 
to tho village of 


This place is some eight miles from the Alameda 
county line, and is the junction of the Central and 
8an Pablo and Tulare division of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, 82 miles distant from San Frau- 
cieco, via the new road, and 71 em Livormore. 
The town contains about 100 people, and has two 
hotels: The San Joaquin, kept by C. Ludwfg, and 
the Tracy House, presided over by E. Wacsmotb. 
The town has two general stores. Laud in the vi- 
cinity is of a light boiI, and is valued at from $5 to 
$10 per acre. Very little rain falls in this vicinity, 
for some reaao'i, and no water can be had for irri- 
gation, oolesj at great expense. 

The oilier towns of the county are: Now Hope, 
which contains about 50 inhabitants; Finch 
Camp, 76; Atlanta, r,0; Aoampo, 75 to 100; Bantas, 
100; Bbllota, 50; Collegnvillo, 50; Elliott. 50- 
Peters, 40. 


Never in the history of our county have the 
mining prospects been bo bright as they nre 
to-day. Hundreds of new locations have been 
made during the past year, and hundreds 
more will be mude in the fulure. The quarts 
interest is in its infancy, and we l.lievetbe 
day is not fur distant when we shall see u greut 
many mines in this vicinity which will equal 
the celebrated Providence, M.mfield, Wyom- 
ing, Nevuda City and other large mines which 
are now paying handsome dividends to their 
owners. The outluolt-Hi-tht" adjoining district 
is equally good us is evidenced by the prepara- 
tions that are bring made. The Tidini/s iu 
speaking of this subject Bays: There is the 
expectation tbut there will be more activity iu 
quartz mining in this district the coming Bum- 
mer than there was reason to expect 
mouths ago. Some of the prospeetiug mines 
which have misjh mle.l during the wiuter 
months will resume operations; while there 
are rumors, for which there is some basis, of 
one or more old miues starting up. There are 
also several bonding operations of good prop- 
erties being iu course of negotiation with a 
view of putting them iuto new aud Stronger 
hands, so it may be said that there is no idle- 
ness or indifference as to the opening or devol- 
ment of the quarlz resources of the district 
Linn is no field iu all California that oilers 
more encouragement for legitimate quartz min- 
ing than this. T.,is character of mining has 
been a successful business here for more thuu 
B0 years, duriug which time muuy millions of 
dollars have been extruded, and yet there are 
many veins that are not fmrly prospected on 
the surface, and a number of properties that 
have only been superficially worked— to the 
depth of one to 300 feet, There is weulth iu 
the quartz veius of the district that justifies 
the outlay of a large uupilul and the effort aud 
labor of enterprisiug men. Although much 
work has beeu dune in Ihe way of explorations 
itis merely the begiuuing of what is yet to be 
accomplished iu thisold aud reliuble gold-bear- 
iug region. - \ rfpt, 


I'etei Cooper, thn eminent New York philaii- 
thropisl and millionaire, and >■" ner "t" the I loopex 
Institute, who died Wednesday morning, April 
1th, took -i deop interest in California Though 
he had nevei visited Ban PranciBco he could name 
.•ill our principal itreota uid-buildings Mb Cooper 
was ■' far-seeing man of excellent judgment, and 
he often n m u Ice I thai isco would. In 

time, i ii- of tin greatest oitii ■ in the world. 

Two years ago, Mi I !ooper was introduce I l 
jri -in in- 1 K L uttrell, of this State, in the office 
if in • on-in-lau . \ S l [eu itt I [e raid to I mi- 
tral] "There ia going to be another great oity tn 

tin . i in \ru \ .I, li i. getting so lai - intl 

heai \ that there will have t.> i"- anothei nil h oity 

■ in 1 1 thai -i la of the oonl inonl to balanoo II to 

keep it from tipping up," said Mi Coopor laugh- 

" Ami I tell you, young man, San Pi mi 

oisoo ia going to be thai ureal oltj it has the 

ind .i --I '-.ii i ioli n(i j noi th and iouth "f 

ii i i in no i" i " hen Now I orh Ii id but 87,- 

immi. I have lived t" - t ^i^* to 27 tun 

000, and you will soc in ■■ few yeai ■ all of San 
E i mi ■ " limn up hm] ' tti ruling il i blook - of 
hou mm Into the ■> Ijai snt i ounl rj S ou « '11 also 
i . hi.. i ii.-i in., popul i' ion ' ttlod ai rosa il 

equivalent t r Brooklyn, I tall you, ifr, the 

two great oltius of \ rToaWfllbo v» icorkand 

Ban Pi a 


lit Miioi.iiT COUNTY'S \i>v w< i mi \ i. 
Wo have received the annual report or tlio 

Obaml i Oommeroa of Eureka, Humboldt 

county, by iiH President and Beoretary, [t i •« »i 1 1 1* ii i ^ 
much valuable Information oonoerninR the re- 
BonrccBinni developments of thai rapidly-growing 
Bootlon "i' the State. II la shown that tim exports 

of its lumber, during 1882, readied u value of 
aotnelbing over $2,000,000. We quote, iw follows, 
from the report: 

The time UM gone by when our foremost interest 
mast de^ond on the primitive method of the past 
to supply the stook on which oar mills are to be 
kept running. The "snaking" proOOSB, with the 
stag team and tho truck and tramway, or the un- 
certain floods of winter, can neithi r singly or al- 
together afford tho needed facilities of transport 
from tho heart of onr forests to tide water. 

Llnee ol railroad diverging from the bay and 
reaching their limit by the cheap anil easy grades 
of our principal valleys to the remote) parte of the 
county, is a magnificent scheme of internal im- 
provement for us. While it would give to the mill 
and timber interests guarantees "i almosl unlim- 
ited development, H would lu a corresponding de- 
gree© give a vigorous push to every other form of 
production. The system of improvements referred 
to is evolved from enterprises quite dlstinol In their 
organization, each of which must rely for main- 
tenace on the advantages of routs it may respect- 
ively occupy. 

Embracing the different lines within the county, 
we begin at the north, In their order, with tie- 
Trinidad Mill Co.'s railroad from the port of Trin- 
idad to Big Lagoon, ten miles in length. Borne 
four miles of tins road is completed and In running 
order, the balance will be completed during tins 
year. Next the Vance railroad, ten miles in length, 
crossing Mud river four miles from the moutb, and 
in the direction it is n w penetrating is an 
for the scope and quality of forest treasures it 
must bring to its support. The extension of the 
Areata Transportation Company's railroad gives it 
a present length of about eight miles, with a pro- 
posed terminus some two miles up the south side 
of the same stream, the whole of which will be 
completed before the close of the present year. 
After the Are.aa we come to the late i nterprise of 
Flannigan, Brosnan & Co., a short lind on the east 
of the upper bay, aDd the Carson road of about the 
game extent; and lastly on the bay to the north 
of Enreka. the Freshwater railroad of D. R. Jones 
& Co., seven miles in length, and yearly being ex- 
tended. These are all constructed by private par- 
ties, with tho most substantial of roadbeds, iron T 
rails, thoroughly equipped and operated by first 
class locomotives. Like those just mentioned, the 
Elk river railroad (projectec by an incorporated 
company) has special reference to the opening up 
of a vast body of redwood situated on and adjacent 
to its route. This will terminate at the old site ol 
Bucksport aud be of a 1 ngtta of eight miles. The 
company has done the preliminary work for grad- 
ing and construction the ensuing summer. But, 
perhaps, tho most imporlan* of all, it affl otlng the 
material interest of our people, the transportation 
of merchandise and farm produots, ure the two 
railroads lately projected from the bay by the way 
of Eel river valley tuwaid the southern and south- 
eastern portions of the county. Both franchises 
are incorporated and known under the respective 
names of the Eel River & Eureka R. R. Co., and 
the Humboldt Bay & Eel River Co. The former 
extends from Eureka forty-five miles, following in 
part Eel river valley, and terminates on the Van 
Duzen fork. The latter, starting from tiouthport 
on tho south bay, follows the same valley twenty- 
five miles, with a present termiuus fixed at Eagle 
Prairie. Work on each of these enterprises is ac- 
tively prosecuted, and iu the early spring a large 
force of laborers will be required, with a view to 
carry them to a sreedy completion. 
Bheep husbandry continues to hold pre-eminenl 

rank among our local industries. With the favor- 
able conditions found in our equable ollmate nod 
the muuitkeul pasturage of our gr&SB-Olad hills, 
there is little likelihood of a shurloge of its staple 
product foi years to come, while present average 
w maintained, but on the contrary must 
reach largely iucreased proportions. 

It will be noticed in the exhibit of our exports 
that field eroj have fallen below the amount of 
former years. The past season was ono of unusual 
yield, when compared with the acreage devoted to 
cereals, but our farmers, and we think ffisely, are 
making a departure from old methods by the adop- 
tion of a system oi mixed husbandry— supplemen- 
ting the] lUOtS Of Ullage mill those of grazing 

and the dairy. We Del Bl , that facts will 

bear out the statement, that while tho seoaon was 
nnoommonlj propitious and tbi orops were abun- 
dantly prom! u farmers were 
tardy at the harvest. Tensol thousands would not 
[oni d bj thi Qrsl Of October 
rain*, a muob greater breadth s/ai sown to peas 
than usual, ol irblob, pi rha] thousand aorcB, 

after being hilly ripe we,,, damaged or entirely 


If any one thing DOON 11 0SH be a 

aourco ol i" ; ' !l "" '" "" 

t orcflo Hon that there are so manj untried on 

inviting fields of industry in reserve for the future, 
in addition to those by which thoy havo reached 
their present ,-iiwahlo position. 


While the majority of people aro fearful lost tho 
ooming i. divest should bo lighter than usual, there 
is ono man in Yolo county who thinks a would be 
well for the State in tho end, if BUOh should bo the 
case. He tells the Woodland Mail that unproduc- 
tive seusons have been nothing short of blessings to 
farmers, because they allowed the land to rest. The 
Mail thinks there is much truth in tho remark 
and adds: 

•Under the old Mosaic law, promulgated to the 
childnu of Israel, this was provided for by ordain- 
ing one year in seven tho year of Jubilee. Dur- 
ing that year they were not to gather the fruits that 
grew spontaneously. It was termed "a year of 
reat for tho land." Their climate was similar lo 
ours, having its rainy and its dry portion of the 
year. The amount of their raiu was indicative 
ol the coining harvest. In Egypt to-day the esti- 
mates of u greater or less bountiful return from 
ile soil Is pie, heated upon tho ovorllow of the Nile. 
U Ithoul anj theological speculation on this law, as 
promulgated by a divine revelation or inspiration, 
or advanced men of superior wisdom, the ne- 
for it is plainly manifest. We summer- 
fkllow our lands for the same reason. A year's 
rest seems to restore the exhausted soil to its orig- 
inal vigor. The dry years are nature's summer- 
fallowiug. Many of our farmers would get from 
tht land all they could each year, and would finally 
exhaust tho soil, as has been done on many of tho 
old tobacco plantations of Virginia, until the land 
bad-become bankrupt of all its producing qualities. 
A constant micceeaion of one kind of crop, no 
matter what that may be, will eventually deprive 
any soil of the elements necessary to its growth. 
The farmers upon our prairies havo learned that 
by experience, and our California agriculturalists 
will yet be compelled to put back upon these soils 
something in return for their generous contribu- 
tions. When all these matters aro overlooked or 
negleoted, wo shall still find nature coming to 
Bf of the impoverished soil, by giving us an 
occasional dry year— a rest for tho laud— a modern 
year of Jubilee." 

It cauuot be denied that there i- some truth in 
the above. For 30 years past the land in the wheat 
growing districts of this State has been subjected to 
almost yearly sowing, and Uiib continued cultiva- 
tion must, of necessity, exhaust ita vitality. In 
early days the soil in tho valleys was wonderfully 
productive. As far back as 28 years ago, when the 
farmers were obliged to resort to somewhat primi- 
tive methods of harvesting their orops, wo knew a 
third volunteer orop of oats to yield 75 bushels to 
the acre. It was threshed on the ground by being 
tramped under the feet of horses, and, of course, 
much of the grain was lost. This laud waB after- 
wards ploughed aud sown regularly every year, for 
fifteen years, aud, at tho end ol that time, it was 
only under the most favorable conditions that it 
would yield 80 or 10 bust els of wheat to tho acre. 
If the same unwise system of farming has since 
been followed up, it is more than probable that 20 
bushels is now deemed a good crop on this samo 
land. Until comparatively a lew years past, farm- 
ing—like every other industry iu California— was 
conduoted in the loosest manner. Farming on 
vaa largely engaged in. A stranger would 
come along in the early fall, and bargain with the 
shiftleBB owner of a farm to "put in a crop on 
shares." He would invariably mako a few thousand 
dollars, aud then strike out for the mines or " the 
States," aud another would take his place the fol- 
lowing year. The land was thou so rich and pro- 
ductive that nobody thought it would ever fail 
to raise an abundant crop— if, indeed, any thought 
was given to the subject at all— and so tho loose 
ajsUm was contiuued. There should be a rotation 
of orops, or else laud that has been cultivated for a 
few years successively should bo allowed to rest 
one or two seasons at a time If farmers will per- 
sist lo ignoring this fact, perhaps it is well, as the 
',..]., M.n I intimates, that an unproductive season 
eomes once in a while, to enforce a year's rost for 
the overtaxed land. — Sacramt "'" /.'< I . 

Tine SHEEP it \ is i ii -, 

A writer In the Rural Pres i, oi reoent date, 
fumiaheH that paper with nn Interesting arti- 
cle on "Bheep Husbandry," from which we 
dip the following paragraph 

Bheep matters are now of speoial interest: 
bei iuse ol the ooutinued demand for Califor- 
nia Bheep t" covei the pastures of the great 
central Btatea and .Territories, where wool 
growing Is now i (tending rapidly. The con- 
traction oi oui ranges by the oontinual In- 
on hbo "i cultivated an •>>- 1 1 compelling sheep- 
to ohangi th othods, and the de- 
mand for outside regions Lns given a good 
market foi the surplus, which would have, 
|i< i baps, booomo burdensome » Ithoul it. it 

has also allow d a aontiuuanoi ol I ling 

v, hni, otherwise would probably havo boou 


Ono of tho especial features of boauty in Lob 
Angeles Bconery, and in Southern California, la the 
peculiar boauty of our mountain scenes. But llttlo 
bas i vet been said about the sconory in this part of 
tho country, except Its loaahoro and orango groves 
and vinoj ird • 

A view from Los Augeles observes the northern 
horizon bounded by the grand old Sierra Madro 
mountains, aboul twelve miles distant. There are 
many ways of enjoying the delights or this mount- 
ain scenery. During tho spring, summer, aud 
autumn, camps may be established at the mouth of 
canyons, with streams of pure water. Tho shady 
retreats of tho canyon In the daytime afford lovely 
places for Ashing, bathing, and lunching, with a 
ravenous appetite, whilo the open country, out of 
the canyon, affords a dry, warm place for the camp 
at night. 

There is boauty all abroad. The open plain and 
the distant ocean are exposed to view, while within 
tho canyon, tho deep recess, s in the rocks, shaded 
by bay-troo and alders, afford food for profound 
contemplation. At a sweep of vision you behold 
the lofty summits, where the moss-clad pines and 
cedars wave, where thunders sleep and lightnings 
come to play. On downward, the eye takes in all 
he rocky elements of the range, from tertiary, 
miocono, pliocene, secondary and Silurian, down to 
the primitive strata of rock at the base, furrowed 
out millions of years ago, in the then plastic stone, 
by Biilphurous streams, while tho young earth was 
floating in soalding miste and darkness, before sun 
or moon had illumined its surface, whilo lightnings 
and earthquakes raged in the heated, misty mass of 
oosmical matter gathered into form from the great 
seed-bed of worlds pervading the starry firmament. 
Here is tho anatomy of tho planet disclosed in 
great, grand majesty. 

Another, and more beautful way of enjoying the 
beauty of our lovely mountains is to climb, by easy 
journeys, to the top of the range, into the majestic 
forests that crown tho lofty heights. As the ascent 
is mado, every step is a new pleasure, revealing 
every moment some new view and increased scope 
of vision. Tho trails are winding and romantic, 
but tho labor of ascending iB full of reward. There 
is an exaltation of mind and feeling when the 
visitor stands upon the crested headlands above 
San Gabriel, and takes in the wonderful view that 
opens aionnd. 

Out on the ocean the spreading sails of commerce 
seem to connect sea and sk\. while the smoke 
of tho steatuBhip hangs in festoons in the air. The 
valley of San Gabriel is almost under the feet. 
Every house and orchard and vineyard and village 
and reservoir Is plainly reveahd, while the goodly 
city of Los Angeles seems close at hand, with all its 
features clearly marked out and notablj diatinot. 
Santa Monica, Wilmington. Anaheim, Santa Ana, 
and Orange, though more distant, are plainly seen, 
and a full viow is obtained of »he great grain fields 
of San Fernando. 

All tho industries of the land aro before the eye. 
Tho Bhips, ami other vessels ut Wilmington, are all 
in view. The Hying trains aro hurrying to and fro, 
bringing in the merchandise of tho East and of 
Mexico, and carrying away the rich products of the 
Pacific Coast in every direction. 

It is a sceno for a painter, a poet, or a historian, 
raro and rewarding. The bravo hand that first 
opened this track lo this airy height among the 
summer clouds, now lies at rest in the little church- 
yard below, and in view of the delighted traveler, 
and all who climb to this mount of vision will bless 
tho name of Benjamiu Davis Wilson for this grand 
view which his hand wrought OUl long years ago, 
by which the ascent of our noblo mountains is 
easily attune .i. 

Tho summer climate on our mountain tops, 
among tho noblo trees that shade springs of coldest 
water, is one of rapture. Tho delicate air is per- 
fnnied with odors of trees and llowi is, and is of 
crystal clearness. We need no distant trip and 
expensive Journey to find a land of Bouiah. It is 
at homo in our own matohless mountains that have 
been neglected too long and ton much by our peo- 
ple. In the, mar future they will DO the resort 
of all who lovo rugged rocks, dashing waterfalls, 
bold precipices, forests, and tlowers, aud visions of 
beauty (hat mako mankind wiser and better. 
Surely there ought to be enough Of adventuro and 
cut* i prise to open a boarding house in the old log 
pal. ice on tho mountains, or build other such houses 

iu rustic style, iiml invite the p.nple to go up and 

" i ii al nature i" hoi lofl li i Is." 

Too long bas this most lovely place I n neglected. 

With the coining summer may this neglect be ro- 

moved, and our exalted hind ol In nut) I lOOpiOd 

with Intelligent visitors and lovers of the tines! 

scenery iu our "ountry— Los Angt 


This is a most valuable grain plant ever in 

troduoed inl Btati . Mr Boattergood 

Bald Mountain has successfully tested u. 
wonderful corn, ami informs as that lt«o» 
luxuriantly on the dryest places and without 
particle oi in | I bore are several 

ties ,,1 it, but the besl is the solid beaded It 
troduoed by Prof, Bandera, from the inl 
of China many years ago. It will make 
on poorer land, and with loss moisture than 
any other grain. It is more valuable ponnj 
for pound than barley or Indian corn | 
i'o hoi ii . while for hogs and fowl nothing ol 
tho graiu kind equals it. By care and bit-h 
culture, there was raised at the rate ,,{ ni0t 
tons of grain per acre. Seven crops of headi 
were on! over a period of six months 

of harvesting, or a crop every 30 days fromths 
cutting of tho first crop. One year, says the 
writer, I did even better than this: On the 
19th of Jane my ditch broke and wet a pi« M 
Of land. I plowed it iih soon „n it was dry 
enough, dropping Egyptia ' y third 

It never hud cither care, water or 
culture, and 1 17 days from the day of planting, 
viz,: Ootober 21st, we gathered the crop, fin 
bu ihels or :: 600 pounds of the most beautiful 
grain that I ever saw, per acre. 

Tho advantages of raising this grain are:l- 
It will give :i big yield on soil too poor to pro- 
duce any Other grain crop. 2— It will grow in 
ground too dry to produce even rye or barley, 
thi two next dryest crops. 3— It requires no 
thn lung; jnst cutting off the heads being all 
that is necessary, and that is less work than to 
husk other oorn. 4 — It can be harvested any 
tune from August till Christmas, being ready 
at any time that you are read harvest, 

5 — Its yield is greater, and it is more valuable 
Btock or team feed, pound for pound, than soy 
other grain. 6 — It is one of the most health- 
ful and palatable articles of food ever brought 
to the table, either ground and made into buns, 
cakeB, puddings, etc., or cooked whole as I 
substitute for nee. 7— It leaves on the ground, 
when summer feed is gone, immense qusoti- 
ties of green stalks, leaves and heads, which 
edily eaten and are of the greatest value 
for fall pasture of all kinds of live steck.- 
i l,fl< pendent. 

OPI'OSlTi: I >'U» St^lABE 


Commercial School 

on Tin: COAST. 



Business Course. Only $70' 


Day and Evening Sessions. 



uj-h In 
■able Ii..,. 

. tlo 

UICUIM \ vici.i: r \iii.i i. Htm \. 
inl 1 11 • • i ami evorj lioosokoopo] who has a 

"I'ot oi I. md largo enough should oinbraco this 

tiivomiiie woathor to ma! beginning foi ■ rog8< 

tuiiiii pardon, Lottuoe, is, oarrots, boots, par* 

I'h, uiiiiitiiKo, tiirnipB, mid nniirtiioa, may all be 

planted now, with ■ oortaloty thai thoy »iii grow 

Well, lllel prOddOO II K I \lllll't\ "I tleilll, liollle 

[i tablet foi tho uide. i bto Mali, 

.inn. - 

< I>l»cl|>ltlle. 

i ». .ii. m \ pni intent* 
Healthful Location. 
Ladles Admitted. 

Special [nducraonts Offered to P«*" 
sons »ii' Neglected Education! 


For Further Information cnll nt < he 
College Offico 


Oi i.i. i. 


ii, o Proprle 




THE ion I -ll l i.l. s, OP llll. SIKHRA. 

Tta» Crownlue Glory Ol thf Oolrtcn Stnto. 

i unit. 11 for Tni Umouhoe» or CAuronjru, by Jniiici 
C. Kemp.) 
California bus B distinctive i mli vi.lunlity. (if 
tbe teriu cau 1" i • » ■ • i -- « 1 > applied), that renders 
her. in tuauy essential respects, the direct op- 
posite of oil tbe other Btatea which, in tbe 
aggregate, form the American Union. It fol- 
lows, thai 'ue immigrant once having sailed 
inwardly througb the Golden Gat.-, passed tbe 
boundary Hue of Oregon, crossed the snowj 
summit of tbe Sierra, or entered tbe State 
southwardly, by way of the Colorado desert, 
must expect aud prepare to commence life 
■gain, upon an entirely new basis, throwing 
away the traditionary methods, maimers, aud 

oastoma ol bis ancestors, as well as preci dents 
of every other description, literally, minutely, 
and unhesitatingly, to the winds. 

This is oue great, vital principle that, first of 
all, must be completely digested, nud then 
strictly adhered to; non-compliance with it 
having proved a stumbling-block to thousauds 
upon thousands in ' tbe past, who, with the 
most stubborn tenacity, insisted ou viewing 
and judging of tbe resources, characteristics, 
and capabilities of California, through the me- 
dium of Eastern or foreign eye-glasses 

The foot-hills of the Sierra embrace the lo- 
cality in which all our placer mines are situ- 
ated, aud which has already yielded fully a 
billion and a half of virgin gold. 

It was to this region that the miners of '49 
made their way, not oue of whom, nor of the 
immigration of several succeeding years, sup- 
posed the soil of any account for agricultural 
purposes, it being conceded by all parties that, 
after the mines were exhausted, the whole sec- 
tion would naturally revert to the possession of 
tie Digger Indian, grizzly bear, jackass rabbit, 
and coyote. 

The writer arrived here in September. 1849, 
and a lew weeks later commenced operations 
at Dry Creek, (now called Drytowu), Amador 
county, residing there for a period of ten yeai -, 
during which he had ample opportunity to 
learn and judge practically of the merits of 
this great region, which is situated on the west- 
ern side of the Sierra, extending the whole 
length of the State, a distance of 750 miles one 
way, aud 40 the other, embracing a total area 
of 30,000 square miles; three-fifths the size of 
England, which has a population of '23,500,000. 
Taken all in all, a more beautiful locality 
cannot be found, aud it is certainly destiued to 
become the delightful home of several millions 
of happy and prosperous people. 

The distance from the base of the mountains 
across the valley to the Sacramento ou one 
hand, and the Sau Joaquin ou the other, is 
some 30 miles. Emptying iuto these two 
rivers, aud flowing from the Sierra at right 
angles with them, are the other principal 
streams, generally about 25 miles apart, and 
running parallel. 

Shortly inside the foot-hills they branch off. 
each having its north, south, and middle fork, 
which, farther up, in turn fork again, until the 
whole region becomes watered by innumerable 
branches, in a manner more complete than the 
most skilful engineer could possiUy devise. 

The reader will please bear in miud that the 
two great rivers — the Sacramento and the San 
Joaquin — do not extend to each end of the 
Btate, the Sacramento heading 100 miles south 
of the boundary line of Oregon, und the San 
Joaquin 200 north of the line of tbe Colorado 
This, however, makes no difference, other 
rivers taking their places, making the same 
description equally good; and besides, I wish 
it distinctly understood that I make these 
statements in general terms, and not strictly 
to the leiter. 

Still beyond the foot-hills, and adjoining 

them, is yet another strip, twenty miles wide 

and running their entire length. This section 

lies j'i || rni.l. ,.l what is known as the snow 

and in order that the distant reader may 

the better ■ ruprehend my meaning, I wish to 

that in Sierra Nevada runs the whole 

length of the btute, on itB eastern Bide, the 

' commencing at the base of the foothills 

■ ralley, and increasing in altitude until 

tli" Hurnmit is roaobsd, •••■in.!, is 10,000 fei t, 

more or less, above the level of the sea. This 

Hon id liable to have snow in tbe 

rain] leaaon, bat It all disappears v. ry earij 

i (asm irill i»7> bo tb " 

region Ol America. 

Much baa beep written and laid i» praiae of 

the valleys of the Gulden State, and most 
justly, too, hut Ihey constitute only a portion 
o! ll,, soil; the great, crowning glory of Cali- 
fornia li g hi i peerless and maguiticent foot- 
hills, that have thus far been comparatively 
overlooked, but which will soon prove to be, 
viticulturallv, as they were f,,r minerals in the 
early days, her greatest and most prolific source 
of wealth. 

The reader will remember that they consti- 
tute the entire mining section from which, as I 
before remarked, $1,500,000,000 has already 
been extracted. 

The climate is absolutely delightful, and, at 
the same time, the healthiest upon the face of 
the earth. As I before remarked, they stretch 
north and south the whole distance of the 
State, and one living there can gaze upon a 
panorama of landscape beauty, that I do not 
hesitate to say has no equal in all the world. 
The length and breadth of Califoruia spread 
out before the eye, with the placid waters of 
the Pacific beyond — the view taking in at one 
sweep an bundled miles to the right, aud the 
same number to the left, the whole forming 
one of the most soul-inspiriug pictures pos- 

Children reared by good, houest parents, 
amid such truucendeutly glorious sceues as 
these, aud having for a pursuit so ennobling a 
business as viticulture, cau not fail to become, 
and certaiuly will eventually, the fiuest type6 
of man and womanhood the world has ever 

Where, I would ask, is the miner that, in the 
early days, lived aud worked iu this region, 
who will not heartily endorse every word I 
have written in this connection, and then say I 
have given but a faint and feeble sketch of its 
most nil], reci dented beauty. 

I know I am using strong language, but 
in proof of what I hive stated, I call as wit- 
nesses every person who either lives at present, 
or ever did reside there. 

Who that has been there during our long and 
glorious summer has not sat for hours listen- 
ing to the melaucholy tones of the mourning 
dove, felt that sweet spell gently steal o'er the 
senses, aud afler.vards arisen, feeling him or 
herself a better mau or woman, with truer im- 
pulses and nobler aspirations? It is these beau- 
tiful, purely natural influences that form the 
diameter of the child, make better beings of us 
all, and finally give tone, stability, aud moral 
grandeur to tbe whole commonwealth. 

Let the re ader for a moment contrast a life 
like this, amid such delightful surrouudings, 
with that barren, heartless, hollow oue in the 
city, whose votaries spend their days iu vain 
efforts to appear what they are not. and whose 
minds are exercised almost to desperation over 
B mighty attempt to solve the great problem of 
wbicn is the most stylish, a rouud-toed shoe or 
boot, Btanding or turn-down collar, and who 
cousider tin noblest aim of a female, anywhere 
between the ages of sixteen aud sixty, should be 
to dress after the latest and most approved 
manner of the demi-monde of Paris, and then 
leaving home aud children, if she has any, to 
take care of themselves, strut her brief hour or 

expensive visits of a doctor, and, if not al- 
ien, I y too fur gone, die finally not prematurely, 
but at an advanced and ripe old age." 

Does the man of small menus desire to es- 
tablish a home for himself and family in some 
locality where it will not require all the money 

he has for the necessary dwelling-house, OUt- 
b nih lings and land, this is most assuredly the 
place. Here he cau get, for lustauce, GO acres 
for $150 to $300. Three hundred dollars more 
w ill lui i Id a good, substantial house, large enough 
for six persons, made of plain boards with the 
cracks batten ued, which will prove all that is 
necessary iu a climate like this, lie needs no 
barns for bis stock, a simple shed being suffic- 
ient, and, if any sort of mi ,'hauie, he can do 
all the carpenter work himself. 

Instead Of laths and plaster, a lining of uu- 
bleached sheeting is first tacked to the sides 
of the rooms, und theu the custom is to paper 
on top of it. Sheeting is also used overhead 
for the ceiliug, and when completed, the rooms 
will have a fine finish, at merely uomiual cost, 
all the work having been done by himself aud 

After this, he can set au orchard aud vine- 
yard and, if possessed of $2,000 at tbe start, 
will aoon be on the hiyh load to wealth. How 
mudi Letter this is, than paying the same 
amount f>r a lot in the city, having nothing 
left to build a house with, aud bi ing obliged 
to resort to a mortgage, the chaucos being 
even, that he will finally lose all. 

Does the man of wealth aud plenty of leisure 
wish to find a locality where he can obtain the 
largest amount of real rational enjoyment, 
pares! air, tnosl Buperb climate, with every 
variety of flesh and fowl, the most delicious 
fruits and vegetables, with the finest qualities 

of native wines to tickle his palate, B 
tilled with the rarest plauts known to the 
botanist, scenery more beautiful and far 
grandei than that of Switzerland, railroad com- 
munication with all parts of the Union olose at 
hand, aud the daily papers almost before be 
eats his brtakfust? 

If so, he will find all these comforts and very 
many others iu the glorious section I have de- 
scribed, aud, if disposed, can build a home and 
conceutrate within it every comfort and luxury 
the combined climates of the world afford. 

Well may it be said, aud never were truer 
words ottered, than the simple statement that 
the foot-hills of the Sii rra an the grand crowu- 
ing glory of Califoruia. It was in them, 35 
years ago that Marshall made tbe groat discov- 
ery that shook civilization to its very center. 
When another period like that 6hall have 
elapsed, the whole region, from Oregon ou the 
north to Arizona outhe south, will have become 
the grandest, richest, and most beautiful por- 
tion of the continent. The whole section, di- 
vided into hundreds of thousuuds of the hap- 
piest, and most mdepeudeut homes that have 
ever been reared since the foundation of the 

Reader, this is no idle dream but, on the 
contrary, a true statement of what is bound 
to be— an actual, living reality, and every per- 
son, witbiu the confines of the Slate, who is 

two upon the principal Bidewalks, to be ad- UC q Ull i D tcd with the foot-hill region and its 
mired, gazed at, and commented upon by the m ighty resources, will readily endorse every 

brainless statues who staud on the corners all 
day long, neither toiling nor spinning, but, on 
tbe contrary, pursuing a life of complete idle- 
ness, and living off the wages of marketable 
und shameless sin. 

To return, however, to my original subject, 
the foot-hills of California constitute the very 
best fruit uud vineyard laud in the State, and 
can be purchased at present at from about two 
and one-half to five dollars per acre, and, in 
many coses, be pre-empted. It has been prac- 
tically demonstrated, over and over again, that 
mouutuiu fruit is far superior to that raisi d in 
the valleys, El Dorado aud Placer county 
peaches especially, commanding a much higher 


But thus far I have only enumerated a few 
,,, lnfl gr eat Bdvantages of this wondi rful re- 
gion. Does the emaciated, consumptive in- 
valid look upward, and, iu tones that would 
,„, || a hi art of Btone, cry out in BbSOlutl Mis 
poir, " Oh, God above, is there no spot in nil 
this world where I can go aud possibly And 
r , i,,.,- | • California Instantly appears in the 
garb of an angel of love nud mercy, and point 
her own genial, foot-hills 

Bays, " 77ie;r, i" 'he spot designed by the 

,,,,,', creator expressly for you. Go to it at 
once and, at an altitude of 1,200 feet, 'live' 

free from the uausoous taste of cod liver oil, 

word of it. Rich as the vail, ys of California 
are, they only constitute the skim milk, while 
the foot-hills, the oream. 

They are open to settlement; and almost 
anyone cau have his little kingdom there, who 
,n Bires it, almost without money aud without 
price. This state of things will not hist long, 
however, as immigration is commencing to 
pour in by the various overlaud lines already 
built and beiug rapidlv coi structed. As I 
said before, thej are destined to become the 
great frait-prodaoing region of America; aud 
I will close my remarks with the statement, 
which I unhesitatingly make, that the finest 
svii,,- which have ever been produced in uny 
quarter of the world will yet be made from the 
grapes raised in the foot-hills of the Sierra. 
San Fkanoisco, April, 1883. 


We are in receipt of a spcoimen bush of cotton, 
grown by Supervisor Foreman on his place B ihOl I 
distance above indwell's liar, in Didwell township, 
Mr. Foreman's place is in the foothills, between 
toe North and Middle forks of Feather river, and 
be baa shown by the Introduction of water that II la 
oapable of producing anything In the wayol 

li ,,i pianti and fruits. The Intention is to 
plant a small quantity of the aeed, and teal the 
ollmate and aoll of Ohlco for the production of 
- otton.— OMeo Enterprise. 


lie San Luis Obisp,. Tribune says; Many 
years ago this was called "the oity of the olive 
tree The old missionaries nearly LOO 
ago planted the olive, fig. pear, and grape, and 

all grew and throve wonderfully. Fig trei 
grew in the Mission grounds so that Hon 
Bpread over an area ol 60 fei I i u 
diameter, and the body of tbe trees, in numer- 
ous instances, exceed four feet in diau 
The stumps of some of these sti I stand as 
proof. At the Mission of Sau BligUl 
trees were destroyed, not uiauy j 
that had borne fruil for three-quarters of a 

Ci utiiiy . The Sau I. 

received a large revenue from its m tnufactui, 

of olive oil aud pickles from the olive treet il 

cultivated, unJ Mm vineyard was quite CI I' ■- 

bra ted, Figs and olives are Bemi-tropical 
fruits, They were the great products of San 
Luis Obispo iu former timeB. The thrift and 

prosperity Of the Mission censed, Hid hi intei 
regnum of indolence ensued Wean now in 
an era of new life and prosperity, [fruits of 
every variety are grow v, although 

not so generally as in other parts of Call! 
Those who have tried have bUCCt'tdt-d fat be- 
yond their expectations. Then are, undoubt- 
edly, sonn- localities where the sweep of lie- 
ocean winds blast some kinds of fruit, but 
generally fruit [.mows to as great perfection as 
in the most lavored parts of the world We 
have had apples, pears, and grapes from Mi. 
Frederick's farm, which is between 
and the bay of Sau Luis Obispo, on the S.u, 
Miguelito Ituocho, that could not be surf 
anywhere. The apricots, cherries, pi 
peaches, apples, and grapes shown by E. W. 
Steele, ou the Corral de Piedra, were among 
the v, ry I" -i we ever Baw. Grapes grown in 
thi Estrella and Salinas valleys are said to be 
sweeter than those grown west of the Santa 
r inge. The apricots of the hilly region 
west of Paso Kobles, extending to the coast, 
are represented as far superior to auy brought 
from the north. This is a broad range, where 
experiment has proveu that every variety of 
fruit will grow to great perfection, but it was 
of oranges we proposed to speak. In many of 
thi gardens of tins oity are found oranges, 
lemons, and limes growing luxuriantly, and 
giving much pleasure to those who have taken 
the trouble to cultivate the trees A short lime 
since, we took a stroll to tbe pleasant residi oce 
of Senora MunOZ, in the eastern suburbs of 
San Luis Obispo. There we found trees more 
than twenty feet in height loaded with oranges, 
and smalhr trees bearing an abundance of ex- 
cellent k-mons. All the trees were seedlings, 
planted by the lady herself. The oldest trees 
were nine year- ,,f age, and each bore several 
bun, In, l oranges, rich in their brighl golden 
color amid the dens, foliage of dark green. 
Wherever seeds have been planted they grew 
without trouble and without care Tin resi- 
dence is upou the hillside overlooking the 
city and a broad expanse of country, and it is 
embowered in evergreens of orauge, lemon, 
pepper aud eucalyptus trees, is oue of the love- 
liest localities imaginable. This is said to be 
in the " wurm belt," uud therefore more favor- 
able for the production of the orauge than 
other looalities, but the I id thai orangi 
ou the bauks of Sau Luis creek, which is not 
considered iu the warm belt, is proof that tliei. 
is uo very cold 1, It anywhen V7e may con- 
clude that orauges will grow almost every- 
where throughout the oouuty except, perhaps, 
in the high legions beyond the Salinas, or on 
exposed parts of the coast. 


Though the grape iudustrj is yet in compar- 
ative infanoy, it is a ohild ol lusty growth. Ten 
years ago the yield if California olarel was 

from r,iio. OHO to COO.otiti galloi • ir the 
i i., ,. ,| mmi.i 56 must bavi reaohi d 3 000,000 gal- 
lons Ten years ago there were 5,000 or 8 I 

cases of champagne made in this State, live 

yearaago thi re were 8,u00, and hist year then 

is.tjOO cases. The vintage tor the State 

, ,-.' yi ir lui^ been estimated as high BS 10,000,- 

000 gallons, tbe low.-st being 7,000,000; while 
another authority estimates the Oalifoi aia wine 

and crape product ol 1 

a money value of $4,600,000. The new I, nil 

will prove a serious blow t,, tin impoit trade, 

„i,, „u crippled by the oompi titi f bome- 

,,, ,,|,. wliies, sad 'he extent and charai t< r of 
yitionltural pursuits in California juxtlj I ollile 
them to the position of the second great indus- 
try of the State.— R ■'"'!■ 





No. 340 Himoma NL. Unlleck Building. 


Terms 92 per Annum. 

SO FBAN0I800 APEIL, 1883 


When you linvtt rttuil thin pnper pi ■• ■• . • • It 

u.i.l lend It to your ... -I- •• -. or lond It to 

• oni.- friend In I lie KitHlern, WeHternor Soulli- 
ern Sti»le«. Ciiiiiirlu. Kntflnnd itnd Conti- 
nental i" . Who will value the informa- 
tion it ... ..i.M.i-.. and might be likely tocouie 
or tend i ■• i.'iii _•.■■■ i. luduntiloua formers to 
•ettle In California. 


Flrat Puj{e.— Ban Joaquin County, 

Second Hujje.— Smi Juaqillc. County, Continued. 
Third Page. — San Joaquin County. Continued, 
fourth Page. — Sin .Innqulii I'.mnly. Continued. 

Pifth Pa«e. -8an Joaquin amly, mtlnned. 
sixth Paj-i'. Humboldt County's Advancement.— 

Give tlio I. ami a Best — MoanUlD Bosuty.— While 

Egyptiau Corn. 
Seventh Puce. —Tin Foothills "I the- Sierras.- Mis. 

slou Fruit*. 
Klifhth Pace —Tlio Triennial Conolavc.-Thc Late 

lUiiiHan.l tin- Crop Outlook.— Pumping Water 
Ninth Pate. — California Wlnea— Tiie illustrate,! 

Tourists' Guide. 
Tenth Page. — nso Fruiter)-.— San DIcru'b 

Citrus Fair — I'oliu !i o m Fresno -A Great Grape Cut- 

tinn - Fine Bard w is. 

Eleventh Pnirv. — A Gigantic Warehouse.— Timber 

Culture.— Sub-irriKatlon. — Pilars Gonoerulng Crops, 

--Appcarau. 01 In the Countv. 
Ttvelfth Page. — Gllr.'y Puars.--Copper Mining.— A 

Wonderful Vino. -A Rich Find.— Rapnl fmprovi mem. 

Thirteenth Paav. — The angora Industry. — Dry 

i — l mil SrOWlng. — A Busy Town. — Santa 

Clara Valley. 
Fourteenth Page — Seml-TroplC Products. — Fruit 

Cannlnu.— A Good Word far Butte County --Fruit 

Culture,— Sonoma County's Advantages. 
Klfle.iiili Page. -Valuable Land.— A Wool. in Mill 

Wanted— Ahead of Alfalfa. — Farmers' Prospects. 
Sixteenth Page.— The California Trout — Planting 

an Orchard— The Paciflc Coast and its Surroundings. 

—Yolo Iudaalries— Bale ol tbi Qridlej Estate. 

We observe with pride thai, as the time ap- 
proaches when large crowds of people will 
visit Califoruia (from all pints of the United 
States) for the purpose of attending the Tri- 
ennial Conclave to be held in tin- city iu 
August, our citizens, generally, are busily en- 
gaged in making the necessary and suitable 
arrangements for their reception nud enter- 
tainment while they remain urnoug us as our 
guests. From the responses already received, 
from many commauderies at the East, by the 
Committee of Arrangements, there is now 
sufficiently defiuite information to warrant the 
belief that, at least, 10,0011 Knights Templar 
and, perhaps, double the number, will visit 
California ou this occasion; ami it is thought 
that the families of Ihe Sir Kuights, who will 
accompany them, will increase the number 
fully 100 per cent.; and will, iu all probability, 
be the largest aud mou distinguished gather- 
ing of people tbat will take place in the West- 
ernmost State of the Union for many years. 
The Triennial Committee, composed of repre- 
sentative Sir Knights of this commonwealth, 
hold tegular meetings for the purpose of dis- 
cussing matters of interest relatiug to tbe suc- 
cess of the coming Conclave. There are thous- 
and of people at the East who are not Knights 
Templar but, wishing to avail themselves of 
the opportunity to visit the Golden State, are 
losing no time in becoming qualified in order 
to take advantage of the reduced passage rates, 
and participate in the graud tour across the 
continent. Hence, it is to the interest of our 
business men, as u matter of city and State 
pride, to contribute liberally to the funds 
of the Committee of Arrangements. As stated 
by a city contemporary not loDg since, San 
Francisco's movements in the matter are now 
being waU:hed iti all the principal cities of the 
United States. If it be found that we are mak- 
ing generous arrangements for the entertain- 
ment of our guests, the number will be largely 
increased. Tins Is the proper view to take of 
the t.-r , Hm-pI'm, let the subscriptions be 
on a liberal Benin. In the language of a saga- 
cious and far-seem"; gentleman: "A band -ionic 

subscription to the Knights Templar fund will 

be the best stroke of business San Francisco 
has done for many years." Every citizen who 

bus the Interest ol the Btate at heart Bbonld 

contribute to tbf fODd 01 lib 1*11)1 us blfl means 
will permit. It liu limited thut the 

,i,,,, i expenses "f tbi necessary preparations' 

for the Con- ■lav will reach from $80,000 to 

SlOO.IHlO, Our ruiiiing visitors will I 

; 1 a class of people thai Will bo of incal- 

culable leu, lit to our young State. They are 
the representatives of the very best elements 
oi on rj department ol industry and social life, 
whom it will be an uonoi to know and a pleas- 
ure to i. oi oonrse, they will take oflre of 

themselves while here; bat there are social 
amenities and oourtesies to be extended tbat 
will involve n oon iidi rabli outlay 

We anticipate an Influx to the State after these 
i/isilOl S have returned and reported to their East- 
ern homes; and >i is a a if deulation to make, 

that numbers of them will conclude to settle up 
their affairs, and return and make permanent 
homesinihe State which they lea nedto likedur- 
iug their brief sojourn iu it. This has been the 
ease, in the past, with a large class i if people who 
oaineto California with the viewof only stopping 
in it afew mouthsas a winter resort; and we see 
no reason why temporary sojourners, like the 
Sir Kuights and their friends, will not pursue 
the same course. To our mind, there are suf- 
ficient ro isotis why many of them should con- 
clude to make their future homes here. They 
will, as a rule, be composed of men possessed 
of considerable wealth, great foresight and 
sagacity. They will, after visiting many places 
iu California, readily observe that there is more 
prosperity and rapid development of the re- 
sources of our State, in proportion to the 
number of its inhabitants, than can be found 
elsewhere, and conclude that there is no other 
community which will compare with the Golden 
State in point of climate, riohuess of soil, and 
natural advantages for great business enter- 
prises. In our judgment, there is no other 
State that holds out so many inducements to 
immigrants With some menus, strong hearts 
ami willing hands. 

Our visitors, in traveling over the State, will 
observe that siuce the discovery of gold it has 
been gradually filling up with an enterprising 
population; that great areas of land have been 
brought under cultivation and made to yield 
golden harvests; industry and art, in multiplied 
forms, have m ide rapid strides of advancement; 
established oi ties and towns have giveuperman- 
eucy to business and made comfortable homes. 
All that is needed is a fair aud reasonable pre- 
sentmentof our varied resonrcesaud wonderful 
productions to convince capitalists, who soon 
will visit us from every State in the Union, that 
no country in the world surpasses the Golden 

The importanoe of this visit to our State, in 
the beneficial results that may flow from it, 
cau not be overestimated. A better opportu- 
nity will, perb ips, never be offered California 
to m ike known abroad her advantages, and in- 
its population with worthy, wealthy 
and enterprising people. Every community 
throughout the commonwealth should make 
arrangements, for its own sake as well as for 
the State, by receiving and properly entertain- 
ing these distinguished visitors. They should 
spare no pun, in sh iwiug them the natural re- 
Sources aud the development-, which have been 
mide in their respective localities. Whatever 
money or effort may be expended will bring a 
thousand fold return In the way of benefits, to 
say uothing of the satisfaction and pride every 
citizen must feel io having California make a 
oreditable showing of the resources ami the ad- 
vantages she has to oiler immigrants, when 
they shall come in review before the assembled 
gaze of the representatives of the entire Union. 
As there is no doubt but every part of the 
Stale will be visited by the Sir Knights, every 
Califoruian, however humble or exalted his 
station, should feel interested in haviug them 
as truthfully impressed us possible with the ex- 
tent of the resources and material progress of 
his section. On their return to their respec- 
tive homes, the opinions expressed will have 
great weight, and, to u considerable extent at 
least, will affect future immigration. The re- 
ports that will be Bent to tbe Eastern and Eu- 
ropean press will also have a pronounced effect. 
In short, this is a good opportunity to present 
Califoruia as she is. Let uh do it. 


Mil. OUAuLBB OnOl HKii has invested, outside 

of his magnificent residence, nearly two mil- 
lions of dollars In buildings In Ban Francisco, 
within the pas I twoyeare, Qi 1 1 al 10 construct- 
ing i in ii i I ' 1 1 [ating works in Merced county. 

Tins oannl will Irrigate 128 000 sores, The 
i tod i" bi Irrigated lie i In Meroed and Stanis- 
laus counties. 

Who will Unit commence to throw mud at 
tins Boulless, "bloated bondholder"? it is 

nearly tinn to begin again. 


The rainfall, during the last week of March 
and the first few days of this month, has been 
sufficiently abundant to dispel all fursof a 
failure of crops, in nearly all sections of the 

Stat, the general opinion is, that tin-re will be 
not only a larger area ol grain harvested this 
year than ever before, but the yield per acre, 
in most sections, will equal thai of last season. 
From nearly all localities come encouraging re- 
ports of the agricultural condition of the State. 

The farmer, the hardest of all human beings 
to please, iu most cases, is happy and joyous 
now. It would certainly seem us though Cali- 
fornia was now booked for good crops. The 
rain came just in time, In just the right order 
as to quantity of distribution. 

In many districts where despondency had 
been created, by long continued drought, a 
feeling of confidence now exists. The rains 
have been of great benefit to fields recently 
sown, and will make it possible for farmers to 
extend their acreage, even at this late date. 
Judging from the very latest reports, we think 
it may be stated, with absolute certainty, that 
with occasional showers, during the next six 
weeks, the crops, m the districts which seemed 
but a short time ago doomed to failure, will be 
tolerably good. There is time enough yet for 
more rain, and the records of all previous 
years will justify the expectation that it will 
come. Gram which wus thought beyond re- 
demption, says Ihe Merced /tV/ireis, in every 
instance, so far as we have been informed, will 
yield a fair crop. The intelligence comes from 
every quarter of the couuty, that the yield of 
wheal and barley will be nnpreoedentedly large 
if the weather dunug April does not prove ex- 
ceedingly unfavorable. The moisture in lb, 
ground will defy any common north wind, and 
none but chronic croukers anticipate any dan- 

Reports from all parts of Tulare county, 
says the Visaliu Delta, state that there will be 
an average crop this year. Much of the grain 
that was thought dead has already shown signs 
of life. The plains seem to be the only part 
of the county whore any serious damage was 
done by the drouth and it is believed that even 
there the crops will be good. So far there hoB 
been no cold weather to injure the fruit Vi hicb 
promises an extraordinary yield this year. 

In speaking of tbe value of the late ruin-fall 
in San Luis Obispo county, the Tribune says: 
It is of incalculable value. It is, what can be 
said of few things, an unmixed good. We 
hear on all hands varyiug estimates in bard 
dollars of its benefits to the couuty. Some of 
the Tfllculators say the rain will make a differ- 
ence of one million of dollars in the yi> 1 d of 
the various farms products, while other and 
more enthusiastic fellows put the differ, i 
our favor as high as a million and a half. 

The Ventura Signal says: The last glorious 
rain completely breaks tbe back of the dry sea- 
son, and the copious showers, coming as they 
did in the nick of time, have guaranteed splen- 
did crops, where without it we would have had 

The Merced Express says that it was very 
common to hear people, on the street, remark: 

" This is $lo,oo mj pocket j" " this brings 

me ont all right; everything I had was in that 
piece of grain," etc. Then it is no wonder 
people are happy and glad. 

The San Benito papers say that the inhabi- 
tants of that couuty are jubilant, on account of 
the late rains. All fears of a dry season ore 
cast aside, and San Benito couuty will turn 
out a large yield Of grain and hay. 

The Colusa Sun, in speaking of the crop 
prospects of its couuty, say What a change 
a f.w days have brought about I At this time 
last week there was hardly a fanner in the 
county that would not have compromised on 
"feed and seed." Some of the late sown 
grain still looked good, but the ground was dry 
aud ruin must be had soon. Tho rain came 
and it sot everything booming. To some indi- 
vidual farmers it is worth tens of thousands of 

dollars, and to the county millions, VYbi *i 
plants that actually appeared dead have oom> 

uienced to send out new roots and now sprouts, 
so that there are many fields thai will m.i re- 
vive to i "ne ,\i, nt iii , .mi ie, it Ii too eai ly 
iiM« to determine tbe full offeol of the rain, but 

It Is a Hods, ■ml fol which the people ollght to 

fi el Ii nly thankful. 

The LosAngoles Herald says! Tho rain is 

worth millions of dollars to Los Angeles 
couuty; and it is, altogether, the most SOBpIc 

iouB event which has been recorded 

'0 our 

local history for. a long (line p lllt j t 

proven to bo warm, abundant and mog | ,. 

ii" '/ ■ ■ - add i the following: This '' 
puts millions Into the pookets of C a lif 0r •" 
1. 1, ne re and bo ilm is mi d, m.i p n t, J* 
country in fine sfa ipi again Hundreds * 
tons of bay will dob be made where two da 

agO the owners expected to 6VCn log6 lb 

seed, and much thai wonld have been cult 

bay will now make grain. 

A writer in the Santa Ana Standard stat 
ib il ni vet in tin history of California, perhaps 
has a rain b'ten so timely and valuuble as the 
general storm which has fallen over the 8tat> 

during the past f- w days. In the northern 
and central counties it was especially accent. 
able, aud makes a Beason which threatened to 
be one of drought aud disaster to almost the 
entire State, as far as the cereals were con- 
cerned, one of reasonable promise, 

A correspondent of the Sacramento Bu, who 
has recently traveled over the agricaltortl 
section, states that uppermost in people') 
minds is tbe subject of crop prospects, and it 
is gratifying to note the fact that the late rains 
brought joy and contentment to many thou- 
sand homes throughout Califoruia, wherein 
the gloom of despondency bad begun to Bet in 
about tbe family board. A wonderful impetus 
has been given to all kinds of crops, and the 
country is now rich and heavy with verdure. 

A correspondent of the Modesto Ilerald 
says: Stanislaus county will roll up the largest 
wheat crop of any county m the State. The 
average sown is larger than ever before, and 
the west side, which was partially lost last 
year, will add largely to the total amount. 

The Solano pap, rsdei lare that theirs will be 
the banner wheat-growing county. 

The above extract imples of hun- 

dreds of others which we might quote. But 
they are sufficient. The late copiona rains 
were so generul as to leave no section without 
benefit. It is now certain that the great major- 
ity of the grain crops have been saved, and 
that the fruit crop will be exceedingly abund- 
ant. The result upon the general trade and 
industries of the is almost incalculable. 
The outlook throughout the State, at this time, 
for the farmer is certainly of an encouraging 
character. There is every reason to believe 
that 1883 will be counted among the most pros- 
perous years Califoruia has ever had. In ad- 
dition to guile je harvest, buildings 
will be erected aud improvements mad? 
throughout tbe farming districts, which will 
cause labor to be in good demand in even de- 
partment of industry 

What can be done iu ungating land, with* 
water supply obtained from the ground bj 
pumping, was illustrated last season stB. B. 
Blower's vineyard, near Woodland, Yolo 
county. It is stated that from a well 20 feet 
in diameter and by means of machiuery that 
he employs, using straw for fuel, he can pour 
on any part of his land 160,000 gallons of water 
per hour, ox a little more than three aud one- 
half millions in 21 hours. One piece of 
ground, containing si\ acres, be flooded en- 
tirely with water iu eight and one-half hours. 
This water, if sold al the price the Board of 
Supervisors of Yuba county ii\> I for water for 
purposes of irrigation, would yield him ft ref 
euue ol $22 ."si p. r hour, or a dally income of 

$226 for each ten hours or a monthly revenna 
,,t |5,i - With the aid ol 

irrigation Mr. Blowers has raised as high * s 
seventeen tons to the aori ^uUaD* 

Chis woi Iron) six-year old vines- 
When planted from outtiugs, two y« " s ll1 ' 1 ' 
they yield him about four tons per acre, and 
rooted vines of the same age will yield "J 
Ions p, i acre 

B\ A. IIATfll .»». CO. 

This firm, whose cud win be found "' 

another column Of this journal, d0 B »' ;,r, '' U 
and UlOrOUgh business, us coiiim [SSiOU ' ue J" 

ohants. Thi j ndvertUe to make liberal ■* 

i oi 1 1 o nslgnments, The head of 

bouse, i v Mm. ii. we have knowu for monJ 

years. lie is mdiist i ions .md QUSWOrving "j 

intagritj Qivi the arm a trial, and oui «**' 

f,,i n, all ■ "ii-i. n"i ■ »iii b, satisfli 'i u "'' ' " 

iu, inner In which (heir business will I" "■"" 

Tns BmovBOH 01 i'uii.'i.m* Is ilc '" 
panai to send to y qui ii l< nda abroad^ 




The following, we take from the editorial 
colutnus of the New York Evening Post of re- 

c.miI ilote: 

Tbotrmlo J.mrnitls »re * h -niu dlreotlng Attention to 

| Hint « UrRi- portion <<( wlm- noltl In tbls 

ooantrj ta foreign wlni i- produced In California, and 

gold in bottlei libelled wltn ImiUtl orelgn labels, 

K li,n. r -lr.-l win. in. r. n»hI vst. nlay. in 

■poaklDgol ' istteri "Theohlol Ir Ii that of 

Hi,- ii, i,|, IIi-mi. ii, the wIiuI.sbI,- Will. III. Truant, who 

buy from thi irine-makar tod Mil la the reuiler, ire 
up Hi. ,i, ai ptlon, boi iubc by 

■ || 1 1, i > are enabled to bay i p md *'.i. dear. 

n i . to Hi.!'' adranlago t.. . rj down kmi rleao " Idi h ai 
inferior t.> ronton products, and when one trice to sell 
«im rlcanwinearorwhai thej r<nii> »r t -.h.- rinds moreop- 

■ iroin ibo men who sell American wines under 
Dames, th»n from the few iiiMih.swiiii.-ii really 

,i,-„i in foreign produ ■- Bverj poaalblo triok la re. 

for Hi. purpoaa of disguising the fact thai the 

win- Bold la Oallfornla wine. Even In Ban Prtnolaco, 

whan some local prid.- mmiu bi oxpeoted to help the 

UleOt native wim s. they an bottled and sold largely 
n-illi Fr.inii labels, some being Imitations of I >. i ., i- , i| 

celebrated houses, aud othen being mori Innocent ol 
deooptlon because they do uot steal trade marks. Since 
tho passage of an Act nniMihings flue of |,vjo fur selling 
wine with forged labels, the fraud Is enrried uu more 
carefully, and cases of bottles are sent by wine mi 
chants to retail dealers without labels, and the labels 
are gent separately and are pasted on according to the 
demanda of customers. One case of American wlue 
can, by this system, make a label do service for ball a 

dozen French brands. In nine cases out of h a, I rl 

ink' to a letter recently published in the Wine ami Fruit 
Qtower, what is sold as French wlue In California is 

en. The Immense prolit in .1, , . - 1 . 1 1 . . u is what 
keopsltup The effect la detrimental to wlno-maken 
who do not reap any advantage Irom the increased con- 
sumption of their wlni s I have seen in the bottling 
rooms of California wine merchants small mountains 
of bottloa, Oat Ol winch very few could be pli ked 
win. u were not ornamented with spurious labels. The 
managor of an esUbllshment said to me: -These 
bottles come from all parts of the State. You see. that 
they have loreign labels, and doubtless their . ontcnta 

I ai Imported Wine.' Taking Up a bottle in- 
ills rlmlnatcly, I read inoh labels as • Oantenac Medoc, 
18M. D., Bordeaux.' ' Uargand Medoc, I Eoppli r 
| Oil . Bordeaux ' A Sun Francisco bottle of Saiiterue 
was branded on the cork.'Pouget Fils. Bordeaux.' It 

inline bottle, and bad a San Franc UK lab I ol 

us, Poogel l'iis. Bordeaux." On n Oallfornla- 
made bottle was a label of what purported to bo Ger- 
man hock. -Rouen Thaler. F. Wi Ikr \- Co , Mnenz,' 
was stuck on a French .iar-t bottle. An Imitation of a 
Chateau La Rose label could be bought iu Sun Fran- 
cisco at $7 a thousaud. There might be read on u 
good many a faoaimllle of the • Due do Montebello." 
The label might be seen on a California bottle, and on 
another a lalx-l of an imaginary Arm. ' E. Blustter h 
Cio., Rhiems.' 

" A dealer in nothing but California wiueB. who sells 
them a» mi, ii, and i- trying to educate the public taste 
to like it. under its true name, said the California win. - 
growi r- liav. themselves to thank for the present con- 
dition of" affaire. Instead of devoting themselves to 
make a pure wlue. they attempted to try all kinds of 
dovfcei to imitate European wlues iu color and flavor, 
and thus played directly iuto the hands of the Import- 
ers. As to the fact that an enormous quantity of Oall- 
fornla Wine is sold under foreign labels, then la no 

doubt of It whatev. r Any wine in. r limit will admit 

that not one twentieth of the wiue bold to consumers 
iii tins country in 1880 was sold as American. Four 
hundred and fifty thousand gallons were sold in one 
month to foreign importing houses in this city: 100.000 
gallons to a Spanish Arm. who would deny point blank 
having anything to do with such ' stuff ' as American 
wine i be only remedy is for wine product r- to i Btab- 
Ugh tie ir own agencies and creato a demand for native 
A ii ember of a French importing house said: " Pn- 
11] American wine is sold nnder foreign Iabela. 
bnl i! is still possible to buy real French 9 Ine." 

The journal from which we take the ubove 
has, of late, had considerable to say concern- 
ing our California wines. While that paper 
does not, perhaps, intend to wilfully misrepre- 
sent the quality or quautity of wine made in 
this Stute, still articles of which this in a fair 
sample convey an incorrect impression, and 
will be the means of injuring one of our most 
important industries. 

Now, in regard to California wine being sold 
in bottles with foreign labels on them, we have 
only this to say: We are perfectly certain that 
there is uot a California wiDe-grower who does 
not desire his wineB to go before the public 
just as they are made, without adulteration or 
misrepresentation, and with the understand- 
ing that they must stand or fall on their own 
merits. We believe that our wines are fur 
superior to the basely- adulterated articles bear- 
ing n foreign brand, which find ready sale 
among a certain class of people here and in 
the \. intern markets. There are many gentle- 
men in San Francisco, who were born and 
rinsed in the wine and grape-growing countries 
<•( Europe, that unhesitatingly declare the 
superiority of California wines. In our judg- 
ui' nt, if our wines are adulterated, after leav- 
ing the possession of our wine-growers and 
manufacturers, it ia because they are prime 
and will stand it; for even then they are pro- 
nounced, by connoissuers, to be superior to 
the foreign adulterated article. We learn from 
li papers that, for a long time, the En- 
glish wine driuker has been imbibing the arti- 
ficial preparation of sharp Frenchmen, under 
"prc-ssion that he has been drinking the 
pure juice of the grupo. He is gradually hav- 
' eyes opened to the fact that about nine- 

tentfaj of the ao-oalled olaret and port wine, 

1 i ■"' I into Great Britain from France, ia 
no! wine i,t nil, but simply soaked figs, cur- 
rants, bussiii blossoms, etc., doctored to suit 
MiIiouh palateaoi the British high-livers. 
1 London W., n, commenting on the 

• brew.iu.MH of tin- Prenob and the atapid oro- 

dnlltj of the English, who buy theae rile imi- 

i of wine, expreaaes Hh ainazemout that 

the importers of England do not pay attention 
to the wine, „f California, which are noted for 
thoir purity, The surprise of tho News seemB 
to be genuine that a promising market is not 
explored by its merchants. 

We regret to say that it is a fact, well known 
to Americrn dealers in wino, that nearly nil 
tho snobs of California und other States judge 
of the character of wiue by the labels on the 
bottle, "These remarkable connoisseurs," said 
a gentleman a few daya ago, "would drink 
colored rain-water and pronounce it delicious, 
provided it cost threo or five dollars a bottle, 
and had a brand with the words 'Chatteaii d" ' 
something on it." And he added that "if the 
'fool killer' wore Bent on a visit to the mau- 
sions of some of our shoddy aristocrats, a great 
many of these connoisseurs would be heard of 
no more " 

The New York Post justly says, that if Cali- 
fornia wines continue to be sold under foreign 
labels, they will never make a reputation of 
their own. But who are the parlies that adopt 
the foreign label for our wines ? Certainly not 
the California vine-growers and manufacturers. 
We are personally acquainted with nearly nil 
of the leading wine-growers of the State, and 
we know that wo make no mistake when we 
say that not one of them would be guilty of 
perpetrating such a fraud. They take a pride 
in sending forth their wines, just as they are 
made, to the publio to stand or fall on their 
own merits. If foreign labels are used on Col- 
fornia wines to the extent that the New York 
Post intimates, wo say again that our wine 
manufacturers are not iu any way connected 
with the fraud, for they can staud upon thoir 
owu merits without any adventitious aid. 

Our wine-growers meet, quite often, in con- 
ventions for the purpose of listening to the ex- 
perience of each other regarding the best 
methods of cultivating th«> vine for wine mak- 
ing. They, as a class, believe that wine mak- 
ing is destined to be one of the most important 
industries in the State. In the last convention 
samples of nearly every variety of grapes now 
cultivated were exhibited, and a free inter- 
change of experience was had. These plain 
talks between practical and observing men, 
serve to enlarge the general knowledge of those 
engaged in the industry of wine making. At 
this convention an old and successful wine- 
grower from France, but now engaged in the 
business in California, remarked, that this 
rich new State does not afford a more certain 
future than can be found in grape-growing and 
wine-making. Another delegate said that the 
day is uot remote when the grape will be a 
more valuable crop in California than wheat. 
Arpad Harazthy, President of the State 
Board of Viticulture, Btated recently, in the 
course of an article in the Sacramento /.'••, 
that wine-making in California is a success. 
It has taken, said he, twenty-five years to 
prove it, but it is proven now beyond a ques- 
tion. The most sanguine supporters of this 
pursuit, of a quarter of a century ago, have 
lived to see their prophecies verified. They 
can now look back with pride and contemplate 
the labor, and rejoice at their final success. 
Mr. H. says that this once despised and belit- 
tled production has come to the front, driven 
away, not only from among ourselves but from 
the whole Doited States, the cheaper grades of 
imported wines, aud are even now asserting 
themselves as rivals to the better class of 
French, German, Spanish aud Portuguese 
wines. In his opinion, it will take but a few 
years more to see all but the nobler growth 
of foreign wines retired completly from our 
markets. Mr. H. states that the importation 
of French and other foreign wines is diminish- 
ing every year. 

There is no doubt but Mr. H. is correct in 
this statemeLt. The wine export of California 
is evidently beginning to affect that of France 
und other European countries. Statistics show 
that the Frenoh vintage of 1882 was 70.000.UOO 
gallons less than that of 1882, and 360,000,000 
gallons less thon the average vintage of the last 
ton years. This industry, in California, has not 
attained its present prominence without en- 
countering many discouragements und difficul- 
ties. Several prominent wine-growers have 
been engaged, for years, in developing thequnl- 
ity, and spreading tho merits of California 
wines, for which they are justly entitled to a 
largo meed of praise. Tho wine-growers havo to 
congratulate themselves upon the exceptional 
prices they obtained for their crop nt tho Inst 
vintage. In addition to tho 12,000,000 gallons 
,,i ii, , in ade lust year, there was manufactured 
aomothing ovor 600,000 gallons of broody. 

The President of the State Board of Viti- 
cultural Commissioners estimated, something 
over a year ago, the value of vineyards in Cali- 
fornia to be nearly $35,000,000, and the annual 
income he placed at about $3,500,000. Ho 
thought theu. that within three years they 
would bo yielding aunually to their owners 
06,000,000, or ten per cent, on $50,000,000 
valuation. The future of tho grape interest, 
all "\er the State, is certainly very promising. 
A large number of new vines ore coming into 
bearing tins year which, with the incroased 
volume from tho old vines, rnako it absolutly 
oertain that ihe coming crop will be the largest 
ever grown iu the State. As far as the field 
for grape-growing is concerned, it is being en- 
tered upon by ruauy persons, of both large and 
small means, and now districts are being laid 
out and cultivated. Iu thi- connection, we will 
Btate that Governor Stanford is having his 
large rauch of over 3,500 acres, ut Vina, Teha- 
ma county, planted with vinos. He means to 
be the greatest grape-grower in the country. 
But we understand that R. Nadeau, of Los Au- 
geles, is, at present, the largest vineyardist in 
California. Charles A. Wetmore, State Viti- 
cultural Commissioner, is of the opinion that 
one of the most promising fields for investment 
and industry is that of viticulture. He be- 
lieves that a well-selected piece of land culti- 
vated skillfully in vines, for wine-inakiug, will 
yield an average of $100 per acre, when in full 
bearing, after paying expenses. He estimates 
the cost of bringing a vineyard to full bearing, 
in good localities, including price of land, at 
from $50 to $100 per acre. 

There oro millions of acres specially adapted 
to vine-growing in the foot-hills aud mountain 
sections, which can be bought at from three to 
ten dollars per acre, that, in a few years, will 
yield $100 per acre. Now, wo ask, in all can- 
dor, nt what other industry con a man make 
(10,000 a year as easily as ho can from 100 
acres of grope lands? Why, the poorest man 
in the State to-doy, if he is full of energy, 
patience and endowed with good hard sense, 
can earn money enough with which to buy the 
land, at day labor, in a year. And he can, in 
the course of a few years, prepare and plant 
the vines and bring them into bearing. 

It has often been said, by theme whose op- 
portunities for judging have been good, that 
there is no land where the vine flourishes in 
such luxuriance as in California. The most 
favored portions of the costly vineyards of 
Franco and Germany, even in favorabl. 
do uot equal that of our ordinary yield ; and it 
is, pobably, for this reason that the vineyard in- 
dustry of our State has awakened such inter- 
est within a brief period. No other laud can 
compete with California in the bountiful pro- 
duct of her vineyards. The magnitude of her 
wine interest may be best understood when we 
state that it has now upwards of 120,000,000 
vines. Concerning the progress already made, 
and the rapidly increasing acreage of our vine- 
yards, it is evident that the wine product of 
the State must shortly become one of the most 
importunt of our grent staples. 

Several European and Eastern papers have, 
quite recently, spoken in high terms of Cali- 
fornia wines. They welcome them becouse 
they ure good, ond infinitely superior to some 
of those produced on the bonks of the Rhine 
and other places. We coul.l furnish abundant 
proof that our wines are not only appreciated 
at home, but also in the Atlantic States and 
Europe. Tho reasonable expectations which 
Ciilifornians have indulged in concerning the 
high rank which wines, manufactured here, 
would attain ore being realized. We trust that 
the time is not remote when the State will be 
greatly enriohed by the revenues derived from 
the exportation of her native wines. 

AN i \ ii i« a - 1 * 1-.1 \i. i-i \ i i.i '■ i ■-. 
.1. Pitchei S| ,. Esq , of Stoi kton, the cele- 
brated photographer of that city, in entitled to tho 
thanks of her oitizena for thi abli mannei in which 

hi photographed the oitj for tho illuatroti i 

first pago l«« ..j.i.j to got thi piol ure M i 

Spoonor was obliged to take no lose than JO 

This work • oat ovei |300, .ill of whioh Mr 
s. donated foi the Bake ol ha\ in his oityi orroi tlj 

illustrated, \\ a -Ii ill always have n | I word 

f..i Mi S] ner. 


\ Portable Eleotri Lightoi foi 16 00 is being 
. i\ sold b) tho Portable Eloctri 

i '.. . ol 22 w atei Stn 1 1, Boston, it is ai 

in uu, .1 and - kfo 'ir " ■•'' for lighting for home 

and business pur] it Scientific Imertcon, 

Vewl ork, December 16, 1883, 


Through the courtesy of its author, M.u. 
Urn-. C. Tnr-MAN (tho well known and pli 
descriptive writer), we have received a copy of 
u very handsomely covered and neatly priuted 
pamphlet of 250 odd pages, bearing the above 
title. It is profusely illustrated with engrav- 
ings representing the natural wonders of the 
Yo Semite ond the Big Tree region, points of 
interest along the coast and the mammoth 
hotels. The book also contains full and accu- 
rate descriptions of all the celebrated summer 
and winter roBortB in the State, with details of 
the routes thereto, rates of fore, etc. 

The guide is full of matter of interest, not 
only to the traveler, but to the general reader; 
it is a compendium of information touching 
the situation, extent, topography ond attrac- 
tions of the sun-set State. Tho care exercised 
by the writer in giving nuexaggeratod descrip- 
tions is wot thy of all commendation. He gives 
all the information regarding tho subjects 
treated, by both facts and figures, that any one 
could desire. In our judgment, this valuable 
work will do more to induce tourists to visit 
our State than all of the other booka on the 
Bnbjeol combined. Thi* may be considered, 
by some, high praise; but, without inteuding 
to flatter the author in the slighest degree, we 
believe it to be true. 

The author states that his object in writiug 
this volume is to point out to the permanent 
residents of San Francisco, and to tourists 
visiting tho metropolis, tho mauy health and 
pleasure resorts lying upon and adjacent to 
the lines of the Control and Southern Pacific 
Railroads and their branches, and to present 
such descriptions of scenery, conditions of 
olimate, location of places, character of attrac- 
tions, curative properties (or -jlaims of cura- 
tive properties) aud analyses of waters of 
mineral springs, routes of travel and such 
other information as it might be possible for 
him to obtain. 

The Illustrated Tourists" Guide is the result 
of continuous travels and observations from 
May uutil December, 1882. All who read this 
book carefully will readily c-ouclude thot Major 
Tiumau possesses special qualifications for 
writing such a work. 

This complete uud beautiful volume was 
priuted and published by H. S. Crocker & Co., 
of this city, and is reported to be the largest 
printing job ever handled in San Francisco, 
the editiou being 25,000. The enterprise of 
the Central aud Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
panies is shown in on order for 20,000 of those 
books for free distribution. Three thousand 
have been sent to Australia, 1,000 to China, 
2,000 to New York and 1,000 to Boston. Two 
thousand have been mailed to all the promi- 
nent hotels, libraries, clubs and to noted 
Knights Templar. Five thousand copies of 
the edition will be sold by booksellers at fifty 
cents each. The balance are being distributed 
to all first-class passengers between Carlin and 


One of the handsomest stores iu our city is 
that of Nicoll. "The Tailor," in the new 
Phelan block, on Market street. The display 
of cloths Ihere is far greater than can be found 
in any other tailoring establishment in San 
Francisco. The proprietor, Mr. Nicoll, is a 
genial and polite gentleman, and so are all his 
employees. They guarantee everything to 
turn out just as represented. Pay tho store a 
visit and judge for yourselves. 

F. A. HATCH & CO., 

(Members S. F. Produco Excbango.) 

niinii\,\iii\ linn ii i\r\. 


Flour, Grain, Wool, Beans, Dried 
Fruit, Honey, Etc. 


— agents yon— 

Healdsburg XXX Flour 





Full one-half tho width of the county lying next 
the eastern Hue in iinnur|mB8e<l for the quality and 
perfection of fruit wlikh it yields, aud puiii' ml II l> 
ie this tho case with that territory wnich lien nu the 
w«U»r-shed of the Trinity and Klamath rivers. For 
perfection In growth and quality <>f flavor, this 
latter section la unequaled anywhere, it makes no 
difference whether you go to tho southern end 
of tho Statu, or refer to the storied orchards of the 
Orient. There is that combination of elimate and 
soil on the Klamath and adjoining county, irhiob 
has made it the home of the apple, the pear, 
the cherry, and other fruits that requiro like con- 
ditions. Thero aro groat tracts ot Government 
lands, upon whioh the plats have been recently 
filed, which can be had of Uncle Sam merely for 
tho taking, at $1.25 per aore. On tho Klamath, the 

objection can not bo raised that it is entirely bey 1 

reach of mark-t. It is, at present for frOSU fruits, 
but we have tho whole world for a market for dried 
fruits, and the Klamath affords a natural, and cheap 
and easv avenue through which to reaoh it. The 
cost of placing such freight on the steamer wharf 
at Crescent Oity, would bo comparatively small, 
and the current of the river is available at all times 
for flat boats aud canoes. 

Those who will take time by the forelook, and 
plant orchards on the Klamath and Trinity, will 
have an independent income, measurably free from 
insects that devastate the warmer counties. Here 
we have sufficient snow and oold weather t" destroy 
very generally, the larva that a more southern tem- 
perature nurtures into life. Tho Klamath is des- 
tined, at some future day, and not far distant, 
to carry a most important commerce to deep water, 
and it is truly a magnificent highway, 'eady to 
serve a large, rich, and naturally productive coun- 
try. The wealth for whioh it affords so ready a 
means of transportation, is diversified, and among 
the richest in the country, comprising mineral 
deposits inexhaustible in extent for this aud the 
next generation; timber, the finest and best on the 
coast, and, what we consider above and beyond all 
this, is what wo have above mentioned— the pro- 
duction of fruit for which its capacity is measured 
ouly by the energy, industry, and enterprise of 
those who will avail themselves of the conditions 
and advantages offered. Wo firmly expect to live to 
see that section produce and export $1,000,000 
worth of fruit annually, carrying its traffic to mar- 
ket, on the waters of the Klamath, and tint then it 
will be but at the threshold of its development.— 
Humboldt Standard. 


A writer in the Examiner of this oity, who 
attended the Citrus Fair recently held at San 
Diego, has an article, in that journal, concerning 
the v, ry attractive exhibition of fruil and othi c 
products From it wi quote the following 

Those who i I I '•• 

country whose onlj resources consisted of climate, 
bay and hope, were agreeably disappointed a1 the 
splendid display of fruits— citrus and deciduous 
mode at the late Citrus Fair held at National 
Oity on the 13th, 14th and 15th of lastxnonth \ 
large hall, handsomely decorated with i 
and flowers of all I i ■ ;| '" 1 Ul111 ' " -" 

tables on whit h wai piled the moat deli 
pearing fruit in bounteous abundance Oranget 
of all sizes and varii tit a, from tho little dwarl 
Mandarin, no largei than a marble, to some thai a 
truthful San Dii [an trii d to palm off on your ooi 
respondent for b now variety -l squash This 
was a ilight i xaggeration, but thej wore fully six- 
teen inches in circumference. Then thi n 
lands of lemons, limes, oitrons, and kindn 
until the eye tired with gazing a« them and thi 
mind grew confus. I in attempting to i 
Bui the i Khibition did nol i 
cjtnu fj ii San Dii go appi arod deter- 

mined to show at a glance whal the wu oapable 
,,i doing in the whole vegetable domain, and we 
found numerous varieties of excellent apples, un- 
surpassed ■ " size or flavor bj anj we have i rot 
eaten. Altogether, San Diego's third annual 
Citnw Fair v. ""' wu 

so pronounced bj tl sands who ri it< d 

whom w.m: tlo- '< .-xi-ur-i.-n partj 


It is stated that a prominent and wealthy 
Ban Francisco physician has parens ed o eo 
tionof land westol Fresno city, who i 
raising tobacco on it. Be boe secured the 

H ,-rvi.:es of an ■ \« m i„ < I lol. 

Btjperintend the work. About 2«U h.t.-h of 

land will be prepared and planted this Benson. 

1 1 | .,. tor saya that II has b ie- 

monetrated that tobaooo grows luxnriontlj on 
the Irrigated land* ol the county, and then I 
noauestton bat that the quality, when prop- 
,,n i„ oqnsl to thai grown In the 

lai tobao Menu ol « lountry. 

Bbould this plantation prove ■ ineoi i, thi 

,n i iv, iy oultivated bore, i It 

I , ,,., , y profitable orop. 


The st Helena Stor Bays: Martin Calten- 
baoh is the lion of the cutting buaineaB of all 
thia region, and of the whole United States as 

veil, for thei ra in in the I nion makes us 

muny as be, Mr, K iltenbaoh, to begin with, is 
an old vintner, aud all hi* life has made a 
specialty of grape viues He has lived here 
sinoe 73, mid Ins been furnishing cuttings every 
year siuoe, to greater or less extent, furnish- 
ing in the l i-i ill years, Including thin, 

about 600,000. He now employs an average of 
25 bands making theoattings, who wort aeai ly 
four months, from about Noveul"r 10th t'> 
March 1st. His trade this year renohes the 

enormous amount of 3,lliiu, I, i-nongli to 

plant over 3,000 acres. These are distributed 
over Napa oounty and all the vine-planting 
counties iu the Slate, to the East, and even to 
the islands of the Pacific. Of these 3.000,000, 
about one-third are Zinfondels, another third 

of the different varieties of Il'islin^s, and the 
other third is made up of the Ohasselas varie- 
ties, Burgundy and a few Burger. Mr. Kal- 
tenhaoh thinks that people are running too 
much now to Zinfondels, beoouBQ they are 
pleuty and oheap, and that they should pay 
more attention to tin- Black lt«islings and Bur- 
gundy. He thinks these latter varieties will 
hereafter take the lead of the ZinfandPls. Has 
jusl -.hipped a lot of 5.000 to tho Sandwich 
islands. They are an assortment, aud are for 
experimental planting iu that country. Mr. 
Alleu Herbert, of Honolulu, is the purchaser, 
and the shipment is made through Leonard 
Coates, of Napa. Besides these, the various 
large vintners of the valley are each furnish- 
itfg large amouuts. Mr. Crabb Bupplied, we 
aro informed, at hast a million last year. Mr. 
Krug about the same, ScbefUer several hund- 
red thousand, ond other parties very large 
numbers. Takeu altogether, we should judge 
that Napa valley supplied enough cuttings, last 
year, to plaut 10,000 acres of vineyard. 


A correspondent of the Mexican Financier call- 
attention to the groat quantity of precious woods 
which, he declares, exiBts in Mexico. He says that 
from tho frontiers of Guatemala to those of the 
United States there is a vast domain, whose growth 
of cabinet woods he describes as truly enormous. 
Among the varieties of woods which figure most 
prominently in the districts along the Pacific and 
gulf coasts, he instances mahogany, ebony, roses 
wood, ironwood, sandal and aloe woods, and cedar. 
Concerning the last-named wood, he says that the 
Mexican variety. In addition to its rich aroma, pos- 
sesses a grain ho fine as to make it superior to many 
of the fine woods generally used in the markets of 
Europe and the United States. The only uso 
hitherto found for the wood, the write! oontfnnes, 
has been in tho manufacture of cigar boxes. He 
adds that, in burning lime he has used, for fuel, 
rich woods, whioh could have been sold for good 
prices, if known in the American markets. The 
Finaru ler confirms the statement of n- enrre-pi ind- 
ent, in relation to the growths along the coast, and 
adds that, in tho greater altitudes, hickory, hard 
cedar, pine, laroh, oak, sycamore, aud walnut flour- 
ish to perfection. It Htatoa that the rapid advance 
of railroads is daily making those supplies more 
available, and that for the encouragement of this 
Industry, the various state Governments, as well as 
the General Government, are offering liberal con- 
cessions to all who will utilize and further develop 
the lumber resources of the country. Tho Finan- 
cier oa\le tho atlonlion of American capitalists to 
the matter, Baying that there is a largo demand In 
Mexico for ordinary grades of lumber, and that the 
Americans aro not only large consumers, but also 
important exporters to Europe of the liner min 1 1 ■ - 
of wood. These latter, the Financier concludes, 
can bo had in Mexico, in any desired quantity and 

Tho furniture of our new Hall of Reoords is 
mostly of Mexloao cedar, whioh la ■ very tine wood 
There should ho no tariff on timber of any Kind.— 
Oolusa Sun. 


At Cherokee, diamonds and zircons aro found in 
cleaning up aluloea and undercurrents. The first 

notice of diamonds in this loe.illty dub -i from IH ',::, 

the largest diam l, which was two and one-quarter 

carats, (i. grains;, is now m the possession of 

John More. There have been from 50 to CO found 
from first to last; some wore rose-colored, some 
yellow, others pore white, and all asaooiated with 
zircons, platinum, Iridium, magnetite, gold, and 
other minerals.— Bulla Ilwnrd. 


iu ^ THE BEST 




Farm Wagon, 




Fire and Marine Insurance 

Capital, paid in full, - 

Warranted to last longer wnh Ie 
wagon in idi • 

epair than any 

Adriance Buckeye Mowers 

For 22 years the leading Mower of the Woil 

Taylor Wheel Horse Rake, 

The hi si H ■•• Rake on wha Is. 

Dedericks Perpetual Hay Press, 

Has supersced"d all other Hay Treves. Puts 10 to 
12 tons of bay in a car. 

Rice's Straw Burner Engines, 

i inly xucccessful Straw Burner made. 


Does nioro and better work than any Thresher 

Hodges and Case Headers. 

Suprrior in make and lighter In draft than any 
other Header. 


Warranted to run lighter, more substantial, 

better principle of construction, less 

liable to get out of order 

than any other. 

Assets, Dec. 31, 1881, $377,457.82 

Losses Paid Siuce Company was Or- 
ganized nearly, $800 000. 

JOHN U. WISE Hre.ldent 

CIIAH. A. LATON Secretary 


No. 405 California Street, S. F. 


Shipping and Commission Merchants, 


835 nfarJcel Street. 


I IIJFllItU 1 M 1,111 REFIAERV, 

Manufacturers of the 



Put up In Barrels Expressly for Home Con. 


Superso'ilini; all other make of scales. Adopted 

by l' S. i. •• i inn. nt mid all the leading 
Railni;i"l< Of 'he Oonutry. 

Glidden Barbed Wire, 

The standard Barbed Wire of tho Country, te 

times as much aohl as any 

other Wire made. 

Enterprise Coffee Mills, 

The moat perfect constructed Mill in use. 


Heal estate continues to look up in Butte 
and Tehama ooanties. A correspondent of the 
Oroville Uereury says; A few months ago the 

owner of a Small tract of laud inni OrOVllle 

pi i tho name In thi bands "f an agenl to be 

goldfoi 17,000 Lasl weel o part) oame along 
In search ol orohard land and offerod $12,000 
f,, r ,t [a tho growing towns ol Hod Bluff and 

i ihloo bn liuegB i"t-< i imand bigfa pi id 

,1,, ... di ral outlook tbronghonl Butte and Tu- 

haiini, bir future |"" |" II Itj, IB DDOBt inoourug- 

Nails, Ropo. Plows. Cultivator* and Staple Hardworo 
ultiiMl implements FOK svle at SAN 
FBAN0I800 I'M' 



Cor. Los Angeles and Requena Sts., 





Organized. 1864. 

JANUARY 1883. 

In Han. U for Kiport, 


At Lowest Murki't Rates. 

0"o«: 32S Market Strert. Ur> Sti»ir.. 
G P SurrriELD. J. PArreiuoN. K- W. Spaou)CM 


Manufacturing Company, 

17 St li> I'llKMOM' STREET, 



Babsorlbe Eoi Tub Bi ioi hi i Ialuobmu, 

No. 2 1 6 Sansome Street, San Fran- 

Capital, i"'»l npi Gold, - - - $300,000 00 

Premiums Blnoe organisation, $4,165 239 10 
Losses, sinoe organisation, - - $1,859,286 64 
ABBets. Jan. 1, 1883, - - - $717.156 63 
Surplus for Polioy Holdera, - - 710.860 63 
Reinsurance Reserve, - - - 172,898 50 
Net Surplus Over Everything. - 237,962 13 

lll'HII Itv i 
J. K. HOI'iilllin I ■ .l.l.-iil. 

J. L.N. BnOPADD.. \ !,«• I'r.-i.i.-m. 

i n vs it. sroitv n... i. .,«.•>■ 

R. ii. oivuii.i General Afl 


Tl bo hutntlon~ri " " i; 



lotuBOl ■ Bloi i 3] 
• -.ii, MoUl Ban 

bj mouisol ■ Bti i i -i" 

i "'M, m, i..i Banda 

at nil times- 


ithaue »lc. 

ol . ■ . 1 


,1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 . 

!•,,,, . comploto wltta P»i Iflo 9ot Ul 
Diodo -I tod hi,. i, roadj i" wort 

M,| lit] l.lM.I. 1.1 I 

I ,, |M | „n,l III,,!.'" 

work, mil . 


v.. in i- i «>n C. B. '' v ' ' ^ 


Planing Knives. Currlor Knives. , S** 

Mandrols. and Snws of Even 

Description Nlado to Order. 




(Branch of New York), 

pubum building, 

816 and 818 


Cordially Invites the public to visit his new 
store, where tii<-> win „,.,. ,i,„ largest ami 
choicest stock of English and foreign spe- 
cialties in Woolens for the Spring Season. 
Give ns a call. 


Examine our Net* styles. Prices and Qual- 
ity. Civility to all. No trouble to show 
goods. Lightest and Largest Tailoring Ks- 
tabllshment on the coust. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Store lighted by Electricity. 



OJ T I N C S . 

The "olden threads among the preen, 
-Esthetic colors blended In ' 
The silver Iliread8 mixed In with brown- 
All colors in wool as soft as down. 


Pants from $ 5 00 

Suits 1 1 o in 20 OO 

Overcoat9 from 15 00 

Dress Coats front 20 OO 

Genuiue 6x Beaver Suits 

from 60 00 

Black Doeskin Pants from 7 OO 

White Vests from . 3 OO 

Fancy Vests from 6 OO 

English Cords for Hunting Suits 


With Instructions for Self-measurement 

with our Gazette of New Fashions, 


NICOLL, The Tailor, 

Men's Furnishing Depart- 

A I ho invite.* lift tention to hi* Xcw For- 
ninhiiig Department In the lurgest stock 
Of the finest Knutcrn make. 


NICOLL, The Tailor, 
Ready-made Department, 

Baaa large stock of Men's, Boys' and Youths' 


Of the Newest Patterns and Improved Stylet, 
PI -ur 0WH iiimiufu. t«r.. unU warranted 

shrank. Hen's Salt* fnm sis. Boys' suits, 

Overcoats, ll.i.i. 

MI'KII\|. \ •!• j'K.M'ION paid to patrons 
from the country. 

MC'OLL, The Tailor, 


M^tx» Street, 





Near St. Helena, Napa County, California. 



Brands of Eed and 
White Wines. 


Burgundy, Bordeaux and 
Rhine Wines. 

Orders Received and 
Promptly Attended to by 



i r 



Telegraph Institute 



F. R. CLARKE, Principal. 

A Practlcsl Business Training 8chool for the Youn ( 
and Mid-llu Aped of both sexes. Open day and even 
bio throughout the Year. Tuition is less than on« 
ha.f usual rates. Excellent board $10 per mouth. 

Full Business Course, Pull Normal Course, 
Teacher*! Course, Review Course, 

Academic Course, Special Couiies, 

Lfiiignii;.'. s Telegruph) 

The i.Viiahge Joubnax., containing full particulars 
sent postpaid. Address: F. B. CL.AKKI,. 
P. O. Box 16. Stockton. Cal. 




Briclit Glaze, in Iron and Wooden 




FUSE, Elc. 


No. 230 California Street, 


(T»r70 A Wl '" l< mn(1 " nt homo iiv the Induttrlona 

•n I Z Best b in., now before Ihn publll . OaDlUI 

*r ool needed We will star) you m. .. 

boys and girla wanted ovorywhoro to % is, Now 

i" the time ?pv oar, work la ipsre time, or live rout 

i I« I ■ to tbi busl Noothoi buslno»ii wllfpay 

'i No oni i in imi to make rmuua 

psy, by i d ,,,,.. rree, 

MODI | made fust, easily uud honorably. Address. 
Thus k Co., Augusta. Maine. 


The following, from the Contra Coatu G 
concerning the construction of a building nearly 
half a mile in length, near Port Costa, by the bo- 
nanza kings of the Nevada Bank, will give our 
readers some idea of the capacity of warehouses 
needed for storing grain: 

The bare shore lino between Martinez and Port 
Costa, which is destined in time to be almost one 
continuous stretch of wharves, warehouses and 
factories, is already beginning to show some of its 
fu lure importance. Firat camo the coal bun ken ■ 
large structure situated about a quarter of a mile 
up the shore from Port Costa. Now comes the 
Nevada Bank wharf and warehouses, at I he foot of 
Lone Tree valley, about Iwo-thirda the distance 
from Martinez to Port Costa. Temporary build- 
inge were constructed laat week for the accommo- 
dation of workmen, and the first pile was driven on 
Monday. The Nevada Bank has secured threo 
wharf franchiaea at the place mentioned and It ,„ 
the intention of the owners to build a wharf 3 000 
feet in length, or about three-fifths of a mile. Up- 
on this wharf will be orected warehouses aggregat- 
ing a length of 2,300 feet, or nearly on. 
mile. A warehonao half a mile in length is ,, r - 
lalnly a gigantic building; and when It ia con- 
aidored that this one warehouse (for the aoveral 
warehouses, side by side, may be said to' be really 
but one long warehouse) will bo but one of the 
many to bo built in the next two years, some Idea 
may he obtained of the immonao traffio In grain 
of which this county is to be the center. The Ne- 
vada Bank warehouses will have a capacity of 60,- 
000 tons. The wharf will be built in a curve, par- 
allel with the railroad company's right of way. and 
will Lave a front ige on six fathoms of water. 
There is, at present, but one pile driver at work, 
bnl there will be shortly jthree-two floating and 
one on trucks. It is probable that the space be- 
neath the warehouses will be Oiled in and a con- 
crete foundation laid. The buildings will be com- 
Pl" '■ I by July, in time for the first shipments of 
the coming crop. The Nevada Bank loans large 
sums of money on grain, and these warehouses will 
be used more particularly for the storage of wheal 
and barley upon which money has been loaned. 
It will doubtless not bo long before other ware- 
houses ate constructed along the shore, and Mar- 
tinez, Port Coata and Crocket will be eventually 
connected by a continuous line of wharves. 


■/•Jw!' ,lowin * wo fl[ " 1 ,D ,h0 s " n Lui8 o°h.p° 

Tbfc, system of inb-frrfgatlon has been advocated 
b f th «°o.t.kilfnlI and scientific agriculturists in 
-o for some years past, and 
he succeaa which has followed the trials has placed 
the ays.eni beyond the rank of experiment. O. O 
Bigga. the most successful horticulturist in Califor- 
nia, tned the plan „, u owbard of 150 acres in 
Solano county, and says tbat the product was so in- 
creased ,n quantity and quality as «„ pay the coat of 
U»e improvement in ono year. E. W s,,,.,,. ,, f 
tog agriculturists of the Bute. Is now Introducing 
the system in his garden and lawn about his real- 

dence. Trenches, fr sixteen u>elghteen inches 

n depth, are dug at Intervals of seven feet, and as 
ono as required, to croaa the piece of laud to be 
irrigated, and I in these cement pipe, four inohi a to 

diameter, and of - ,„,, open bore, Is laid by 

• machine carried along by hand, making the pipe 
continuous, like a gig, n « fl „a 118 uge. While the 
'■' ">en1 Is still soft, holes are punctured in the pipe, 
"B of 'seven feel, and in each of these 
" Prorated plug is inserted, through which the 
"'"'"' "'"" M iQto '^ Pipes, will percolate an I 
rrigate the ground. To ptotect these plugs from 
becoming stopped by the overlying soil, a cement 
win is placed over ich in auch a manner that the 
water may always flow freely. These pipes connect 
With a mam trunk, of four or aix inches in diameter, 
through which the supply of water runa. The pipe 
Of various aizea is made on the place at asmall coat, 
and, when dry and set. becomes as hard as stone, 
and strong enough to hold a column of water of 50 
rare. Largo ciaterns, distributing boxea 
drain and sewer pipea have been made of the same! 
and moat admirably answer the purpoaes Mr 
Steele has a perennial stream running through his 
Place, and this he will turn Ilk, bis underground 
pipes. However dry the aeason may be, there will 
be no scarcity of vegetables, fruit, or flowers about 
ant home, and the grassy lawn will always 
be kept green. 


Here is n terse, timely nnd entirely practical 
suggestion from it colemporary, which we de- 
sire to indorse, reinforce and make applicable 
to Los Angeles county. It is from the Venture 
Free Pn 

"Can't every farmer in the county, some 
Saturday afternoon, when the horses an pri ttj 
"" » ' '*>•' B«"g plow, give them a 

rest, nud with all his men cl.-vuti tin-, . - . . , f,, 11r 
hours to tree-planting? Any trees— locust, 
waluut, cypress, blue gum— anything to break 
the monotony of the landscape and make it 
beautiful, besides furnishing feuce-posts and 
firewood in the near future. Do this, and 
within two years you will thank us heortilj 
for the advice." 

If such a practice were energetically inau- 
gurated and energetically kepi up, at proper 
seasons, for a few years, the whole Bnrfuoe of 
our treeless country would be transformed. 
The culture of timber would be followed not 
only by the good results pointed out, but it 
would have a large influence in warding off 
drouths and in protecting the sources uud pre- 
serving iutact the volume of our streams, 
which supply the life-blood to our soils and 
make cultivation possible where otherwise 
ouly an arid desert would stretch its repellunt 
wastes. Let the spirit of tree-planting and 
timber-culture once take full and complete 
possession of our farmers and ranoheros of 
the south couutry, and tho good that would 
follow to individuals and the public in half a 
decade would bo simply incalculable and im- 
measurable. — Los Angeles Mirror. 


Messrs. George and Charles Cadawalder, cap- 
italists, says tho Willows Journal, who own a 
large traot of hind about five miles south of 
Willows, east of the railroad, have recently 
put in operation on their farm u plow that 
seems to do pretty good work. It plows about 
afoot deep. So no of this laud is tinotured 
with alkali, but the deop plowing Iiuh . 1 . v. I- 
oped ihe fact that the alkali does Dot extend 
urn. h beyond the surface, urst-ulnsa loamy -ml 
I" ml' thrown up by the plow. It is the opin- 
ion of some that tho alkali oan I" 1 worked out 
of this land with tli" plow. At least it oan i» 
so mixed in with the good soil that, it will no! 
provosuch an obstacle to the growth of vegeta- 
tion upon it us it has heretofore proved to bo. 


A writer in the Marysville Appeal, who has had a 
largo experience in raising crops in several sections 
of California, thus expresses himself in regard to 
the fears that are annually expressed, concerning 
orop |Tii-pects: 

Since wheat-growing became a great indnatry in 
California, there has probably not been a single 
season in which a greater or lesa number of people 
did not find occasion to express "fears as to the 
''" l " 1 " 1 "" of thi orops." If the winter be wel 
"fears are expressed" tbat it will prove too wet; 
; ""> "' 'he winter be dry, then "fears are ex- 
that it ,,|| prove too dry. If the season be 
a happy medium ui tween we! and dry, then some 
"fears are expressed" of drought, and other •■ fears 
are expressed" ol too much wot, according to Ihe 
fancy and thi li mpi rament of the persons express- 
ing the "lean." One thing is always certain; it ia 
tbat "fears" of aome kind are always entertained, 
in regard to the condition of any growing crop in 
California. "Fearing" has grown to be a oustom 
of the California agriculturist. Ranching iu this 
8tate allows considerable leiaure after the seed ia 
pul in the ground and winter plowing done, aud 
tho interval of leiaure between seed-time and har- 
vest is always more or leas occupied by entertaining 
'feart In the winter season the rancher who 
prays ia either pray ing for more rain or for alet up, 
While Ihe rancher who "cusses" is "cussing" either 
tho dryness or wetness of the weather. These re- 
marks, or course, are not intended to apply to tho 
farmers in Yuba and Sutter counties, where 
drought is never known, but yet, even in this 
favored seotion, a few curonio " fearers" may, per- 
haps, bo found. 


Tho editor of the Santa Barbara Press thus de- 
scribes, briefly, what camo under his obaervation 
during a recent visit through a portion of his 

A most delightful trip recently up through the 
Goleta showed the country to bo flourishing. The 
crops are all looking well aud the soil ia mellow 
and in fine condition. There is considerable good 
pasturage, and wheat and barley promise very en- 
couraging crops. Col. Hollister's ranch is in excel- 
lent condition. The 45 men employed, under the 
supervision of the proprietor and Mr. James, per- 
mit no weeds to find growth there, or no spot to re- 
main uncultivated. The Colonel has cut down tho 
lino of gum and cypress tress that stood in frout 
of his house, obstruciug his view of the ocean. 
This hiiH impi'MV. d .ii .[ .... i ,n,.-. , uti much, l'he 

lab cold weather has Injured the lime tree*. Only 
ono or two remain on tho place iu health] OOndl- 
tion, and these only wln-rc i ircl'd. 

Many of the almond trees are being out down also, 
giving more room to the walnuts. Tho orange 
and lemon trees are In splendid oonditlon. The 
very lieavHj loaded, and tho fruit Is im- 
proving in flavor. Thoy »iii oommenoe pit I Ing In 
aboul two months, us the crop la later this yoar 
than usual. 



A Pril. 


From the Oilroy Advocate, wo lake the fol- 
low ing Items: 

The first Eastern nhipment of pears (rum 
QUroj was made in 1878. Xhe inm-hase was 
made trom oar looal orobatdists, through the 
aganoy of Horace WiUaon, for the firm of A. 

Liisk & Co., Sim FraDOlBOO. Ill the following 

year, 1870, the pear ■ ■ i ■ ■ i » was a failure Port t 

Bros., of Chicago, bought, thrortgh Mr. Will- 
sou, iu 1880, about 800 boxes; In 1881, over 
700, aud iu 1882, within the paBt few months, 
800 boxes. Porter Bros, have also purchased, 
through George Wenta and w. Wall, about 300 
boxes, and other parties have shipped about 
300 more. From 300 to 400 hosts of Bartlett 
pears have aieo been shipped to San Frauoisco 
and San Jose canneries, making the total sur- 
plus crop for home aud Eastern markets, 
nearly 2,000 boxeB. From the foregoing it will 
be seen that the pear crop is increasing annu- 
ally. All these peiirs were grown in Gilroy, 
Sau Felipe, aud San Juan, places which appi BI 
to be specially adapted to their cultivation. 
The pear will tlourish whether the water is 
near or far off from the surface. On wet land 
the apple tree dies iu a few years, or becomes 
worthless. On dry land it lives louger. but the 
fruit is small and tasteless, aud, we may add, 
worthless. But the pear tree will bear good 
fruit, under the same conditions, and its mar- 
ket price will average three times more than 
the apple. If the price aud demand iu the fu- 
ture should be equal to the present, the pi <i is 
the most profitable fruit to raise iu Gilroy and 
vicinity. Of the winter varieties, the Winter 
Nellie and the Easter Beurre take the lead. 
The Bartlett aud Beurre Hardy are the leading 
fall pears. Mr. Willson says: "In my humble 
opinion, the Gilroy fruit is as good as any, it 
not the best, crown in California; but," he 
.olds, "many orchards are worthless, because 
of the starvation disease. Trees require food 
as well as animals, therefor? wash and manure 
them well, and your return will be an ,| 


A correspondent of the Bail- tin of this city, 
makes the following reference iu regard to the 
copper mine at Spenceville, in Nevada county: 

About twenty years ago considerable atten- 
tion was paid to copper mining iu California. 
The business, however, was never advanced 
beyond the first Btages of production. No at- 
tempt was made to reduce the ores, aud so get 
a merchantable article for shipment aud home 
use. The ore was taken out and sent to this 
city, at considerable expense, and then shipped 
to Boston and Swansea for reduction, The 
business, as then carried on, was abandoned 
long ago. Within a few years, a copp.i claim 
in Nevada county has beeu worked, with a fair 
degree of success, but nothing beyond ooppi i 
cement has been produced there. This cement 
is Bhipped by railroad to New York and Balti- 
more, where it finds ready sale. Last year this 
mine paid its first dividend, at the rate of five 
cents per share, or $2,500. The Compiny paid 
six of these dividends between March 1, aud 
September 1, 1882. There were no dividends 
paid in the last four months of 1882. The 
seventh dividend, of the same amount, was 
paid this month. This is the only copper mine 
now in operation in the State, of which we 
have any knowledge. There is one in Arizona 
that did well last year, and another, in the 
same Territory, promises well this year. 


The Bobnerville //. raid, Humboldt county, 
is of the opinion that prosperous timed are 
close at hand, for Bel river people. It Baj-B: 
When the railroads are commem-ed, affording 
employment for every idle man and team In 
this portion of the county; when a branch road 
winds its way along tbemeanderingsol 
oreek, into the immense bell of timber which 
lit eaat and south of Pell ' i Bprings, and a saw- 
mill, with H ontting oapaclty of 100,000 feet a 
day, is in motion, Bohnerville will assume the 

importance to wlm-li - . 1 j ■ ih i nlilli I bj location 

and th<! resources whioh surround bar, The 

time lias arrived win n our people should, by 

means In their powor, onoouragi and 

foster every ■ nd rpri^e witliin t lui r reach. 

Don't wail for everything I me wbiob we 

nature i utitii d to rieip Hum to com--, 
by every honorable Inducement. 

HuuaoBiUK for Ig| BwODBOHOVOAUroaMU, 


Charles Dondoro, 535 Washington street, Ban 
FrauciHeo, Iiuh received two large puckngea of valu- 
able seed from the Department of Agriculture at 
Saigun, Cochin China, which may prove ite excel- 
lence for adaptability to our soil. The seeds are 
that of a tuberous annual vine which has been dis- 
covered iu the wilderness of Cochin China, and its 
cultivation is rapidly becoming general in that 
country, both for tahlo and wlno purposes. The 
berries equal, it is said, in size, taste, and lluvor. 
the beat Burgundy grape known. It contains about 
the same percentage of alcohol as the native Bor- 
deaux. The wine from it is said to bo delicious, 
and the fruit relishing and nutritious. The plant 
dies annnally, but produces itsell from the tuber. 
The germination of the seed requires from two to 
three months. It cau be done in pots. This vine 
Is cultivated exactly as our Lima bean Ib. It needs 
stakes to sustain it. Just as our grapevine does. 
The vine delights in a warm, light soil, partic- 
ularly in moist regions. The tuber is protected 
from winter frosts by covering it with straw, 
or mannre. This vine is not only easily propagated 
by seed, but still more by shoots, of whiofa the 
tuber produces many. These are carefully sepa- 
rated from the mother stock, with one or two of the 
many roots, aud planted. This operation, which 
can be performed by any ordinary laborer, strength- 
ens the mother plant, preparatory to its crop of 
fruit, and furnishes all the cuttings the vineyardiBt 
may wish to set. The great productiveness of this 
vine maybe judged by the fact that, in ordinary 
seasons, in its native country, each vine bears from 
180 to 250 pounds of the grapes, In olusters from 
three to nine pounds each, the season being from 
June to the middle of November. Mr. Dondero 
Will furnish, we understand, the valuable Beed to 
those who may wish to give it a fair trial, in 
the interest of the State. There is no doubt that 
the tuberous vino can be cultivated advantageously, 
with proper care at the beginning, in nearly all the 
wine counties of California.— St. Helena Star. 


Considerable excitement has been created in 
the vicinity of Yorkville, in this county, by the 
reported discovery of a rich silver ledge on the 
ranch known as "Dutch Lowery's" where J. 
S. Cox and a force of six men are at present 
delving away, running a tunnel into the mount- 
ain side. The discovery is said to havo been 
made several months ago, but the secret was 
kept by the few until quite recently, wheu the 
work being carried on now was commenced. 
The tunnel has already been ruu in some 20 
feet, and a well-defined ledge struck, and the 
finding of the ledge so soon, and at so short a 
distance from the entrance, together with the 
rich appearauce of the rock taken out, has pro- 
duced more excitement and talk in that uaually 
quiet neighborhood than was ever known 
thereabouts before. If the reports coming from 
there are but half true, Mendocino will soon be 
known as a silver-bearing county, and hi r 
wealth and resources will be estimated far in 
excess of what she can now boast, for the 
good of all concerned, we trust the new mining 
district will be developed as one of the richest 
ever discovered. — Mendocino Dispatch. 


Paten iHRIK-ll Ang. 13, 1870, lle-lKMllr.l All,.' M. 1HK|. 

For tlie Prevention anil Removal of 



Feed water Iulct. I 

Door for patting '" 

Door for Removing 

Automatic F 1 

Water Regulator 

ml. ■ ii-ii I i 

"■ a • do water to bolllni 
30 to 50 per cent of water l>> 
fully DS per rent. In fuel. 

Further • l .. . -. with full lescxlntl 

at the office ..r the 

i St. -on, 

(nil '. 

Outlet ' 

it from all i 
Prevents the for 

riflea, gavel from 
of scute, and iavri 

nd price lint can lie obtained 


8 8 O PINE S THE E T, ROOM 7. 

Descriptive Catalogue Sent on Application. 
Manufactory, Columbia Foundry, 133 and 135 Beale Street. 


The Fresno Hepublican Bays: Five years 
ago Fresno was just beginning to he talked of 
as a place of possible importance. Fruit and 
vine culture were yet an almost untried experi- 
ment. To-day Fresno is known in every ham- 
let in the 8tate. Her cheap wooden buildings 
are rapidly giving way to massive and elegant 
brick blocks, and line and elegant residi Does 
are tukiug the place of small, temporary build- 
ings. Her fruit und vino interests have grown 
to immense proportions. The signs of pros- 
perity and vigorous growth are visible on every 
hand. This rapid development has exceeded 
the expectations of the most sanguine. The 
possibilities of the future are now rated much 
higher than they were five years ago, hut wo 
believe that developments of the next five 
years will be a greater surprise than those of 
the past. They will be of such vast proportions 
that those who contemplate them most closely 
can now hardly realise them. 


There Is no reason to Bappote that fruits are 
being overdone in California, if orobardlsta will 
raise only the belt vnrielies and paoken will do 
their part in regard to SOleOtion of material, euro In 
preparation and gtvo full weight. Prices, it is 
true, muv fall somowbat, bm every redaction Id 
price will looreue the demand, by bringing oat 

canned fruits within 1 1 liunn reueli ,,f nilllionn 

of families Id thli and otbor countries, who now 

look upon them iim ImurlOS, hut If tliey were a IKile 

cheaper would use them ai staples, s. i ■■ \t, , 


The California. Lloyds 





(Established iu 1861). 


Paid- Up Capital, 


Nos. 4>6 and 418 California St. 

Agencies in all the Prinoipal Cities of the 
United States. 

O. km « linen. IN. G. KITTLE, 

President. | 

JAMES D. BAILEY Secretary 

O. P. FAnNFIELD 0ent , r ,, A , 


>. r. rAiiNHWoiiTii. 

M. T. BREWER & CO., 

Not. 30 and 32 J Street, 



,i n'ri-.i v K or ^F3 , "" 1 "" -«•- Bn>d 

He. ,„ , \*!'- ,r """"- 11 > WuU.Qartei 

bowii i leuoglvfl mi Maj, BOandSfl 

•~.. ........ ,..,. ,„, 


Improve ii„ 

"IN r | , haii. 

tlei Any oi 

Ht»rt. Tim 1 

i ti 

I 1, 


miry Weui h 


plo are always on tho loo] i ,.., 

'",'" '" ""'■""'"•" tholr oarnlnai, aud In 

" , '"'"""" « III! « I" not 

pportanitici remain In povi rtj H 

"" 1 "' w«i o, wamon, 

";"■,'" "" fjB' Ibolr own local! 

''" !" """■ properlj I rhi Oi H 

dm will |.„v mora u,„, t , „ Umosordi. 

'""" furnlihod i... \ 

.iH«KeB r»iut„ „„ 

■•■"<•• >"'" whole ,,, ,„,. „*„'. ', ' „,o\ " 

'"■" l " full Infi .1 i ,|i i,,,,, " ;„ | 1 '. 1 

tioo. Addrumi. htinion a oo„ Portland, kfaino 


Do you wish to advertise to the amount of i fee 
dollar* only? Applt to us, and we will inform you 
how you c»n invest the aim-nut most 


If >"'i » 1st I tlon On the subject,** 

shall be glad to commanlcete with you and ei 
to i^i v you latlal . 


i wish i" advertise extensively) Bend • eoa- 

1 il -I what you arlata to do, and await our 

estimate before giving out tie irdi r 


Have you a list of papers in which yon And It pay» 
yon well to advertise 1 Bend your list «nd adverti**- 

mi nl t-- us. By so doing, you cau save expense. Urn*. 

end tlie tronbTe ol attending to the business. 


<7A11 tifill ^'"^ " *' ve 5 '" u trouble to loo) aft i thi advertislM 

•P t Ul/,UUO iu . ,rl, particular papexT Let im do your business. ui d 

We - unilm • rerj papi t nd (ertloall 

properly given and all 


Is your oradll aa wi ii - itablUhed thai yon c»u f<-w 
verj Ion rates b] IradlDg dlrool with pdbUshersl if 

-". »■- iwanl rot Uneaa, and will prooare M-ueqiwi'T 

low rates. 


ii - I- do mm b "i- inn- . w. thai! b> 

yon, and glvi | 1 1 r. ad< uitagi n\ 

.'ii. . -I aovi nti . d v. u - enabli i us to ofll i 


. im. i a .inn, on i., gel axai tly whal >-" " ltt |J 

i will r. anlre and see if 

we I.. ii..i ,..iv. sou utlsJ . 


iP roil U m 'I b] 001 .M Il : .v R 

>"" th( v -I i i,.,.|. with ii- We si- 

waj mdoutall ordoreand ohock all papers the day 



n yon want the most oxponalve adi 

. lie papi ra '- .1- .1 in [i |ou n ioi I 
eat, ^^.. . an So il 

>oll II, Will 


i' ron llvohoi rollj n U be c 1 '' 1 

to bavi v.. i ..i, . .. u in in. i wo are n-ady w 

advi i ie . "i no i 


W I lonl - bulli • ol -in awni »•» " 

IN,, newspapers on Qle, tud shall tak< ploasun II 
Inatyoi » we in n m'l -""'■»"; 

fOl inn , ,i 


M- T. HUHn r.ll 








& MANN, 

Nos.32'2 ami 3&| California Street 

ami 802 and ::ni San- 

some Street, 

A^onts lor Tlie 
Agricultural lii»ur.iiiee Co New York, 


Conn...... In.. Co Paris, France, 

$0, 835,2 98. 

Fire Ins. Ass'n (Limited) London, Knjr., 


Glrard Insurunce Com puny Philadelphia, 

81 ,208,6 45. 

New Orleans Inn. Aai'n Now Orleans, 

St. Paul P. AM. Ins. Co. ..St. Paul, Minn.. 

91, Ot8,673. 

Standard Fire Office (Limited) London, Eng., 


Teatonia Ins. Co New Orleans, 

8 118,045. 


Tlie London and Provincial Marine Insur- 
ance Company London, 


La I .hi. .. ... Marine Ins. Co Paris, 


Capital Represented. . . $23,007,100 



Special \g.i. . and Adjuster. 

F P BACON, Pres. C. L. F0DTS. Sec. 


Globe Iron Works Co. 



and FORGE. 

Manufacturers and Repairers of all Kinds of 


Hoisting and 

Mining Machinery, 

Portable, Stationary and 
Marine Engines. 


Which dors away « I tit Cumbrous Pump 
Bods, V Bobs and Balance Bobs, operating 
• ■■■...My trail |a .hafts or Incline*! udmlllin^ 
Of deflnetlOO Into workings. Clrcu 
lars furnished free, upon application. 



-.i-i ;« i \ I. i i ES, 

222 and 224 Fremont St., 

Hetween Ho„..r.l <••••> I'olsom 

San Francisco 


Druggists and Manufac- 
turing uhemists, 





Porellin Perfumery, Col« B nea. Scented 

Toilet ■>..„,,.. ||„|r. Tooth und Null 
Brashes, Combs, Hair Oils, Pomades, Face 
Powders and Cosmetics, Sponges, 
Patent Medicines, Ktc, Etc 


Palace Drug Store, 

035 Market Street, - . SAN FRANCISCO. 





Church and Steamboat BELLS and com.- 

BRASS CASTINGS of all kinds, 


Hooker's Paten' 



t»"The best snd mow 
ble In use. Also 
s variety of other 


For MINING snd 
FARMING purpose* 

Root's Blast Blowers, 

Tor Ventilating Mines sDd for Smelting Works. 


For Mining Purposes. 









524 Siicrumonto Street, San Francisco. 

Into bars, sud returns niude In from twenty-four 
to forty-elglit hours. 

Bullion can be forwarded to tbls ofuce from uny part 
of the luterlor by express, snd tetania msdo In the 
ssme manner. 

Careful Analyses mode of or™, metals, hoIIb, waters. 
Industrial products, etc. Mines i l.ii.iii.d .ml reported 
puon. Oonsultstl >ns on ohemlcsl snd metallurgical 

ni" A Y""'- " f " "" sweeping iiy. K" snd dan tx 

HfS I r..n >••... .!»•. 'thing mighty ami huI. 

IlkU I in in' leave behind I iui r mm..' ■■ mm 

u week In your own town. $6 outni (ran, N., .ink 
thing new. Cspitsi not required, w.. will fur- 

nlhli you .•vi-rythlng Many «n. making fi.rtiiii. m. I.». 

die* mike «» mui I men, "...i boys and glrla make 

gnat pay, Bcader, if you wst.t buslneaa «i win. b you 
o.n make jn al pay all the time, wniu fur particular* to 
11. "■■" " A Co., Portland, Maine. 


O^ora"!,? SV" HZ ^ 'T "J* ^^ ' Th ° ed ' ,0r ° f "" D ' X "" * <" U9 <*** °f 

Oilmore, of El Dorado count,, who bu long been I tbe town of Winters, Yolo county, its business 

ll """" " H •' ,,r ' *■'** "• Aogons, Mr QUmore ...jil..ok and future promise- 

teUowstbatthegoal business iH promising much l:.„,g .-.iii-.i ... w„,.,r, ,„, , , ,,,„ „ IllutlorB 

more than for mm ,,„,,. Although the pr |oe daring ibe early part ol Ibo week, we took occasion 

" low, l "'"" "•"""' ' ''' "' '" r "" the mohair, to. vera ,, Ullh lbl 0UBlneM ^ 

There i,« been a period of de sioh, bal ii II ....w | ing .he future prosp. , ,., .,, „„. place, and bom 

improving, rue same rule holds La thia industry . exception l >d i hem exceedingly uopefol It is a 

as in an others, Mr. Oilmore emphasizes the need | pretty village, of some 600 or 700 inhabitant 

using Brat-class animal* a* breeders, in the titully located, i ol tbe besltbiesi ind most 

breeding of all animals you will u,,.i Inferior tinea 
being produced. Why should goats be an} 
tion? The same rule must apply to the breeding of 
goat* as to other auimala. There has boon enough 
mistakes made about goats. 1 have always taken 
the motto that in this, as in all other breeding, 
-like begota like." If you want to get a high stand- 
ard, you must use a high standard, ol course re- 
jecting inferior individuals, even though their ped- 
igreea were good. Nineteen-twentleths of the men 
who have been breeding goats, haviug been using 
poor buoks. the reaull Is, they have product 
hair, rather than mohair. 

Mr. Oilmore informs us that his lleece last year 
was sold all together for 47 4 cents a pound. without 
any selections. He shipped off last 2,000 11,- , and 
no division In the grade. Three years ago be wrote 
to Kitching Brothers, and they said that if he had 
anything, to keep it; that they bad 30.000 Ids. in 
their warehouses. Now they have not a pound 
The price is not large, yet there is an actual demand 
for it. Mr. Gilmore baa Just received a letter from 
Kitching Bros., New York, Baying that they are oul 
of stock of mohair, and that consignments will 
sell readily. 

Mr. Oilmore states that, notwithstanding every- 
thing has been said to discourage the business, 
it has been still going on and getting a foothold, 
and he expects that, when the price comes up for 
mohair, a good deal of mohair will Und its way out. 
Pelts have averaged about 60 cents apiece. The 
receipts in tbe county of El Dorado, from pelts, 
mutton and mohair, have amounted to S25. It has 
been scattered among a great many people, and tbe 
money baa beeu quite a help with the return from 
other crops. He believes that, considering tne 
number of goats that have beeu imported to this 
coaat, and Ihe hands they have been thrown into 
there is no interest that has made more rapid 
strides than the Angora industry, aud it bida fail 
now to be heard from, In a very satisfactory way. — 
Rural Press. 


There is much talk about a dry season, and 
much doleful speculation is indulged in, e*pec- 
iolly by constitutional croakers, who afflict 
every community. As n matter of fact, Ihe 
Sun In Ann valley is much better prepared to 
withstand a dry season than most other por- 
tions of the Stute. A scauty ruin full means 
short crops of hay and barley npon our mesa 
lands, and IhiR is the main extent of the actual 
dumuge to crops. We shall have a much larger 
orange crop than last year, estimated ns high 
as 50,000 boxes, worth at least $70,000. Let 
us say we pack as many boxes of raisins as we 
did last vear (and the probability is that it 
will be muoh larger), they will be worth at 
leant $30,000. Lemons aud limes, say $2,500. 
Wine grapes, wine and brandy, sny $12,000, 
which, we think, is a low estimate. Hogs, 
(75,000; hups, $25,000; eggs, $22,000; corn, 
$40,000; potatoes, $0,000; fruits, $5,000. 
There will be no failure of any of the above 
products, on account of tbe limited rainfall 
There are numerous other productions and 
unities of export which we have not mentioned, 
which will swell the grand total to at least tbe 
figures of last year, which we took pains to 
gather carefully from reliable merchants. In 
round uumbers tbe figures were half a million 
dollars. Let us hear no mure dismal croaking? 
about u dry season. — Santa Ana Herald. 


The Stanislaus county News says: It bus 
been generally believed fruits aud vines bad to 
be irrigated. Experiments teach that this is 
not necessary in the rich bottoms of the Stan. 
ishius, Tuolumne and San Joaquin rivers. 
Mr. Stephen Rogers, nu enterprising farmer, 
is pulling out an orcburd und vineyard, He 
has already 14,000 young treea growing in n 
very healthy condition. He will add nbout 

2,000 1 1..-, year. He grows bis own aeed- 

bugs ami does ins own grafting so be is certain 
to have the very beat varieties and most 
healthy vines. He will ibis season put out 10,- 
ooo vines. His experiments tend to show that 
grapes growing entirely too thrifty on the first 
bottom bul thi.i the second would be better. 

II.- I... . .1 miii- 1 1 1,, i grow -l feet in one 

season He iutends to lucn ise ins orchard 

and vineyard until each cover 100 auieb. 

tortile sec a In tbe Biati . As out readers are .... 

aware, Putab orw k la tbe northern boundarj of 
Bolano county. Winters Is Bitnated on the north- 
ern bank of Putah, and, although a part ol i*olo 
county, ii is tin, lis wedded to Solano county, ool 
only ii, point of business Interests, bul the popula- 
tion la in a great measure madenp ol old Bolano- 

ites, who cast their fab? with Ibe new town D] Its 

very first inception, and who are still loyally cling- 
ing to its fortunes, with firm and unshaken failb in 
us future. The country surrounding Winters, la 
juatly classed among the most fertile and produc- 
tive in California. There are several large a, 
duotive orchards and vineyards in the vicini'y. 
The first vegetables in the market are shipped from 
this point, and ihe wheat yield is BOmething mar- 
velous. It is al.-,,, in the very heart of one of the 
best stock ranges in the State, so that the natural 
resources of Winters can truly bo said to be very 
groat. An idea of the estimate placed upon land 
for farming purposes can bo formed from the fact 
tbat on the day of our visit, Mrs. Ramsay, for- 
merly of Green valley, took possession of a furrn 
for which she paid at the rate of 5170 per acre. 
The people of Winters also have great faith iu the 
ultimate construction of a railroad through Putah 
canyon into Napa and Lake counties. Surveyors 
are now in the field, aud if this route is finally de- 
termined upon, there is no question but tbat Win- 
ters is destined to become a town ..( great Import- 
ance. The business men of the place are dis- 
playing considerable activity. Wo noted many 
improvements now in progress, and many more are 
contemplated if tbe season proves favorable. The 
maia streets have been graded and graveled, and 
shade and ornamental trees are rapidly springing 


In every directiou in this valley may be 
seen the results of cutting up the small farms. 
Huudreds of bonus hate already been made 
on five to twenty acres of land, and this year 
the process of subdivision is going on more 
rapidly than ever. At every turn trees are 
beiug planted, wells are being bored aud pre- 
parations made for more new homes. And 
this is the right use for such a valley as this. 
It was made for the purpose of providing 
heulthful homes for people of education and 
refinement. lis fruit trees and vines can be 
cultivated without much hard labor, and these 
products can be made to maintain their own- 
ers in comfort and independence. It is not 
too much to say that ten acres of land in this 
valley, well cared for, will yield as much actual 
profit us a hundred acres in most other parts of 
the world. And the work aud expense of cur- 
ing for the one is really but a little more than 
a tenth part of whut is required of the other. 
These facts are becoming known in all parts 
of the country, aud tbn'ty citizens ure flocking 
hither to escape from the dreary routiue of 
hard labor in tbe Eastern States, to tbe com- 
parative ease ami independence offered here. 
People of intelligence also desire to escape the 
Arctic rigors of the wiuter, and tbe equally 
disagieeuble and debilitating effects of tbe hot 
summer. And every one that comes sends for 
bis frieuds and neighbors. There is no dissat- 
isfaction, ami Indeed he muat be hard to please 
who is not suited with the conditions of life 
here. Of coursi thi i • u a i. w ohancea to make 
fortunes, but wise men know that money is in 
no sense to be compared with health and com- 
fort, and they make their arrangements ac- 
cordingly. — San Jose Herald, 


The Los Angeles Express Bays: Iu the 

.-ours., of tweuty years there bus beeu only 
.me p ..lly disastrous seasou in the couuly. 
in the main its orops are assured, Our vast 

wine and fruit interests are as near absolute 

safetj aa can i" , foi thi vim yards and orchard 
are irrigated. Mori, of our laud is dump 
oil in -ga. independent ol rain, where alfalfa is 
a sure crop and dairies an- hi... a gold mine. 
i iui mesas only Buffer Iu our partially dry sea- 
sons, and WO Oan it and one dry iu twenty, 

Ten inches of rain, owing to our peouliar soil 
and climate, if it cornea at prnpi t seaaous, will 
mature a orop oi grain aud grass. This is the 
only thing with us ever in jeopardy, and tbe 
danger is small. 




The Los An tSS of January XHIi. 

bad the following inti r< sting items: 
The ontoome for the ourrenl crop your of 

thrif Suutlin n I'lilifuiiuii |iiniliir(s will sbow 
some of the sunn i oi OUI prosperity and tho 
foundation on whioL oar future in based. 
First, of orauges thin region will send to mar- 
ket from January ir.tli to Jane 1st. 1883, not 
loss tbau 200,000 boxes. The sum may reach 
250.000 boxes. Tin ibi Bell at from $1 to $4 per 

Next of raisins. The orop is estimated at 

100, boxes f«n lasl year, and sold at $1.75 

to $2 per box. This crop is steadily increas- 

The third item taken is wine. The follow- 
ing table gives the output for lust year: 


Anaheim 775.000 

SantaAua 100,000 

Ban Gabriel Winery 260.000 

Oucamongo 1 00 

San Bernardino 150,000 

G. Dulton 10,000 

T. Leahy. .." 35,000 

Valla *5,000 

Nuud, Weyse & Co 150,000 

Kohler & Frohling